Change search
Refine search result
1 - 34 of 34
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Akbari, Saaed
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lövberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Effect of PCB cracks on thermal cycling reliability of passive microelectronic components with single-grained solder joints2019In: Microelectronics and reliability, ISSN 0026-2714, E-ISSN 1872-941X, Vol. 93, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead-free tin-based solder joints often have a single-grained structure with random orientation and highly anisotropic properties. These alloys are typically stiffer than lead-based solders, hence transfer more stress to printed circuit boards (PCBs) during thermal cycling. This may lead to cracking of the PCB laminate close to the solder joints, which could increase the PCB flexibility, alleviate strain on the solder joints, and thereby enhance the solder fatigue life. If this happens during accelerated thermal cycling it may result in overestimating the lifetime of solder joints in field conditions. In this study, the grain structure of SAC305 solder joints connecting ceramic resistors to PCBs was studied using polarized light microscopy and was found to be mostly single-grained. After thermal cycling, cracks were observed in the PCB under the solder joints. These cracks were likely formed at the early stages of thermal cycling prior to damage initiation in the solder. A finite element model incorporating temperature-dependant anisotropic thermal and mechanical properties of single-grained solder joints is developed to study these observations in detail. The model is able to predict the location of damage initiation in the PCB and the solder joints of ceramic resistors with reasonable accuracy. It also shows that the PCB cracks of even very small lengths may significantly reduce accumulated creep strain and creep work in the solder joints. The proposed model is also able to evaluate the influence of solder anisotropy on damage evolution in the neighbouring (opposite) solder joints of a ceramic resistor.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Simulations and Fabrication of a SiC-Based Power Module with Double SidedCooling: in Proceedings of the IMAPS Nordic Annual Conference 20152015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Nord, S.
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Ottosson, J.
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Lampic, G.
    Elaphe Propulsion Technologies Ltd.
    Gotovac, G.
    Elaphe Propulsion Technologies Ltd.
    Zschieschang, O.
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH.
    Baumgartel, H.
    Hella Fahrzeugkomponenten GmbH.
    Brusius, M.
    Sensitec GmbH.
    Kaulfersch, E.
    Berliner Nanotest und Design GmbH.
    Hilpert, F.
    Fraunhofer IISB.
    Otto, A.
    Fraunhofer ENAS.
    Frankeser, S.
    Technische Universität Chemnitz.
    COSIVU - Compact, smart and reliable drive unit for fully electric vehicles2016In: 2016 Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium, Pan Pacific 2016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COSIVU is a three year collaborative research project that ended in September 2015 and which has been funded within the European Green Car Initiative (now the European Green Vehicle Initiative). COSIVU addresses one of the most critical technical parts in fully electrical vehicles (FEV) besides the energy storage system: the mechatronic drive-train unit. The COSIVU project has delivered a new system architecture for multiple wheel drive-trains by a smart, compact and durable single-wheel drive unit with integrated electric motor, full silicon carbide (SiC) power electronics (switches and diodes), a novel control and health monitoring module with wireless communication, and an advanced ultra-compact cooling solution. DfR utilizing FEM simulations ensures first time right solutions. This paper presents the main results including the architecture of the drive train solution as well as the modular design of the inverter based on Inverter Building Blocks, one per phase. Performance tests are presented here for the first time for both the heavy duty commercial vehicle solution performed in a test rig by Volvo, and the tests of the COSIVU solution adapted to a passenger car done by Elaphe.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Carlström, Elis
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Orlenius, Jessica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Avellán, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    LCA as a Strategic Tool for Technology Development – Li Ion Battery Case2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Mayora, Kipa
    Arrasate-Mondragón, Spain.
    Tijero, Maria
    Arrasate-Mondragón, Spain.
    Voirin, Guy
    CSEM SA, Switzerland.
    Steinke, Arndt
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Albrecht, Andreas
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Wunscher, Heike
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Frank, Thomas
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Moore, Eric
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Wang, Yineng
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Cao, Xi
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Vazquez, Patricia
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Hogan, Anna
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Belcastro, Marco
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Billat, Sophie
    Hahn Schickard Villingen, Germany.
    Karmann, Stephan
    Hahn Schickard Villingen, Germany.
