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  • 1.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Displays and Transistors Printed on Flexible Substrates and Integrated into Versatile Applications2012In: Large-Area, Organic and Printed Electronics Convention (LOPE-C) 2012 (June 19th-21st), accepted for oral presentation, Munich, Germany, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Electrolyte-gated transistors used in printed organic electronic applications2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Integration of printed electronic components into versatile systems on flexible substrates2013In: Innovative Printed Smart Objects (IPSO), invited oral presentation, Gardanne, France, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A technology platform based on electrochemical transistors and electrochromic displays printed from organic materials on flexible substrates is presented. The devices are manufactured by using standard printing tools and operated below 3 V, and the device manufacturing is further simplified by that only a small set of materials is employed. Examples of printed electronic systems will be presented, such as active and passive matrix addressed displays, touchless sensor interfaces, secure user authentication applications and a novel approach to obtain reconfigurable systems utilizing self-adhesive active materials.

  • 4.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Integration of printed electronic components into versatile systems on flexible substrates2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Roll to roll printable technology platform consisting of electrolyte-based components2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Boda, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Posset, Uwe
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Schott, Marco
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Reflective and Complementary Transmissive All-Printed Electrochromic Displays Based on Prussian Blue2023In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 25, no 6, article id 2201299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining the electrochromic (EC) properties of Prussian blue (PB) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), complementary EC displays manufactured by slot-die coating and screen printing on flexible plastic substrates are reported. Various display designs have been realized, resulting in displays operating in either transmissive or reflective mode. For the transmission mode displays, the color contrast is enhanced by the complementary switching of the two EC electrodes PB and PEDOT:PSS. Both electrodes are either exhibiting a concurrent colorless or blue appearance. For the displays operating in reflection mode, a white opaque electrolyte is used in conjunction with the EC properties of PB, resulting in a display device switching between a fully white state and a blue-colored state. The developments of the different device architectures, that either operate in reflection or transmission mode, demonstrate a scalable manufacturing approach of all-printed EC displays that may be used in a large variety of Internet of Things applications. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 7.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Eriksson, Jerry
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate. Elitfönster AB, Sweden.
    Jakonis, Darius
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Pantzare, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Sundin, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Ahrentorp, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Daoud, Kaies
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Svensson, Henrik
    Elitfönster AB, Sweden.
    Gregard, Greger
    ChromoGenics AB, Sweden.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Vasakronan AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Integration of Screen Printed Piezoelectric Sensors for Force Impact Sensing in Smart Multifunctional Glass Applications2022In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 24, no 11, article id 2200399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Screen printed piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride?trifluoro ethylene (PVDF?TrFE)-based sensors laminated between glass panes in the temperature range 80?110?°C are presented. No degradation of the piezoelectric signals is observed for the sensors laminated at 110?°C, despite approaching the Curie temperature of the piezoelectric material. The piezoelectric sensors, here monitoring force impact in smart glass applications, are characterized by using a calibrated impact hammer system and standardized impact situations. Stand-alone piezoelectric sensors and piezoelectric sensors integrated on poly(methyl methacrylate) are also evaluated. The piezoelectric constants obtained from the measurements of the nonintegrated piezoelectric sensors are in good agreement with the literature. The piezoelectric sensor response is measured by using either physical electrical contacts between the piezoelectric sensors and the readout electronics, or wirelessly via both noncontact capacitive coupling and Bluetooth low-energy radio link. The developed sensor concept is finally demonstrated in smart window prototypes, in which integrated piezoelectric sensors are used to detect break-in attempts. Additionally, each prototype includes an electrochromic film to control the light transmittance of the window, a screen printed electrochromic display for status indications and wireless communication with an external server, and a holistic approach of hybrid printed electronic systems targeting smart multifunctional glass applications.

  • 8.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Kawahara, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    The rise of electrochromics through dynamic QR codes and grayscale images in screen printed passive matrix addressed displays2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 10959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic matrix addressed displays capable of presenting arbitrary grayscale images typically require complex device architectures including switching components to provide unique pixel addressability. Here, we demonstrate high-yield manufacturing of passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays on flexible substrates by solely using screen printing. The simple pixel architecture, obtained by printing only three active layers on top of each other, concurrently provides both the electrochromic functionality and the critical non-linear pixel switching response that enables presentation of arbitrary grayscale images in the resulting passive matrix addressed displays. The all-printed display technology exhibits unprecedented performance and is further verified by dynamic QR codes, to exemplify utilization within authentication, packaging, or other emerging Internet of Things applications requiring a low-cost display for data visualization. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 9.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Aulin, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Nevo, Yuval
    Melodea Ltd, Israel.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Electrochromic Displays Screen Printed on Transparent Nanocellulose-Based Substrates2023In: Advanced Photonics Research, ISSN 2699-9293, article id 2200012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing of electronic devices via printing techniques is often considered to be an environmentally friendly approach, partially due to the efficient utilization of materials. Traditionally, printed electronic components (e.g., sensors, transistors, and displays) are relying on flexible substrates based on plastic materials; this is especially true in electronic display applications where, most of the times, a transparent carrier is required in order to enable presentation of the display content. However, plastic-based substrates are often ruled out in end user scenarios striving toward sustainability. Paper substrates based on ordinary cellulose fibers can potentially replace plastic substrates, but the opaqueness limits the range of applications where they can be used. Herein, electrochromic displays that are manufactured, via screen printing, directly on state-of-the-art fully transparent substrates based on nanocellulose are presented. Several different nanocellulose-based substrates, based on either nanofibrillated or nanocrystalline cellulose, are manufactured and evaluated as substrates for the manufacturing of electrochromic displays, and the optical and electrical switching performances of the resulting display devices are reported and compared. The reported devices do not require the use of metals and/or transparent conductive oxides, thereby providing a sustainable all-printed electrochromic display technology.

