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  • 1.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Internationell konferens om brandsäkerhet hos fasader2016In: Brandposten, no 54, p. 5-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Chiva, Roman
    Efectis, France.
    Guillaume, Eric
    Efectis, France.
    Colwell, Sarah
    BRE, UK.
    Hofmann, Anja
    BAM, Germany.
    Toth, Peter
    EMI, Hungary.
    EUROPEAN APPROACH TO ASSESS THE FIRE PERFORMANCE OF FAÇADES2019In: Interflam 2019, proceedings / [ed] Stephen Grayson, Interscience Communications, 2019, Vol. 15, p. 213-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several attempts have been made in the past to develop a European harmonized testing and assessment method for façades before the European commission decided to publish a call for tender on the topic. A project consortium from five countries (Sweden, UK, France, Germany and Hungary) applied to the call for tender and was contracted to develop a European approach to assess the fire performance of façades. 24 sub-contractors and 14 stakeholder entities were part of the project.

    The objective of the European project was to address a request from the Standing Committee of Construction (SCC) to provide EC Member States regulators with a means to regulate the fire performance of façade systems based on a European approach agreed by SCC. In addressing this objective, the project team was asked to consider a number of issues which are presented and discussed.

    The initial stages of this project were focused on:

    • establishing a register of the regulatory requirements in all Member States in relation to the fire performance of façade systems, and
    • to identify those Member States who have regulatory requirements for the fire performance façade systems which go beyond the current EN 13501 (reaction to fire and fire resistance) classification systems and to collate the details of these additional requirements. [6]

    After having confirmed the regulatory needs the following steps were discussed:

    • a testing and classification methodology based on BS 8414 - Fire performance of external cladding systems series and DIN 4102-20 - Fire behaviour of building materials and building components - Part 20: Complementary verification for the assessment of the fire behaviour of external wall claddings to address the identified key performance and classification characteristics [4] [5]
    • a verification and validation proposal, in the form of a round robin programme to support the development of the proposed testing and classification methodologies.
    • an alternative test method which was developed on the basis of the comments from stakeholders during the project

    Several hundreds of comments were received during the project and were implemented in the development.

    This paper is a short overview of results the two-year development work, which Final Report published by the European Commission in 2018 [1].

  • 3.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Chiva, Roman
    Efectis France, France.
    Guillaume, Eric
    Efectis France, France.
    Colwell, Sarah
    BRE, United Kingdom.
    Hofmann, Anja
    BAM, Germany.
    Toth, Peter
    ÉMI LLC for Quality Control and Innovation in Building, Hungary.
    European approach to assess the fire performance of façades2020In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several attempts have been made in the past to develop a European harmonized testing and assessment method for façades before the European commission decided to publish a call for tender on the topic. A project consortium from five countries (Sweden, UK, France, Germany and Hungary) applied to the call for tender and was contracted to develop a European approach to assess the fire performance of façades. 24 sub-contractors and 14 stakeholder entities were part of the project. The objective of the European project was to address a request from the Standing Committee of Construction (SCC) to provide EC Member States regulators with a means to regulate the fire performance of façade systems based on a European approach agreed by SCC. The initial stages of this project were focused on establishing a register of the regulatory requirements in all Member States in relation to the fire performance of façade systems, and to identify those Member States who have regulatory requirements for the fire performance façade systems which go beyond the current EN 13501 (reaction to fire and fire resistance) classification systems and to collate the details of these additional requirements. After having confirmed the regulatory needs a testing and classification methodology based on BS 8414 and DIN 4102-20 was developed to address the identified key performance and classification characteristics. This paper is a short overview of results the two-year development work, which Final Report published by the European Commission in 2018. © 2020 The Authors. Fire and Materials published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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  • 4.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Fire Safety of Façades2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Façade fires do not occur often (in comparison to other major structure fires) but in recent years there have been a number of spectacular façade fires in high rise building such as the recent fire in Grenfell Tower, London.Under-ventilated compartment fires may cause flames to spill out of window openings impinging the façade, thus devastating façade fires may start on one floor leap-frogging to adjacent floors. It is therefore necessary to limit or delay fire spread to higher floors. Requirements built on large scale fire testing may decrease the risk of these types of fires provided that the building is constructed according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer. Different countries have different regulations and tests for façades. New materials and façade systems are continuously introduced which might call for an update of these tests and regulations.This report summarizes experimental and modelling efforts in characterizing the fire safety of façades using the Swedish SP Fire 105 and the British BS 8414 methods. Recent experimental results and modelling is presented exploring the variations in the fire exposure, fire load and the fuel used. The fire source and the heat exposure to the façade are characterized by additional temperatures measured by plate thermometers while some other aspects are only treated in the numerical study such as a change in fuel. It is found that the results from the BS 8414 are largely affected by wind and climate since the experimental test was performed outdoors, moreover fire spread on wooden façades is also briefly discussed.In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the test methods and the results CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Modelling in FDS was used. The models were based on measured input parameters including uncertainties and an assessment of the impact of said uncertainties. The models could often reproduce the experimentally found temperatures qualitatively and quantitatively. A detailed discussion on the regulations and the tests that lead to the SP Fire 105 test method is also presented. Summaries of the façade testing methods and conditions in other European countries are presented in the appendices.Finally possible ways forward in updating the façade testing and regulations are discussed.