    Gunzler, Rainer
    Hahn Schickard Villingen, Germany.
    Weiler, Petra
    VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH, Germany.
    Smart access to small lot manufacturing for systems integration2018In: 2018 Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium, Pan Pacific 2018, 2018, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The three year EU project SMARTER-SI that ends in January 2018 has tested a new concept for small lot manufacturing for SMEs which we call the Cooperative Foundry Model (CFM). During previous research, all RTOs have completed building blocks, i.e. components or parts of systems which are readily available and characterized by their high Technology Readiness Level (TRL). These building blocks are combined and integrated in so-called Application Experiments (AEs), thereby creating innovative Smart Systems that serve the SMEs' needs. Four pre defined AEs have been presented before [1] and in this paper, six additional AEs will be presented: i) a smart sensor for pneumatic combined clutch and brakes, ii) smart well plates for tissue engineering integrating continuous, non-invasive TEER iii) microclimate sensor for moisture applications, iv) LTCC-Si-Pressure Sensor, v) miniaturized capillary electrophoresis system for bio analysis, and vi) a MEMS sensor module for respiratory applications. Finally, a brief description of ongoing standardization efforts is presented.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Nilsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Wetter, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Interconnection of electrically conductive fibersfor application in smart textiles2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Wetter, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    The impact of conformal coatings on the environmental protection of PCBassemblies and the reliability of solder joints2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Weiler, Petra
    VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH, Germany.
    Mayora, Kepa
    IK4-Ikerlan, Spain.
    Kunze, Michael
    Hahn Schickard, Germany.
    Günzler, Rainer
    Hahn Schickard, Germany.
    Karmann, Stephan
    Hahn Schickard, Germany.
    Steinke, Arndt
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Winzer, Andreas
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Thronicke, Nicole
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Vazquez, Patricia
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Felemban, Shifa
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Moore, Eric
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Voirin, Guy
    CSEM SA, Switzerland.
    Scolan, Emmanuel
    CSEM SA, Switzerland.
    Smadja, Rita
    CSEM SA, Switzerland.
    SMARTER-SI - Smart access to manufacturing for Systems Integration2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The three year EU project SMARTER-SI that started in February 2015 has developed and tested a new production platform for smart systems that offer SMEs and “mid-cap” companies help to manufacture small and medium volumes. The ultimate goal of this project is to test a new concept for small lot production, which we call the Cooperative Foundry Model (CFM). The CFM is tested by combining components or parts of systems (building blocks) already developed by the RTOs involved in the project in so-called Application Experiments (AEs), thereby creating innovative Smart Systems which serve SMEs' product needs. During the first two years, four predefined AEs have been developed that consist of i) a multi-parametric point of care testing (POCT) device, ii) a dew-point measurement system, iii) a CO2 measurement system, and iv) a portable device that can be used to screen water quality.

  • 9.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Amen, Rafael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Johander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Thermo-mechanical simulations and measurements on high temperature interconnections2011In: 12th Int. Conf. on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2011, 2011, article id 5765772Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to place sensors or electronics in very high temperature environments, new materials and methods for interconnection are required. A comparative study between different electrical interconnection methods for very high operation temperatures (500 °C - 800 °C) is presented. Thermo-mechanical simulations and characterization of samples of the interconnection types during high temperature exposure are presented. The results of the thermo-mechanical simulations showed that stresses are low in a connection system based on liquid interconnection. This system, however, proved to be difficult to realize due to problems with oxides and sealing of the metallic liquid. Modeling of an interconnection based purely on mechanical pressure without any solder or metallic bond showed high stress. This was also confirmed during high temperature exposure where the connection failed. High stress was also predicted for an interconnection based on nano-Ag paste. The high temperature tests, however, showed promising results at 800 °C for over 100 hours. © 2011 IEEE.

  • 10.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Edwards, Mark
    University of Oxford.
    Kaulfersch,, Eberhard
    Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems ENAS.
    Neumaier, Klas
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    Hilpert, F
    Otto, Alexander
    Modelling and fabrication of a SiC-based power module with double sidedcooling2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Edwards, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ottosson, J.
    Volvo Group Truck Technology.
    Neumaier, K.
    Fairchlld Semiconductor GmbH.
    Zschieschang, O.