  • 10.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Printed electronics.
    Kawahara, J
    Roll to roll printable technology platform consisting of electrolyte-based components2011Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 11.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Kawahara, Jun
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden; Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Printed passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 3371-3378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible displays are attracting considerable attention as a visual interface for applications such as in electronic papers paper electronics. Passive or active matrix addressing of individual pixels require display elements that include proper signal addressability, which is typically provided by non-linear device characteristics or by incorporating transistors into each pixel. Including such additional devices into each pixel element make manufacturing of flexible displays using adequate printing techniques very hard complicated. Here, we report all-printed passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays (PMAD), built up from a very robust three-layer architecture, which can be manufactured using standard printing tools. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) serves as the conducting electrochromic pixel electrodes carbon paste is used as the pixel counter electrodes. These electrodes sandwich self-assembled layers of a polyelectrolyte that are confined to desired pixel areas via surface energy patterning. The particular choice of materials results in a desired current vs. voltage threshold that enables addressability in electronic cross-point matrices. The resulting PMAD operates at less than 3 V, exhibits high colour switch contrast without cross-talk promises for high-volume low-cost production of flexible displays using reel-to-reel printing tools on paper or plastic foils.

  • 12.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Lassnig, Roman
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Flexible Active Matrix Addressed Displays Manufactured by Screen Printing2020In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 23, article id 2000771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A flexible, electrochromic, active matrix addressed display (AMAD) is demonstrated. The monolithically integrated AMAD, which contains a 3 × 3 array of organic electrochromic smart pixels (OESPs), is manufactured on a plastic substrate solely using screen printing. Each OESP is based on the combination of one organic electrochromic display (OECD) and one organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), where both devices are screen printed into multilayered vertical architectures. The conduction state of the OECT enables control of the color state of its corresponding OECD, thereby circumventing cross-talk effects in the resulting AMAD device. The manufacturing approach also involves electrical wires, which connect each OECD with its corresponding OECT and also serve as the addressing lines of the resulting AMAD device, that are formed by screen printing of an ink based on either silver or nanocopper.

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  • 13.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Lassnig, Roman
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Keshmiri, Vahid
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    All-printed large-scale integrated circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors2019In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 5053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication outposts of the emerging Internet of Things are embodied by ordinary items, which desirably include all-printed flexible sensors, actuators, displays and akin organic electronic interface devices in combination with silicon-based digital signal processing and communication technologies. However, hybrid integration of smart electronic labels is partly hampered due to a lack of technology that (de)multiplex signals between silicon chips and printed electronic devices. Here, we report all-printed 4-to-7 decoders and seven-bit shift registers, including over 100 organic electrochemical transistors each, thus minimizing the number of terminals required to drive monolithically integrated all-printed electrochromic displays. These relatively advanced circuits are enabled by a reduction of the transistor footprint, an effort which includes several further developments of materials and screen printing processes. Our findings demonstrate that digital circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) provide a unique bridge between all-printed organic electronics (OEs) and low-cost silicon chip technology for Internet of Things applications. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 14.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Kawahara, Jun
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. Lintec Corporation, Japan; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fast-switching all-printed organic electrochemical transistors2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1276-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symmetric fast (ˆ¼5 ms) on-to-off off-to-on drain current switching characteristics have been obtained in screen printed organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) including PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid)) as the active transistor channel material. Improvement of the drain current switching characteristics is made possible by including a carbon conductor layer on top of PEDOT:PSS at the drain electrode that is in direct contact with both the channel the electrolyte of the OECT. This carbon conductor layer suppresses the effects from a reduction front that is generated in these PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs. In the off-state of these devices this reduction front slowly migrate laterally into the PEDOT:PSS drain electrode, which make off-to-on switching slow. The OECT including carbon electrodes was manufactured using only standard printing process steps may pave the way for fully integrated organic electronic systems that operate at low voltages for applications such as logic circuits, sensors active matrix addressed displays.

  • 15.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Westerberg, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Eveborn, Annelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Lagerlöf, Axel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Screen printed digital circuits based on vertical organicelectrochemical transistors2017In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, E-ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 2, article id 045008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have been manufactured solely using screenprinting. The OECTs are based on PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid)), which defines the active material for both the transistor channel and the gateelectrode. The resulting vertical OECT devices and circuits exhibit low-voltage operation, relativelyfast switching, small footprint and high manufacturing yield; the last three parameters are explainedby the reliance of the transistor configuration on a robust structure in which the electrolyte verticallybridges the bottom channel and the top gate electrode. Two different architectures of the verticalOECT have been manufactured, characterized and evaluated in parallel throughout this report. Inaddition to the experimental work, SPICE models enabling simulations of standalone OECTs andOECT-based circuits have been developed. Our findings may pave the way for fully integrated, lowvoltageoperating and printed signal processing systems integrated with e.g. printed batteries, solarcells, sensors and communication interfaces. Such technology can then serve a low-cost basetechnology for the internet of things, smart packaging and home diagnostics applications.

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  • 16.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Zabihipour, Marzieh
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lassnig, Roman
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Westerberg, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Monolithic integration of display driver circuits and displays manufactured by screen printing2020In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 024001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report all-screen printed display driver circuits, based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs), and their monolithic integration with organic electrochromic displays (OECDs). Both OECTs and OECDs operate at low voltages and have similar device architectures, and, notably, they rely on the very same electroactive material as well as on the same electrochemical switching mechanism. This then allows us to manufacture OECT-OECD circuits in a concurrent manufacturing process entirely based on screen printing methods. By taking advantage of the high current throughput capability of OECTs, we further demonstrate their ability to control the light emission in traditional light-emitting diodes (LEDs), where the actual LED addressing is achieved by an OECT-based decoder circuit. The possibility to monolithically integrate all-screen printed OECTs and OECDs on flexible plastic foils paves the way for distributed smart sensor labels and similar Internet of Things applications.