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  • 5.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Experimental comparisons in façade fire testing considering SP Fire 105 and the BS 8414‐12018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison between full‐scale façade fire tests where SP Fire 105 and BS 8414‐1 were used regarding repeatability and the use of modeling to discern changes in the setups is presented. Two test series according to BS 8414‐1 were repeated outside using the same façade systems on 2 different days, whereas for the SP Fire 105 a set of common façade systems in Sweden were tested indoors. In particular, the results show that the wind around the test setup may have a significant impact on the tests and that the heat exposure to the façade surface will depend on the thickness of the test specimen where an increased temperature in front of the façade, and a decreased temperature on the façade 2.1 m above the fire room, is observed experimentally. The heat exposure to the test specimen varies to a more limited extent when an uncontrollable free burning fire source is used (in this study heptane and wood, respectively) and that this variation increases when wind is present.

  • 6.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modelling of fire exposure in facade fire testing2017In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 475-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a comparative simulation study on 3 large‐scale facade testing methods, namely,the SP Fire 105, BS 8414‐1, and the ISO 13785‐2 methods, is presented. Generally goodcorrespondence between simulations and experimental data has been found, provided thatthermal properties of the facade material and heat release rates are known; however, thecorrespondence deviates in close proximity of the fire source. Furthermore, a statistical ensemblefor evaluating the effects stemming from uncertainty in input data is used. Here, it wasfound using this statistical ensemble that the variability was smaller in the ISO 13785‐2compared to the BS 8414‐1 method. The heat release rates (HRR) used in the simulations wereadopted from measurements except for the ISO method where the information in the standardwas used to approximate the HRR. A quantitative similarity between the HRR in the ISOmethod and the British method was found.

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  • 7.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Uncertainties in façade fire tests - Measurements and modeling2016In: MATEC Web of Conferences, 2016, article id 03002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a comparison between test and modelling results are performed for two large-scale façade fire testing methods, namely SP Fire 105 and BS 8414-1. In order to be able to compare tests and modelling the uncertainties have to be quantified both in the test and the modelling. Here we present a methodology based on deterministic sampling to quantify uncertainties in the modelling input. We find, in general good agreement between the models and the test results. Moreover, temperatures estimated by plate thermometers is indicated to be less sensitive to small variations in model input and is thus suitable for these kind of comparisons.

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  • 8.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Milovanovic, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Experimental assessment of repeatability in facade fire testing2016In: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 653-658Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Milovanovic, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modeling of fire exposure in facade fire testing2016In: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 1115-1126Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Fire dynamics in Façade fire tests: Measurement, modeling and repeatability2015In: Applications of Structural Fire Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presented is a comparison between full-scale façade tests where SP Fire 105 and BS 8414-1 were used regarding repeatability and the use of modelling to discern changes in the set-ups. Results show that the air movements around the test set-up (the wind) may have a significant impact on the tests and that the heat exposure to the façade surface will among other depend on the thickness of the test specimen. Also demonstrated was that good results could be obtained by modelling of the façade fire tests giving us the opportunity to use these methods to determine the effect of a change in the experimental setup.

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  • 11.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Façade fire tests: Measurements and modeling2013In: 1st International Seminar for Fire Safety of Facades, FSF 2013, 2013, Vol. 9, p. 2003article id 02003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two recent papers [1, 2] the fire dynamics in a test rig for façade constructions according to the test method SP Brand 105 [3, 4] was investigated both experimentally and numerically. The experimental setup simulates a three-story apartment building (height 6.7m, width 4m and depth 1.6m), with external wall-cladding and a "room fire" at the base. The numerical model was developed in the CFD program Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) [5] with analogous geometry and instrumentation. The general features of the fire test were well reproduced in the numerical model however temperatures close to the fire source could not be properly accounted for in the model. In this paper the bi-directional probe measurements are elaborated on and the test used in Ref. [1] is revisited using different heat release rates in the numerical model. The velocity of the hot gases along the façade was well reproduced by the simulations although some deviations were found.