    Fairchlld Semiconductor GmbH.
    Otto, A.
    Fraunhofer ENAS.
    Kaulfersch, E.
    Berliner Nanotest und Design GmbH.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Thermo-mechanical simulations of SiC power modules with single and double sided cooling2015In: 2015 16th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2015, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effectively removing dissipated heat from the switching devices enables a higher current carrying capability per chip area ratio, thus leading to smaller or fewer devices for a given power requirement specification. Further, the use of SiC based devices has proven to increase the efficiency of the system thereby reducing the dissipated heat. Thermal models have been used to compare SiC power modules. Single and double sided cooling have been simulated. The simulated maximum temperatures were 141 °C for the single sided version and 119.7 °C for the double sided version. In addition, the reliability of a single sided module and thermally induced plastic strains of a double sided module have been investigated. A local model of the wire bond interface to the transistor metallization shows a 3‰ maximum increase in plastic strain during the power cycle. Simulations of the creep strain rates in the die attach solder layer for a power cycling loads also shows a 3‰ increase in creep strain per cycle. © 2015 IEEE.

  • 12.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Edwards, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Simon, J
    Noël, S
    Romanjek, K
    Simulation-driven packaging of proof of concept thermoelectric modules: Proceedings of SMTA PanPacific Microelectronics Symposium 20142014In: Proceedingsof SMTA Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Neumaier, K.
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH.
    Mann, Alexander
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Zschieschang, O.
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH.
    Otto, A.
    Fraunhofer ENAS.
    Kaulfersch, E.
    Berhner Nanotest und DesIgn GmbH.
    Edwards, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Modeling of SiC power modules with double sided cooling2014In: 2014 15th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2014, IEEE Computer Society , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) based transistor devices have demonstrated higher efficiency switching operation compared to silicon-based, state-of-the-art solutions due to the superior electrical and thermal properties of the SiC material. The improved current density and thermal conductivity allows SiC-based power modules to be smaller than their silicon counterparts for comparable current densities. The active chip area can be reduced further by effectively cooling the devices. In this work, a new power module including SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJT) and diodes and integrated double sided cooling will be introduced. The target application of these modules is a new drive-train system for commercial electric vehicles. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 14.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Elektronikhårdvara.
    Ottosson, Jonas
    Neumaier, Klaus
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    Kaulfersch, Eberhard
    Edwards, Michael
    Otto, Alexander
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Elektronikhårdvara.
    Design and Fabrication of a SiC-Based Power Module with Double-Sided Cooling for Automotive Applications2015In: Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2015: Smart Systems for Green and Automated Driving, 2015, Vol. 4, p. 157-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrification of drive trains combined with special requirements of the automotive and heavy construction equipment applications drives the development of small, highly integrated and reliable power inverters. To minimize the volume and increase the reliability of the power switching devices a module consisting of SiC devices with double sided cooling capability has been developed. There are several benefits related to cooling the power devices on both sides. The major improvement is the ability to increase the power density, and thereby reduce the number of active switching devices required which in turn reduces costs. Other expected benefits of more efficient cooling are reductions in volume and mass per power ratio. Alternatively, improved reliability margins due to lower temperature swings during operation are can be expected. Removing the wire bonds on the top side of the devices is expected to improve the reliability regardless, since wire bonds are known to be one of the main limitations in power switching devices. In addition, it is possible to design the package with substantially lower inductance, which can allow faster switching of the devices. In this paper the design, simulations and fabrication process of a double sided SiC-based power module are presented.

  • 15.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Ottosson, Jonas
    Volvo Group Truck Technology.
    Otto, Alex
    Fraunhofer ENAS.
    Mann, Alexander
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH.