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  • 17.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Westerberg, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Arvén, Patrik
    J2 Holding AB, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Batteryless Electronic System Printed on Glass Substrate2021In: Electronic Materials, E-ISSN 2673-3978, Vol. 2, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Batteryless hybrid printed electronic systems manufactured on glass substrates are reported. The electronic system contains a sensor capable of detecting water, an electrochromic display, conductors, a silicon chip providing the power supply through energy harvesting of electromagnetic radiation, and a silicon-based microcontroller responsible for monitoring the sensor status and the subsequent update of the corresponding display segment. The silicon-based components were assembled on the glass substrate by using a pick and place equipment, while the remainder of the system was manufactured by screen printing. Many printed electronic components, often relying on organic materials, are sensitive to variations in environmental conditions, and the reported system paves the way for the creation of electronic sensor platforms on glass substrates for utilization in see-through applications in harsh conditions. Additionally, this generic hybrid printed electronic sensor system also demonstrates the ability to enable autonomous operation through energy harvesting in future smart window applications.

  • 18.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nordlinder, Staffan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Wikner, J. Jacob
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hederen, Jan
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Hentzell, Hans
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Browsing the Real World using Organic Electronics, Si-Chips, and a Human Touch2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1911-1916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different e-labels were developed to explore the feasibility and to identify scientifi c and engineering challenges of the Real-World-Web platform. First was a printed biosensor e-label, comprising Si-chips with an array of different printegrated devices, and second, an e-label to explore the feasibility of transferring data, through the human body, between a mobile device and different distributed e-labels, adhered onto the body or onto dedicated devices and surfaces of one's ambience. The silicon chips utilized in e-labels, include analogue and digital circuitry to receive and handle sensory input, to perform signal processing, and to transmit information to antennas and displays. When used, the e-label is turned on, and a sample is then added onto the sensor area. The display provides simple instructions and updated information to the user. All data handling, electrical probing, and analysis of the sensor is performed by the Si-chips, and the sensing data is finally shown in the printed display. The second e-label exemplifies an ID-tag for body area networks (BAN) communication applications, which, in part, is manufactured and integrated in the same way as the first e-label, but with another choice of Si-chips and capacitive antennas.

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  • 19. Blaudeck, T
    et al.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
     Sandberg, M
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Heinz, S
    Laiho, A
     Liu, J
    Engquist, I
    Berggren, M
     Baumann, R R
    Simplified Large-Area Manufacturing of Organic Electrochemical Transistors Combining Printing a Self-Aligning Laser Ablation Step2012In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 22, p. 2939-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Boda, Ulrika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fully Screen-Printed Stretchable Organic Electrochemical Transistors2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stretchable organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising for wearable applications within biosensing, bio-signal recording, and addressing circuitry. Efficient large-scale fabrication of OECTs can be performed with printing methods but to date there are no reports on high-performance fully printed stretchable OECTs. Herein, this challenge is addressed by developing fully screen-printed stretchable OECTs based on an architecture that minimizes electrochemical side reactions and improves long-term stability. Fabrication of the OECTs is enabled by in-house development of three stretchable functional screen-printing inks and related printing processes. The stretchable OECTs show good characteristics in terms of transfer curves, output characteristics, and transient response up to 100% static strain and 500 strain cycles at 25% and 50% strain. The strain insensitivity of the OECTs can be further improved by strain conditioning, resulting in stable performance up to 50% strain. Finally, an electrochromic smart pixel is demonstrated by connecting a stretchable OECT to a stretchable electrochromic display. It is believed that the development of screen-printed stretchable electrochemical devices, and OECTs in particular, will pave the way for their use in wearable applications and commercial products. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 21.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Isacsson, Patrik
    Linköping University, Sweden; Ahlstrom Group Innovation, France.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Paper Electronics Utilizing Screen Printing and Vapor Phase Polymerization2023In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of paper electronics has been accelerated due to the public push for sustainability. Electronic waste can potentially be avoided if certain materials in electronic components can be substituted for greener alternatives such as paper. Within this report, it is demonstrated that conductive polymers poly(3,4-ethylenedoxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole, and polythiophene, can be synthesized by screen printing combined with vapor phase polymerization on paper substrates and further incorporated into functional electronic components. High patterning resolution (100 µm) is achieved for all conductive polymers, with PEDOT showing impressive sheet resistance values. PEDOT is incorporated as conductive circuitry and as the active material in all-printed electrochromic displays. The conductive polymer circuits allow for functional light emitting diodes, while the electrochromic displays are comparable to commercial displays utilizing PEDOT on plastic substrates. 

  • 22.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    All-Printed Electrochromic Stickers2023In: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 308, no 9, article id 2300044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Displays are one of the most mature technologies in the field of printed electronics. Their ability to be manufactured in large quantities and at low cost has led to their recent uptake into the consumer market. Within this article this technology is extended to electrochromic display stickers. This is achieved using a recent reverse display architecture screen printed on textile and paper sticker substrates. The electrochromic stickers are comparable to plastic control substrates and show little performance difference even when adhered to curved surfaces. The electrochromic display technology is extended to sticker labels for authentication applications by patterning either the dielectric or the graphical layer. A proof-of-concept prototype emulating a wax seal on an envelope is presented to show that other colors can be implemented in this technology. © 2023 The Authors.