  • 12.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Applying uncertainty quantification in modelling of a steel beam exposed to fire2016In: Structures in Fire: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference, 2016, p. 925-932Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling of structures exposed to fires is prone to be heavily influenced by uncertainties in geometrical parameters, thermal material data as well as uncertainties in the boundary conditions. Assessing the effects and influences in variations of all the uncertain parameters is often cumbersome and traditional methods are impractical thus modelling of the total uncertainty is needed. Uncertainty Quantification with deterministic sampling is one possible way ahead to accommodate and evaluating the effects of uncertainties with as few repeated simulations as possible. In this paper the uncertainties stemming from error in the input data and boundary conditions on one example of a steel beam under four point bending exposed to fire is evaluated.

  • 13.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Modelling in WFDS of a Wildfire Scenario2016In: Book of Abstracts Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, 2016, p. 33-33Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Modelling in wfds of a wildfire scenario2017In: 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire and Materials 2017, Interscience Communications Ltd , 2017, p. 765-776Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a coarse graining process is used to subsequently model large wildland fires, starting from a model of a single tree. The models are created using Wildland Urban Interface Fire dynamics Simulator (WFDS), and it is here found that reasonable fire spread in small forests can be obtained although the results are quite dependent on grid resolution as well as moisture content. In most realistic scenarios the computational volume is rather large yielding massive amounts of data. In using WFDS a rather small grid size is needed to appropriately model the fire spread this will be a severely limiting factor in creating large models.

  • 15.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Mossberg, Axel
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Gard, Eric
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Investigating machine learning for fire sciences: literature review and examples2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a review of current literature on artificial intelligence (AI) and more specifically machine learning (ML) is presented. ML is illustrated by two case studies where artificial neural networks are used for regression analysis of 110 spalling experiments and 81 Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) models of tunnel fires. Tunnel fires are often assessed by fire safety engineers using time-consuming simulation tools where a trained model has the potential to significantly reduce time and cost of these assessments.

    A regression model based on a neural net is used to study small scale spalling experiments and similar accuracy compared to least-square fits are obtained. The result is a function based on 14 determining experimental parameters of spalling and result in, spalling times and depths. It is a relatively small effort to get started and set up models, comparably to regular curve fitting. In this first case study the training times are short, it is thus possible to establish how the model performs on average.

    The 81 tunnel fire simulations are trained using a similar neural net however it takes considerable time to organize data, creating input, target data of the desired format and training. Here, it is also crucial to normalize the data in order to have it in a suitable format when training. 

    It should be noted that ML is often an iterative process in such a way that it may be difficult to know what settings will work before starting the process. It is equally important to illustrate and get to know the data, e.g., if there are large differences or orders of magnitude differences in the data. A normalization procedure is most often practical and will give better predictions.

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  • 16.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Assessment of Self-Heating in Wood Pellets by FE Modelling2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The self-heating process in a laboratory scale experiment has been modelled using the Comsol Multiphysics software. In the simulations the gas flow and air movement in the volume and heat diffusion in the bulk were taken into account however only one reaction in the pellets bulk is considered. The input data is found from measurements of the reaction chemistry and the heat transfer properties. It is found that all relevant physics is needed in order to obtain reasonable predictions in particular the heat transfer between the bulk and the gas is important but also condensation and evaporation of moisture.   

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  • 17.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal Global R&D, Canada.
    Dai, Xu
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    FDS simulations and modelling efforts of travelling fires in a large elongated compartment2021In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 699-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper investigates a travelling fire scenario in an elongated structure (Length 18 m × width 6 m × height 3 m) with a controlled fire source of six trays filled with diesel (width 4 m × length 0.5 m). The fire spread is controlled manually by initiating fires consecutively in the pools. Fire dynamics simulator (FDS) is used to a-priori investigate variations in geometry, material data and fire load, whereas simulations using the final design and measured heat release rates (HRR) were performed after the test. The input to the model beside fire source and geometry are thermal material data. The FDS simulations were used to determine the appropriate size of the downstands (2 m from the ceiling in the final design) on the side to create a sufficiently one-dimensional fire spread. The post-test simulations indicate that although there are a lot of variations not included in the model similar results were obtained as in the test.