    Frankeser, Sophia
    TU Chemnitz.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Thermal Simulations and Experimental Verification of Power Modules Designed for Double Sided Cooling2016In: Electronic Components and Technology, ISSN 0569-5503, ISSN 05695503, p. 1415-1422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooling power modules on both sides of the active switching devices reduces the operational junction temperature compared to conventional single sided cooling. In this work, thermal simulations of power modules based on single sided cooling concepts are compared with double sided cooling counterparts. Expected junction temperatures, maximum temperatures and maximum current capability is analyzed. In addition, experimental verification in the form of comparisons with thermal characterization tests for both single-And double sided power modules based on SiC bipolar junction transistors is presented. Results from simulations show that cooling of both sides of the active switching devices can reduce the thermal resistance by more than 40 percent. This number depends on the heat transfer coefficient. From one example, simulating a worst case stall condition of the electric machine, the use of double sided cooling reduces the maximum junction temperature from 167 °C to 106 °C at a load current of 300 A using a heat transfer coefficient of 4 kW/m2K and 4 kHz switching frequency. Furthermore, the temperature decreases to 97°C if AlN-based DBC substrates are used instead of alumina DBCs. Results from the experimental comparison between double-And single sided cooling showed that the maximum temperature for a load current range of 15 A to 50 A was reduced by 18 percent to 55 percent by using double sided cooling. At a device temperature of 60 °C, the increased thermal capability of the double sided version allowed for a 20 A higher load current, which corresponded to operation under 50 percent higher power losses. Double sided cooling also increased the maximum current capability through a single SiC BJT by more than 20 percent beyond the maximum current capability through the single sided cooling version.

  • 16.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Wetter, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lövberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Toth-Pal, Zsolt
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Forslund, Mattias
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Shisha, Samer
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Failure mechanism assessment of TO-247 packaged SiC power devices2018In: ASME 2018 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems, InterPACK 2018, 2018, article id V001T04A016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the automotive industry shifts towards the electrification of drive trains, the efficiency of power electronics becomes more important. The use of silicon carbide (SiC) devices in power electronics has shown several benefits in efficiency, blocking voltage and high temperature operation. In addition, the ability of SiC to operate at higher frequencies due to lower switching losses can result in reduced weight and volume of the system, which also are important factors in vehicles. However, the reliability of packaged SiC devices is not yet fully assessed. Previous work has predicted that the different material properties of SiC compared to Si could have a large influence on the failure mechanisms and reliability. For example, the much higher elastic modulus of SiC compared to Si could increase strain on neighboring materials during power cycling. In this work, the failure mechanisms of packaged Si- and SiC-based power devices have been investigated following power cycling tests. The packaged devices were actively cycled in 4.5 s heating and 20 s cooling at ΔT = 60 - 80 K. A failure analysis using micro-focus X-ray and scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) was carried out in order to determine the most important failure mechanisms. The results of the analysis indicate that the dominant failure mechanism is wire bond liftoff at the device chip for all of the SiC-based devices. Further analysis is required to determine the exact failure mechanisms of the analyzed Si-based devices. In addition, the SiC-based devices failed before the Si-based devices, which could be a result of the different properties of the SiC material.

  • 17.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Wetter, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lövberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Goncalves, Johnny
    NOTE Norrtelje AB, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    NOTE Norrtelje AB, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Kwarnmark, Mikael
    Cogra Pro AB, Sweden.
    Feasibility of PCB-integrated vibration sensors for condition monitoring of electronic systems2018In: ASME 2018 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems, InterPACK 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of electronics in systems used in safety critical applications, such as for example self-driving vehicles requires new methods to assure the hardware reliability of the electronic assemblies. Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) that uses a combination of data-driven and Physics-of-Failure models is a promising approach to avoid unexpected failures in the field. However, to enable PHM based partly on Physics-of-Failure models, sensor data that measures the relevant environment loads to which the electronics is subjected during its mission life are required. In this work, the feasibility to manufacture and use integrated sensors in the inner layers of a printed circuit board (PCB) as mission load indicators measuring impacts and vibrations has been investigated. A four-layered PCB was designed in which piezoelectric sensors based on polyvinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) were printed on one of the laminate layers before the lamination process. Manufacturing of the PCB was followed by the assembly of components consisting of BGAs and QFN packages in a standard production reflow soldering process. Tests to ensure that the functionality of the sensor material was unaffected by the soldering process were performed. Results showed a yield of approximately 30 % of the sensors after the reflow soldering process. The yield was also dependent on sensor placement and possibly shape. Optimization of the sensor design and placement is expected to bring the yield to 50 % or better. The sensors responded as expected to impact tests. Delamination areas were present in the test PCBs, which requires further investigation. The delamination does not seem to be due to the presence of embedded sensors alone but rather the result of a combination of several factors. The conclusion of this work is that it is feasible to embed piezoelectric sensors in the layers of a PCB.