  • 23.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Majee, Subimal
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Olsson, Oliver
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Aandres
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    All-Printed Multilayers and Blends of Poly(dioxythiophene) Derivatives Patterned into Flexible Electrochromic Displays2023In: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 308, no 2, article id 2200453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-cost, flexible and thin display technology is becoming an interesting field of research as it can accompany the wide range of sensors being developed. Here, the synthesis of poly(dimethylpropylene-dioxythiophene) (PProDOT-Me2) by combining vapor phase polymerization and screen printing is presented. A multilayer architecture using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and PProDOT-Me2 to allow for electrochromic switching of PProDOT-Me2, thereby eliminating the need for a supporting transparent conductive (metal oxide) layer is introduced. Furthermore, the technology is adapted to a blended architecture, which removes the additional processing steps and results in improved color contrast (∆E* > 25). This blend architecture is extended to other conductive polymers, such as PEDOT and polypyrrole (PPy), to highlight the ability of the technique to adjust the color of all-printed electrochromic displays. As a result, a green color is obtained when combining the blue and yellow states of PEDOT and PPy, respectively. This technology has the potential to pave the way for all-printed multicolored electrochromic displays for further utilization in printed electronic systems in various Internet of Things applications. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 24.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Electrochromic Displays Manufactured by a Combination of Vapor Phase Polymerization and Screen Printing2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 8, article id 2200054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart label technology such as indicators is a growing field due to society's demand for Internet of Things devices. New materials and technologies are continuously being discovered and developed in order to provide better resolution, better performance, or more environmentally friendly devices. Within this report, screen printing technology is combined with vapor phase polymerization to synthesize three conductive polymers; poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy), and polythiophene (PTh). The conductive polymers are created in micrometer resolution and investigated for their electrochromic properties. PEDOT and PPy samples are combined into printed, laminated, transmissive electrochromic displays. The technology is further advanced to establish separate PEDOT, PPy, and PTh all-printed electrochromic displays using several screen printed layers. The PEDOT displays show improved color retention as compared to displays created with commercially available PEDOT:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) with comparable contrast and switching behavior. All-printed PPy and PTh electrochromic displays with impressive electrochromic behavior are demonstrated. More complex patterns of 7-segment displays are created, thereby highlighting flexibility and individually switched sections of the conductive polymers. This research extends the screen printing and vapor phase polymerization combination to other conductive polymers and the potential commercialization of multicolor electrochromic displays that has been otherwise dominated by monochromatic PEDOT:PSS. 

  • 25.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Hübscher, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Belaineh Yilma, Dagmawi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Combining Vapor Phase Polymerization and Screen Printing for Printed Electronics on Flexible Substrates2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 7, article id 2101665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large area manufacturing of printed electronic components on ~A4-sized substrates is demonstrated by the combination of screen printing and vapor phase polymerization (VPP) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The oxidant layer required for the polymerization process is screen printed, and the resulting conductive polymer patterns are manufactured at high resolution (100 µm). Successful processing of several common oxidant species is demonstrated, and the thickness can be adjusted by altering the polymerization time. By comparing the polymer films of this work to a commercial PEDOT:PSS (PEDOT doped with poly(styrene sulfonate)) screen printing ink shows improved surface roughness (26 vs 69 nm), higher conductivity (500 vs 100 S cm–1) and better resolution (100 vs 200 µm). Organic electrochemical transistors, in which the transistor channel is polymerized into PEDOT through VPP, are also demonstrated to further emphasize on the applicability of this manufacturing approach. The resulting transistor devices are not only functional, they also show remarkable switching behavior with respect to ON current levels (–70 mA at –1 V), ON/OFF ratios (>105), switching times (tens of ms) and transconductance values (>100 mS) in standalone transistor devices, in addition to a high amplification factor (>30) upon integration into a screen printed inverter circuit. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 26.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Screen Printed Reflective Electrochromic Displays for Paper and Other Opaque Substrates2023In: ACS Applied Optical Materials, ISSN 2771-9855, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 578-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper electronics is a viable alternative to traditional electronics, leading to more sustainable electronics. Many challenges still require solutions before paper electronics become mainstream. Here, we present a solution to enable the manufacturing of reflective all-printed organic electrochromic displays (OECDs) on paper substrates; devices that are usually printed on transparent substrates, for example, plastics. In order to operate on opaque paper substrates, an architecture for reversely printed OECDs (rOECDs) is developed. In this architecture, the electrochromic layer is printed as the last functional layer and can therefore be viewed from the print side. Square shaped 1 cm2 rOECDs are successfully screen printed on paper, with a high manufacturing yield exceeding 99%, switching times <3 s and high color contrast (ΔE* > 27). Approximately 60% of the color is retained after 15 min in open-circuit mode. Compared to the conventional screen printed OECD architectures, the rOECDs recover approximately three times faster from storage in a dry environment, which is particularly important in systems where storage in low humidity atmosphere is required, for example, in many biosensing applications. Finally, a more complex rOECD with 9 individually addressable segments is successfully screen printed and demonstrated.

  • 27.
    Kawahara, Jun
    et al.
    Lintec Corporation, Japan; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Improving the color switch contrast in PEDOT:PSS-based electrochromic displays2012In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 469-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) chemically doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) is a material system commonly used as a conductive and transparent coating in several important electronic applications. The material is also electrochemically active and exhibits electrochromic (EC) properties making it suitable as the active element in EC display applications. In this work uniformly coated PEDOT:PSS layers were used both as the pixel electrode and as the counter electrode in EC display components. The pixel and counter electrodes were separated by a whitish opaque and water-based polyelectrolyte and the thicknesses of the two EC layers were varied independently in order to optimize the color contrast of the display element. A color contrast (ΔE∗, CIE L∗a∗b∗ color space) exceeding 40 was obtained with maintained relatively short switching time at an operational voltage less than 2V.