  • 18.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Åklint, Thorbjörn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Neumaier, K.
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH.
    Zschieschang, O.
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH.
    Edwards, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Model verification of heat exchangers in a flow test rig2015In: 2015 16th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2015, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In power electronics, more efficient removal of heat from the junction of power devices leads to a higher power rating per die, which in turn leads to fewer die and reduced system volume. Since temperature is a main driver in expected failure modes an increase in cooling capability can also enhance margins of the device reliability. Previously, CFD simulations of two novel heat exchanger designs that will be used in a power module with double sided cooling have been reported on. The heat exchangers are fabricated by direct 3D manufacturing of copper structures, which allows almost complete freedom in geometric design. Two novel geometries of heat exchanger cooling structures have previously been modeled in terms of thermal performance and expected pressure drop. A flow rig has been designed and calibrated to measure thermal performance and pressure drops of these heat sinks. For calibration purposes, measurements of the thermal response of wave structured and unstructured heat sinks are reported here. The results show that, as expected, the heat sink temperatures are lower for all flow rates in the wavestructured geometry. A thermal CFO model accurately predicts the behavior of the temperature difference between inlet and outlet versus flow rate, but predicts higher absolute temperature values. It was also found that the model underestimates the pressure drop over the tested heat sillies. The pressure drop across a novel pine cone geometry heat sink fabricated by additive manufacturing methods was also measured. Comparisons to a reduced model, which neglects everything before the inlet and after the outlet of the tested device, showed that the behavior of this pine structured heat sink was not predicted correctly. The pressure drop increased more rapidly with flow rates in the model than in the measurements. The main source of error in the measurements and simulations comes from a lack of thermal loading. Future work to improve the flow rig includes possibilities to increase the temperature loading at the bottom of the heat sink under test. © 2015 IEEE.

  • 19.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Åklint, Thorbjörn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sandberg, Chet
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Johander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    High temperature packaging for SiC power transistors2012In: Proceedings - 2012 45th International Symposium on Microelectronics, IMAPS 2012, 2012, p. 1124-1130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power transistors based on silicon carbide (SiC) are now commercially available. They have a higher efficiency and higher voltage blocking capabilities than conventional silicon devices. The wide-band gap and chemical inertness of SiC makes it suitable to high temperature operation. However, there is a need for new packaging for power transistors that can operate in higher temperatures. We have developed a package based on ceramics and silver for high temperature operation of SiC power transistors. Three types of SiC devices from different manufacturers are packaged and tested in room temperature. Though the devices were still functional after the packaging process, their performance seem to have degraded. This could be a result of the high temperature packaging process and the measurement setup. FEM simulations are also performed to investigate the thermo-mechanical behavior of the package. The target operating temperature of the package is 400°C. Modeling show stress concentrations at the corners of the device chip and suggests that this stress is decreased if the substrate metallization is changed from copper to silver.

  • 20.
    Edwards, Michael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Da Silva, Melina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    The shear strength of nano-Ag solders and the use of Ag interconnects in the design and manufacture of SiGe-based thermo-electric modules2014In: 2014 15th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2014, IEEE Computer Society , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermo-electric modules can be used to convert heat into electricity by utilizing the Seeback effect. It is now possible to buy BiTe thermo-electric modules that can operate up to temperatures of around 300°C. However, many applications, such as the harvesting of exhaust gas from large vehicles or gas turbine heat, may occur at higher temperatures Therefore, new materials and manufacturing processes need to be developed to produce packaged TEM that can operate at a maximum operating temperature of 650°C. Two critical areas in the manufacture of a SiGe TEM are the choice and strength of materials used to both solder the TE material to the rest of the module and the metal used for the interconnects. The interconnection material needs to be sufficiently strong to withstand large temperature fluctuations while maintaining a low contact resistance, as well as being compatible with the nano-Ag solder. Shear force tests of the sintered thermo electrical leg material showed that the joints are brittle when sintered to W metallized AlN substrates are used and ductile fracture behavior when sintered to Cu metallized AlN substrates using the NanoTach K nano silver paste. Almost all of the joints were found to be brittle when using the NachTach X nano silver paste. Shear testing of the solder joints showed that the X paste joints were variable in strength and stiffness, having a typical Young's modulus between 10 and 100 MPa at room temperature. The K paste joints were stiffer, but had a similar strength as compared to the X paste joints. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 21.
    Edwards, Michael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Rusche, U.
    Eberspächer Exhaust Technology GmbH and Co. KG.
    Bukes, T.
    Eberspächer Exhaust Technology GmbH and Co. KG.
    Gaiser, G.
    Eberspächer Exhaust Technology GmbH and Co. KG.
    Da Silva, Melina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    The shear strength of nano-Ag sintered joints and the use of Ag interconnects in the design and manufacture of SiGe-based thermo-electric modules2015In: Microelectronics Reliability, Elsevier Ltd , 2015, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 722-732Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermo-electric modules (TEMs) can be used to convert heat into electricity by utilizing the Seeback effect. It is now possible to buy BiTe thermo-electric modules that can operate up to temperatures of around 300 °C. However, many applications, such as the harvesting of excess gas turbine heat, may occur at higher temperatures. Therefore, new materials and manufacturing processes need to be developed to produce packaged TEMs that can operate at a maximum operating temperature of 650 °C. Two critical areas in the manufacture of a SiGe TEM are the choice and strength of materials used to both sintered joint the TE material to the rest of the module and the metal used for the interconnects. The interconnection material needs to be sufficiently strong to withstand large temperature fluctuations while maintaining a low contact resistance, as well as being compatible with the nano-Ag sintered joint. Shear force tests of the sintered thermo electrical leg material showed that the joints are brittle when sintered to W metallized AlN substrates are used and ductile fracture behavior when sintered to Cu metallized AlN substrates using the NanoTach K nano silver paste. Almost all of the joints were found to be brittle when using the NachTach X nano silver paste. Shear testing of the sintered joints showed that the X paste joints were variable in strength and stiffness, having a typical Young's modulus between 10 and 100 MPa at room temperature. The K paste joints were stiffer, but had a similar strength as compared to the X paste joints. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 22.
    Gustafsson, T
    et al.
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Nord, S
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    COSIVU - Compact, Smart and Reliable Drive Unit for Commercial Electric Vehicles2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Karlsson, Helene
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lidström, Oscar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Wipenmyr, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Hernandez, Niina
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Quality assurance of encapsulation architecture, including subsequent washing process for permanently mounted wearable sensors2018In: 2018 IMAPS Nordic Conference on Microelectronics Packaging (NordPac), 2018, p. 14-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the project wearITmed, Wearable sensors in smart textiles, is to develop a novel wearable sensor system demonstrator. This sensor system aims to monitor symptoms of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease and stroke. The wearable sensor system demonstrator, including both integrated gyros/accelerometers and textile sensors, is useful for the evaluation of clinically relevant movement patterns and other physiological parameters, and further to establish disease discriminating and treatment responsive objective variables. The work presented in this paper is focused on ensuring that the wearable sensor system can be cleaned and washed without first removing the electronics. The work includes three main areas; the adhesion and architecture, the molding and finally the washing test performance. Standard wettability and peel tests (Volvo Standard STD 185–0001) were performed on standard test board IPC-B-5 and IPC-9202 test vehicle for selecting the best adhesive and encapsulation materials in form of an epoxy (Epotek 302–3M) and a medical approved silicone (Nusil MED-6019). The molded components were washtested (Standard SS-EN ISO 6330:2012) followed by testing of the electrical resistance (Standard IPC-9202). As a result a total of 22 garments were produced with four individually mounted boards in each garment. The tests showed that the wearable sensors passed the washing tests and were still functional after 10 repeated washing cycles without any change or degradation in resistance or sign of electrical failure. The wearable electronics therefore meets the requirements of being simultaneously resistant to; water, temperature (40 °C), chemical detergents and dynamic forces.

  • 24.