  • 28.
    Kawahara, Jun
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Katoh, Kazuya
    Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fast-Switching Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors Including Electronic Vias Through Plastic Paper Substrates2013In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 2052-2056, article id 6515640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel vertical architecture for all-printed organic electrochemical transistors, based on poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate), realized on flexible substrates, is reported. The transistors are manufactured along both faces of plastic or paper substrates via connections are realized using laser ablation or simple punch through using a pin. Successful modulation of the electric current that flows between the two sides of the substrate is achieved using electrolyte-gating electrochemical modulation of the electronic charge transport of the bulk of the transistor channel. In addition to this, the transistors are exhibiting fast switching high ON/OFF current ratios.

  • 29.
    Kawahara, Jun
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. Lintec Corporation, Japan; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Katoh, Kazuya
    Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Nakata, Yasukazu
    Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Flexible active matrix addressed displays manufactured by printing coating techniques2013In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 265-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A flexible electrochromic active matrix addressed display, including 8 × 8 pixels, is demonstrated by using solution processing based on standard printing coating manufacturing techniques. Each organic electrochromic display (OECD) pixel its corresponding organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) are located on different sides of the flexible PET substrate. Electronic vias generated through the plastic substrate connects each OECD pixel with one addressing OECT. When comparing this display with actively addressed OECDs with all its components located on the same side, the present approach based on this electronic via substrate provides an enhanced pixel resolution a relatively more simplified manufacturing process.

  • 30.
    Kawahara, Jun
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden; Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Wang, Xin
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE, Innventia.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Reconfigurable sticker label electronics manufactured from nanofibrillated cellulose-based self-adhesive organic electronic materials2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 11, p. 3061-3069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low voltage operated electrochemical devices can be produced from electrically conducting polymers and polyelectrolytes. Here, we report how such polymers and polyelectrolytes can be cast together with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) derived from wood. The resulting films, which carry ionic or electronic functionalities, are all-organic, disposable, light-weight, flexible, self-adhesive, elastic and self-supporting. The mechanical and self-adhesive properties of the films enable simple and flexible electronic systems by assembling the films into various kinds of components using a "cut and stick" method. Additionally, the self-adhesive surfaces provide a new concept that not only allows for simplified system integration of printed electronic components, but also allows for a unique possibility to detach and reconfigure one or several subcomponents by a "peel and stick" method to create yet another device configuration. This is demonstrated by a stack of two films that first served as the electrolyte layer and the pixel electrode of an electrochromic display, which then was detached from each other and transferred to another configuration, thus becoming the electrolyte and gate electrode of an electrochemical transistor. Further, smart pixels, consisting of the combination of one electrochromic pixel and one electrochemical transistor, have successfully been manufactured with the NFC-hybridized materials. The concept of system reconfiguration was further explored by that a pixel electrode charged to its colored state could be detached and then integrated on top of a transistor channel. This resulted in spontaneous discharging and associated current modulation of the transistor channel without applying any additional gate voltage. Our peel and stick approach promises for novel reconfigurable electronic devices, e.g. in sensor, label and security applications.

  • 31.
    Keshmiri, Vahid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Westerberg, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    A Silicon-Organic Hybrid Voltage Equalizer for Supercapacitor Balancing2017In: IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems, ISSN 2156-3357, E-ISSN 2156-3365, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 114-122, article id 7817802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell voltage equalizers are an important part in electric energy storage systems comprising series-connected cells, for example, supercapacitors. Hybrid electronics with silicon chips and printed devices enables electronic systems with moderate performance and low cost. This paper presents a silicon-organic hybrid voltage equalizer to balance and protect series-connected supercapacitor cells during charging. Printed organic electrochemical transistors with conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are utilized to bypass excess current when the supercapacitor cells are fully charged to desired voltages. In this study, low-cost silicon microcontrollers (ATtiny85) are programmed to sense voltages across the supercapacitor cells and control the organic electrochemical transistors to bypass charging current when the voltages exceed 1 V. Experimental results show that the hybrid equalizer with the organic electrochemical transistors works in dual-mode, switched-transistor mode or constant-resistor mode, depending on the charging current applied (0.3-100 mA). With the voltage equalizer, capacitors are charged equally regardless of their capacitances. This work demonstrates a low-cost hybrid solution for supercapacitor balancing modules at large-scale packs.

  • 32.
    Kostić, Milos
    et al.
    Tecnalia Serbia Ltd, Serbia.
    Kojić, Vladimir
    Soultronic International Ltd, Serbia.
    Ičagić, Savo
    Tecnalia Serbia Ltd, Serbia.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Keller, Thierry
    TECNALIA, Spain.
    Štrbac, Matija
    Tecnalia Serbia Ltd, Serbia.
    Design and Development of OECT Logic Circuits for Electrical Stimulation Applications2022In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, no 8, article id 3985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first successful implementation of fully printed electronics for flexible and wearable smart multi-pad stimulation electrodes intended for use in medical, sports and lifestyle applications. The smart multi-pad electrodes with the electronic circuits based on organic electrochemical transistor (OECT)-based electronic circuits comprising the 3–8 decoder for active pad selection and high current throughput transistors for switching were produced by multi-layer screen printing. Devices with different architectures of switching transistors were tested in relevant conditions for electrical stimulation applications. An automated testbed with a configurable stimulation source and an adjustable human model equivalent circuit was developed for this purpose. Three of the proposed architectures successfully routed electrical currents of up to 15 mA at an output voltage of 30 V, while one was reliably performing even at 40 V. The presented results demonstrate feasibility of the concept in a range of conditions relevant to several applications of electrical stimulation. © 2022 by the authors

  • 33.
    Linderhed, Ulrika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fully screen printed stretchable electrochromic displays2021In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 045014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of the Internet of Things and the growing interest in continuous monitoring by wearables have created a need for conformable and stretchable displays. Electrochromic displays (ECDs) are receiving attention as a cost-effective solution for many simple applications. However, stretchable ECDs have yet to be produced in a robust, large scale and cost-efficient manner. Here we develop a process for making fully screen printed stretchable ECDs. By evaluating commercially available inks with respect to electromechanical properties, including electrochromic PEDOT:PSS inks, our process can be directly applied in the manufacturing of stretchable organic electronic devices. The manufactured ECDs retained colour contrast with useful switching times at static strains up to 50% and strain cycling up to 30% strain. To further demonstrate the applicability of the technology, double-digit 7-segment ECDs were produced, which could conform to curved surfaces and be mounted onto stretchable fabrics while remaining fully functional. Based on their simplicity, robustness and processability, we believe that low cost printed stretchable ECDs can be easily scaled up and will find many applications within the rapidly growing markets of wearable electronics and the Internet of Things. © 2021 The Author(s). 