    Karlsson, Helene
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lidström, Oscar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Wipenmyr, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Hernandez, Niina
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Quality assurance of encapsulation architecture, including subsequent washing process for permanently mounted wearable sensors2018In: IMAPS Nordic Annual Conference, NordPack 2018, 2018, p. 74-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the project wearITmed, Wearable sensors in smart textiles, is to develop a novel wearable sensor system demonstrator. This sensor system aims to monitor symptoms of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson´s disease and stroke. The wearable sensor system demonstrator, including both integrated gyros/accelerometers and textile sensors, is useful for the evaluation of clinically relevant movement patterns and other physiological parameters, and further to establish disease discriminating and treatment responsive objective variables. The work presented in this paper is focused on ensuring that the wearable sensor system can be cleaned and washed without first removing the electronics. The work includes three main areas; the adhesion and architecture, the molding and finally the washing test performance. Standard wettability and peel tests (Volvo Standard STD 185-0001) were performed on standard test board IPC-B-5 and IPC-9202 test vehicle for selecting the best adhesive and encapsulation materials in form of an epoxy (Epotek 302-3M) and a medical approved silicone (Nusil MED-6019). The molded components were washtested (Standard SS-EN ISO 6330:2012) followed by testing of the electrical resistance (Standard IPC-9202). As a result a total of 22 garments were produced with four individually mounted boards in each garment. The tests showed that the wearable sensors passed the washing tests and were still functional after 10 repeated washing cycles without any change or degradation in resistance or sign of electrical failure. The wearable electronics therefore meets the requirements of being simultaneously resistant to; water, temperature (40 °C), chemical detergents and dynamic forces.

  • 25.
    Kroupa, A.
    et al.
    Institute of Physics of Materials, Brno.
    Watson, A.
    University of Leeds.
    Mucklejohn, S.
    Ceravision Limited.
    Ipser, H.
    University of Vienna.
    Dinsdale, A.
    National Pysical Laboratory, Teddington.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lead-Free Soldering: Environmentally Friendly Electronics2015In: Green and Sustainable Manufacturing of Advanced Materials / [ed] Mrityunjay Singh,Tatsuki Ohji,Rajiv Asthana, Elsevier, 2015, p. 101-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Kroupa, Ales
    et al.
    Institute of Physics of Materials, AS CR.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Hoo, Nick
    ITRI Ltd.
    Pearce, Jeremy B
    ITRI Ltd.
    Watson, Andy
    University of Leeds.
    Dinsdale, Alan
    National University of Science & Technology (MISIS).
    Mucklejohn, Stuart
    Ceravision Ltd..
    Current problems and possible solutions in high-temperature lead-free soldering2012In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 629-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The substitution of lead in the electronics industry is one of the key issues in the current drive towards ecological manufacturing. Legislation has already banned the use of lead in solders for mainstream applications (T M≈220 °C), but the use of lead in the solders for high-temperature applications (>85% lead, T M≈250-350 °C) is still exempt in RoHS2. The search for proper substitutes has been ongoing among solder manufacturers only for a decade without finding a viable low cost alternative and is the subject of intensive research. This article tries to map the current situation in the field of high-temperature lead-free soldering, presenting a short review of current legislation, requirements for substitute alloys, and finally it describes some existing solutions both in the field of promising new materials and new technologies. Currently, there is no drop-in replacement for lead-containing solders and therefore both the new materials and the new technologies may be viable solutions for production of reliable lead-free joints for high-temperature applications.

  • 27.
    Lövberg, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Akbari, Saeed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    On the formation and propagation of laminate cracks and their influence on the fatigue lives of solder joints2018In: 2018 19th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2018, 2018, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead-free solder joints have been shown to increase the risk for crack formation in the PCB laminate under the solder pads. As such cracks propagate during thermal cycling, they decrease the strain imposed on the solderjoint by acting as strain relief. In accelerated thermal cycling, these joints have been found to remain virtually undamaged even after a very high number of cycles. If these cracks do not form or propagate to the same extent under milder cycling conditions, typical of service conditions, it may lead to an overestimation of the fatigue life of the solder joints in accelerated testing. In this work, the extent of strain relief and the influence of grain orientations on the initiation and propagation of these cracks are investigated through FE-modelling and compared to what has been experimentally observed for cross-sections of solder joints moulded in epoxy resin with added fluorescent agent and inspected using UV-light and electron backscatter diffraction. Due to the strong anisotropy of lead-free solder joints, the stress transferred to the laminate will vary significantly depending on grain orientation. The presence of these laminate cracks adds another layer of uncertainty to the already complex SnAgCu system, where the strong effects of anisotropy, the continuously evolving secondary precipitate coarsening and its interaction with the recrystallisation process govern the damage evolution. If these effects are not properly accounted for, the interpretation of thermal cycling or modelling and simulation results may be strongly misleading.