  • 34.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Norberg, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Malmros, Ingemar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Falk, Krister
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Clausén, Ulf
    Forserum Saftey Glass AB, Sweden.
    Laminated display based on printed electronics2016In: Engineered Transparency 2016: Glass in Architecture and Structural Engineering, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Makhinia, Anatolii
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Azizian, Pooya
    Leitat Technological Center, Spain; Technical University of Catalonia, Spain.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Casals-Terré, Jasmina
    Technical University of Catalonia, Spain.
    Cabot, Joan
    Leitat Technological Center, Spain.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    On-Demand Inkjet Printed Hydrophilic Coatings for Flow Control in 3D-Printed Microfluidic Devices Embedded with Organic Electrochemical Transistors2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfluidic surface chemistry can enable control of capillary-driven flow without the need for bulky external instrumentation. A novel pondered nonhomogeneous coating defines regions with different wetting properties on the microchannel walls. It changes the curvature of the liquid–air meniscus at various channel cross-sections and consequently leads to different capillary pressures, which is favorable in the strive toward automatic flow control. This is accomplished by the deposition of hydrophilic coatings on the surface of multilevel 3D-printed (3DP) microfluidic devices via inkjet printing, thereby retaining the surface hydrophilicity for at least 6 months of storage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of capillary flow control in 3DP microfluidics enabled by inkjet printing. The method is used to create “stop” and “delay” valves to enable preprogrammed capillary flow for sequential release of fluids. To demonstrate further utilization in point-of-care sensing applications, screen printed organic electrochemical transistors are integrated within the microfluidic chips to sense, sequentially and independently from external actions, chloride anions in the (1–100) × 10−3 m range. The results present a cost-effective fabrication method of compact, yet comprehensive, all-printed sensing platforms that allow fast ion detection (<60 s), including the capability of automatic delivery of multiple test solutions. © 2023 The Authors. 

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  • 36.
    Makhinia, Anatolii
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Screen-Printed Piezoelectric Sensors on Tattoo Paper Combined with All-Printed High-Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors for Electrophysiological Signal Monitoring2023In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work demonstrates sensitive and low-cost piezoelectric sensors on skin-friendly, ultrathin, and conformable substrates combined with organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) for the detection and amplification of alternating low-voltage input signals. The fully screen-printed (SP) piezoelectric sensors were manufactured on commercially available tattoo paper substrates, while the all-printed OECTs, relying on an extended gate electrode architecture, were manufactured either by solely using SP or by combining SP and aerosol jet printing (AJP) on PET substrates. Applying a low-voltage signal (±25 mV) to the gate electrode of the SP+AJP OECT results in approximately five times higher current modulation as compared to the fully SP reference OECT. The tattoo paper-based substrate enables transfer of the SP piezoelectric sensor to the skin, which in turn allows for radial pulse monitoring when combined with the SP+AJP OECT; this is possible due to the ability of the conformable sensor to convert mechanical vibrations into voltage signals along with the highly sensitive current modulation ability of the transistor device to further amplify the output signal. The results reported herein pave the way toward all-printed fully conformable wearable devices with high sensitivity to be further utilized for the real-time monitoring of electrophysiological signals.

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  • 37.
    Makhinia, Anatolii
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bynens, Lize
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Goossens, Arwin
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Deckers, Jasper
    Hasselt University, Belgium; .
    Lutsen, Laurence
    Hasselt University, Belgium; .
    Vandewal, Koen
    Hasselt University, Belgium; .
    Maes, Wouter
    Hasselt University, Belgium; .
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Toward Sustainability in All-Printed Accumulation Mode Organic Electrochemical Transistors2024In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This study reports on the first all-printed vertically stacked organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) operating in accumulation mode; the devices, relying on poly([4,4?-bis(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)-2,2?-bithiophen-5,5?-diyl]-alt-[thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-2,5-diyl]) (pgBTTT) as the active channel material, are fabricated via a combination of screen and inkjet printing technologies. The resulting OECTs (W/L ≈5) demonstrate good switching performance; gm, norm ≈13 mS cm?1, µC* ≈21 F cm?1 V?1 s?1, ON?OFF ratio > 104 and good cycling stability upon continuous operation for 2 h. The inkjet printing process of pgBTTT is established by first solubilizing the polymer in dihydrolevoglucosenone (Cyrene), a non-toxic, cellulose-derived, and biodegradable solvent. The resulting ink formulations exhibit good jettability, thereby providing reproducible and stable p-type accumulation mode all-printed OECTs with high performance. Besides the environmental and safety benefits of this solvent, this study also demonstrates the assessment of how the solvent affects the performance of spin-coated OECTs, which justifies the choice of Cyrene as an alternative to commonly used harmful solvents such as chloroform, also from a device perspective. Hence, this approach shows a new possibility of obtaining more sustainable printed electronic devices, which will eventually result in all-printed OECT-based logic circuits operating in complementary mode.

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  • 38.
    Makhinia, Anatolii
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Hübscher, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    High Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors and Logic Circuits Manufactured via a Combination of Screen and Aerosol Jet Printing Techniques2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 2200153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work demonstrates a novel fabrication approach based on the combination of screen and aerosol jet printing to manufacture fully printed organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and OECT-based logic circuits on PET substrates with superior performances. The use of aerosol jet printing allows for a reduction of the channel width to ≈15 µm and the estimated volume by a factor of ≈40, compared to the fully screen printed OECTs. Hence, the OECT devices and OECT-based logic circuits fabricated with the proposed approach emerge with a high ON/OFF ratio (103–104) and remarkably fast switching response, reaching an ON/OFF ratio of &gt;103 in 4–8 ms, which is further demonstrated by a propagation delay time of just above 1 ms in OECT-based logic inverter circuits operated at a frequency of 100 Hz. All-printed monolithically integrated OECT-based five-stage ring oscillator circuits further validated the concept with a resulting self-oscillation frequency of 60 Hz. © 2022 The Authors.

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  • 39.
    Malti, A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Liu, X.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Zhao, D.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Fahlman, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, M. P.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, X.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Freestanding electrochromic paper2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 4, no 41, p. 9680-9686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic displays based on conducting polymers exhibit higher contrasts and are cheaper, faster, more durable, and easier to synthesize as well as to process than their non-polymeric counterparts. However, current devices are typically based on thin electrochromic layers on top of a reflecting surface, which limits the thickness of the polymer layer to a few hundred nanometers. Here, we embed a light-scattering material within the electrochromic material to achieve a freestanding electrochromic paper-like electrode (50 to 500 μm). The device is based on a cellulose composite combining PEDOT:PSS as the electrochromic material and TiO2 nanoparticles as the reflecting material. Owing to the excellent refractive properties of TiO2, this nanocomposite is white in the neutral state and, when reduced, turns blue resulting in a color contrast around 30. The composite has a granular morphology and, as shown by AFM, an intermingling of TiO2 and PEDOT:PSS at the surface. Variation of the amount of TiO2 within the composite material is shown to result in a trade-off in optical and electrical properties. A proof-of-concept freestanding electrochromic device was fabricated by casting all layers successively to maximize the interlayer conformation. This freestanding device was found to be stable for over 100 cycles when ramped between 3 and -3 V.

  • 40.
    Mitraka, Evangelia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kergoat, Loïg
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Khan, Zia Ullah
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Douheret, Olivier
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Leclere, Philippe
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Lazzaroni, Roberto
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Solution processed liquid metal-conducting polymer hybrid thin films as electrochemical pH-threshold indicators2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, no 29, p. 7604-7611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A global and accurate mapping of the environment could be achieved if sensors and indicators are mass-produced at low cost. Printed electronics using polymeric (semi)conductors offer a platform for such sensor/indicator based circuits. Herein, we present the material concept for an electrochemical pH-threshold indicator based on a printable hybrid electrode which comprises a liquid metal alloy (GaInSn) embedded in a conducting polymer matrix (PEDOT). This hybrid electrode displays a large variation in open circuit potential versus pH in an electrochemical cell, which when connected to the gate of an electrochemical transistor leads to a dramatic change in the drain current in a narrow range of pH.

  • 41.
    Sani, Negar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Robertsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Cooper, Philip
    De La Rue, United Kingdom.
    Wang, Xin
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Svensson, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hesselbom, Hjalmar
    Hesselbom Innovation and Development, Sweden.
    Akesso, Laurent
    De La Rue, United Kingdom.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    All-printed diode operating at 1.6 GHz2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, p. 11343-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics are considered for wireless electronic tags sensors within the future Internet-of-things (IoT) concept. As a consequence of the low charge carrier mobility of present printable organic inorganic semiconductors, the operational frequency of printed rectifiers is not high enough to enable direct communication powering between mobile phones printed e-tags. Here, we report an all-printed diode operating up to 1.6 GHz. The device, based on two stacked layers of Si NbSi2 particles, is manufactured on a flexible substrate at low temperature in ambient atmosphere. The high charge carrier mobility of the Si microparticles allows device operation to occur in the charge injection-limited regime. The asymmetry of the oxide layers in the resulting device stack leads to rectification of tunneling current. Printed diodes were combined with antennas electrochromic displays to form an all-printed e-tag. The harvested signal from a Global System for Mobile Communications mobile phone was used to update the display. Our findings demonstrate a new communication pathway for printed electronics within IoT applications._x000D_

  • 42.
    Sani, Negar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Wang, Xin
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE, Innventia.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Flexible lamination-fabricated ultra-high frequency diodes based on self-supporting semiconducting composite film of silicon micro-particles and nano-fibrillated cellulose2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 28921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low cost and flexible devices such as wearable electronics, e-labels and distributed sensors will make the future "internet of things" viable. To power and communicate with such systems, high frequency rectifiers are crucial components. We present a simple method to manufacture flexible diodes, operating at GHz frequencies, based on self-adhesive composite films of silicon micro-particles (Si-ÎŒPs) and glycerol dispersed in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC, Si-ÎŒPs and glycerol are mixed in a water suspension, forming a self-supporting nanocellulose-silicon composite film after drying. This film is cut and laminated between a flexible pre-patterned Al bottom electrode and a conductive Ni-coated carbon tape top contact. A Schottky junction is established between the Al electrode and the Si-ÎŒPs. The resulting flexible diodes show current levels on the order of mA for an area of 2 mm2, a current rectification ratio up to 4 × 103 between 1 and 2 V bias and a cut-off frequency of 1.8 GHz. Energy harvesting experiments have been demonstrated using resistors as the load at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. The diode stack can be delaminated away from the Al electrode and then later on be transferred and reconfigured to another substrate. This provides us with reconfigurable GHz-operating diode circuits.