  • 28.
    Lövberg, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Wetter, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Elektronikhårdvara.
    Andersson, Dag
    Simulations of the impact of single-grained lead-free solder joints on the reliability of ball Grid Array components2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure of lead-free solder joints often consists of only one or a few randomly oriented tin grains as a result of a large degree of undercooling during solidification. Due to the severe anisotropy of single crystal Sn and the random nature of the microstructure, the stress state and microstructural evolution of each joint will be unique.

  • 29. Otto, Alexander
    et al.
    Kaulfersch, Eberhard
    Fraunhofer ENAS.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Neumaier, Klaus
    Fairchild Semiconductor.
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    ON Semiconductors .
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Rzepka, Sven
    Fraunhofer ENAS.
    Reliability of new SiC BJT power modules for fully electric vehicles2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30. Rzepka, Sven
    et al.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Vandevelde, Bart
    Strategies for Responding to the Reliability Challenges of Future Smart Systems2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Sanchez Soriano, Miguel Angel
    et al.
    University of Alicante.
    Edwards, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Quere, Yves
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Cadiou, Sandrine
    Quendo, Cedric
    Université de Brest.
    Mutiphysics Study of RF/Microwave Planar Devices: Effect of the Input Signal Power2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Ström, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Koivisto, R.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    UML modelling concepts of HAZOP to enhance the ability to identify emerging risks2013In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 16, p. 421-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unified Modelling Language (UML) has a graphical notation for 13 different types of diagrams and can be used as a general modelling tool. Well-known examples of diagram types are class diagrams for modelling classes that can be instanced into objects, state machine diagrams for modelling states in systems and activity diagrams for modelling process flows. A literature survey shows that UML has been used to model concepts and methodologies of risk assessment and risk management. One example is the Coras Framework. The international standard CEI IEC 61882 Hazard and operability (HAZOP) studies describes concepts for investigating and detecting possible hazards in systems. In CEI IEC 6882, guide words like More and Less are applied to system parameters to invoke deviations in the system and assess possible hazards due to the deviation from the design intent. In this paper, we have used UML to model concepts of CEI IEC 61882 Hazards and operability studies. Diagrams of UML were used to show dependencies and relations between parts of the target system and concepts of CEI IEC 61882. Extensions of UML are suggested to better capture and display the concepts of CEI IEC 61882, the results of a HAZOP study and emerging risk. These extensions are referred to as UML for emerging risks (UML-ER). © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 33.
    Sánchez-Soriano, M.A.
    et al.
    Universite de Bretagne Occidentale.
    Edwards, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Quéré, Y.
    Universite de Bretagne Occidentale.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Cadiou, S.
    Universite de Bretagne Occidentale.
    Quendo, C.
    Universite de Bretagne Occidentale.
    Mutiphysics study of RF/microwave planar devices: Effect of the input signal power2014In: 2014 15th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2014, IEEE Computer Society , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the effects of the input signal power on microwave planar devices are studied in detail. In this context, a complete multiphysics study is performed, involving the electro-thermo-mechanical coupling in microwave components. For this study, a multiphysics simulator is used. As shown, for moderate input powers, the device transfer function can be altered, mainly in terms of an increase of losses and a frequency shift. Additionally, hot spots are to be appeared, whose location is related to the electromagnetic field distribution of the passive device under test. Guidelines are also provided to estimate the average power handling capability (APHC) of planar components. As an example, the multiphysics analysis of a microstrip coupled-line filter centered at 42 GHz is tackled taken into account different thermal and mechanical boundary conditions. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 34.
    Weiler, Petra
    et al.
    VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH, Germany.
    Steinke, Arndt
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lanting, Cees J. M.
    DATSA, Belgium.
    Standardisation of smart systems building blocks: A requirement for a globally competitive cooperative foundry2018Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 34 of 34
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.35.5