  • 43.
    Shiran Chaharsoughi, Mina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ultrasensitive electrolyte-assisted temperature sensor2020In: npj Flexible Electronics, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat sensors form an important class of devices that are used across multiple fields and sectors. For applications such as electronic skin and health monitoring, it is particularly advantageous if the output electronic signals are not only high, stable, and reproducible, but also self-generated to minimize power consumption. Here, we present an ultrasensitive heat sensing concept that fulfills these criteria while also being compatible with scalable low-cost manufacturing on flexible substrates. The concept resembles a traditional thermocouple, but with separated electrodes bridged by a gel-like electrolyte and with orders of magnitudes higher signals (around 11 mV K−1). The sensor pixels provide stable and reproducible signals upon heating, which, for example, could be used for heat mapping. Further modification to plasmonic nanohole metasurface electrodes made the sensors capable of also detecting light-induced heating. Finally, we present devices on flexible substrates and show that they can be used to detect human touch. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 44.
    Zabihipour, Marzieh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Organic electrochemical transistors manufactured by laser ablation and screen printing2022In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 7, no 3, article id 035018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dimensions of the material serving as the channel in organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are important for the overall switching performance. Here, a laser ablation step is included in the OECT manufacturing process, in an attempt to shorten the channel length of the OECT. The source and drain electrodes are formed by laser ablation of a previously screen printed carbon-based rectangle, which in this study resulted in an average channel length equal to 25 µm. All other processing steps rely on screen printing, allowing for large-area manufacturing of OECTs and OECT-based circuits on flexible substrates. This approach results in a manufacturing yield of 89%; 178 out of a total of 200 OECTs exhibited an ON/OFF ratio exceeding 1000 with a statistical mean value of 28 000 and reproducible switching performance. OECT-based circuits, here demonstrated by a logic inverter, provide a reasonably high voltage gain of 12. The results thus demonstrate another reliable OECT manufacturing process, based on the combination of laser ablation and screen printing.

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  • 45.
    Zabihipour, Marzieh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lassnig, Roman
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    High yield manufacturing of fully screen-printed organic electrochemical transistors2020In: npj Flexible Electronics, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of the screen printing method for large-scale production of organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs), combining high production yield with low cost, is here demonstrated. Fully screen-printed OECTs of 1 mm2 area, based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrensulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), have been manufactured on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The goal of this project effort has been to explore and develop the printing processing to enable high yield and stable transistor parameters, targeting miniaturized digital OECT circuits for large-scale integration (LSI). Of the 760 OECTs manufactured in one batch on a PET sheet, only two devices were found malfunctioning, thus achieving an overall manufacturing yield of 99.7%. A drain current ON/OFF ratio at least equal to 400 was applied as the strict exclusion principle for the yield, motivated by proper operation in LSI circuits. This consistent performance of low-footprint OECTs allows for the integration of PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs into complex logic circuits operating at high stability and accuracy. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 46.
    Zabihipour, Marzieh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    High-Gain Logic Inverters based on Multiple Screen-Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 10, p. 2101642-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are attracting great attention due to their printability, flexibility, and low voltage operation. Inverters are the building blocks of digital logic circuits (e.g., NAND gates) and analog circuits (e.g., amplifiers). However, utilizing OECTs in electronic logic circuits is challenging due to the resulting low voltage gain and low output voltage levels. Hence, inverters capable of operating at relatively low supply voltages, yet offering high voltage gain and larger output voltage windows than the respective input voltage window are desired. Herein, inverters realized from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate-based OECTs are designed and explored, resulting in logic inverters exhibiting high voltage gains, enlarged output voltage windows, and tunable switching points. The inverter designs are based on multiple screen-printed OECTs and a resistor ladder, where one OECT is the driving transistor while one or two additional OECTs are used as variable resistors in the resistor ladder. The inverters’ performances are investigated in terms of voltage gain, output voltage levels, and switching point. Inverters, operating at +/−2.5 V supply voltage and an input voltage window of 1 V, that can achieve an output voltage window with ∼110% increment and a voltage gain up to 42 are demonstrated. © 2022 The Authors.

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  • 47.
    Zabihipour, Marzieh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Designing Inverters Based on Screen Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors Targeting Low-Voltage and High-Frequency Operation2021In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 6, no 12, article id 2100555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-voltage operating organic electronic circuits with long-term stability characteristics are receiving increasing attention because of the growing demands for power efficient electronics in Internet of Things applications. To realize such circuits, inverters, the fundamental constituents of many circuits, with stable transfer characteristics should be designed to provide low-power consumption. Here, a rational inverter design, based on fully screen printed p-type organic electrochemical transistors with a channel size of 150 × 80 µm2, is explored for driving conditions with input voltage levels that differs of about 1 V. Further, three different inverter circuits are explored, including resistor ladders with resistor values ranging from tens of kΩ to a few MΩ. The performance of single inverters, 3-stage cascaded inverters and 3-stage ring oscillators are characterized with respect to output voltage levels, propagation delay, static power consumption, voltage gain, and operational frequency window. Depending on the application, the key performance parameters of the inverter can be optimized by the specific combination of the input voltage levels and the resistor ladder values. A few of the inverters are in fact fully functional up to 30 Hz, even when using input voltage levels as low as (0 V, 1 V). © 2021 The Authors.

  • 48. Zirkl, M
    et al.
    Sawatdee, A
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Helbig, U
    Krause, M
    Scheipl, G
    Kraker, E
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, D
    Platt, D
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Bodö, P
    Bauer, S
    Domann, G
    Stadlober, B
    An All-Printed Ferroelectric Active Matrix Sensor Network Based on Only Five Functional Materials Forming a Touchless Control Interface2011In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 23, p. 2069-74Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 48 of 48
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