  • 18.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal, Sweden.
    Xu, Dai
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    FDS SIMULATIONS AND MODELLING EFFORTS OF TRAVELLING FIRES IN A LARGE ELONGATED COMPARTMENT2019In: Interflam 2019, proceedings / [ed] Stephen Grayson, Interscience Communications, 2019, Vol. 15, p. 2085-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper investigates a travelling fire scenario in an elongated structure (Length 18 m x width 6 m x height 3 m) with a controlled fire source of six pans filled with diesel (width 4 m x length 0.5 m). The fire spread is controlled manually by initiating fires subsequently in the pools. Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is used to a-priori investigate variations in geometry, material data and fire load whereas simulations using the final design were performed after the test. The input to the model beside fire source and geometry are thermal material data. The FDS simulation were used to determine the appropriate size of the downstands (2 m from the ceiling in the final design) on the side to create a sufficiently one-dimensional fire spread. The post test simulations indicate that although there are a lot of variations not included in the model similar results were obtained as in the test.

  • 19. Bartlett, AI
    et al.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Anderson, Johan
    Hadden, RM
    Uncertainty Quantification Applied to a Fire-Exposed Glued-Laminated Timber Beam2016In: 14th International Probabilistic Workshop, Springer , 2016, p. 203-213Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a natural material, the response of timber structures under normal conditions and to fire is subject to wide variability. Deterministic models therefore struggle to reflect the reality of the response of timber since small variations in input influence the output significantly. However it is relatively straightforward to quantify uncertainties in model inputs in order to determine the uncertainties in the model response by employing uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques. UQ of structural response to fire traditionally employs Monte Carlo techniques (Eamon and Jensen 2013) which are computationally expensive for a large number of variables. Deterministic Sampling (DS) (Hessling 2013) is a relatively new efficient alternative method for UQ. DS assumes that a continuous probability density function can be replaced by an ensemble of discrete deterministic samples if the two representations have the same statistical moments. DS has been demonstrated applied to, e.g. CFD simulations (Anderson et al. 2016). This paper applies DS techniques to study glued-laminated (glulam) timber in fire. Results are compared with random sampling techniques to show the validity of this method in this application.

  • 20.
    Boström, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hofmann-Böllinghaus, Anja
    BAM, Germany.
    Colwell, Sarah
    BRE, UK.
    Chiva, Roman
    Efectis, France.
    Toth, Peter
    EMI, Hungary.
    Moder, Istvan
    EMI, Hungary.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Development of a European approach to assess the fire performance of facades2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this project was to address a request from the Standing Committee of Construction (SCC) to provide EC Member States regulators with a means to regulate the fire performance of façade systems based on a European approach agreed by SCC.

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  • 21.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wind effect on internal and external compartment fire exposure2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes of buildings regulations regarding the allowable height of mass timber structures in North America have been proposed. The proposed changes are to a significant extent based on real scale fire experiments of compartments that have been performed in laboratories in which the influence of wind is negligible. It has, however, been questioned whether the proposed regulations are relevant for realistic scenarios with external wind loads acting on the building during a compartment fire.

    The study discussed in this report involves a review of previous literature, analysis of available test results and single zone modeling to study potential effects of external wind on the internal and external exposure of fires in compartments with exposed CLT.

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  • 22.
    Charlier, Marion
    et al.
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Glorieux, Antoine
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Dai, Xu
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Alam, Naveed
    Ulster University,UK.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Vassart, Olivier
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Nadjai, Ali
    Ulster University, UK.
    Travelling fire experiments in steel-framed structure: numerical investigations with CFD and FEM2021In: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, ISSN 2040-2317, E-ISSN 2040-2325, Vol. 12, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a simplified representation of the fire load in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to represent the effect of large-scale travelling fire and to highlight the relevance of such an approach whilst coupling the CFD results with finite element method (FEM) to evaluate related steel temperatures, comparing the numerical outcomes with experimental measurements. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the setup of the CFD simulations (FDS software), its corresponding assumptions and the calibration via two natural fire tests whilst focusing on gas temperatures and on steel temperatures measured on a central column. For the latter, two methods are presented: one based on EN 1993-1-2 and another linking CFD and FEM (SAFIR® software). Findings: This paper suggests that such an approach can allow for an acceptable representation of the travelling fire both in terms of fire spread and steel temperatures. The inevitable limitations inherent to the simplifications made during the CFD simulations are also discussed. Regarding steel temperatures, the two methods lead to quite similar results, but with the ones obtained via CFD–FEM coupling are closer to those measured. Originality/value: This work has revealed that the proposed simplified representation of the fire load appears to be appropriate to evaluate the temperature of steel structural elements within reasonable limits on computational time, making it potentially desirable for practical applications. This paper also presents the first comparisons of FDS–SAFIR® coupling with experimental results, highlighting promising outcomes. 

  • 23.
    Charlier, Marion
    et al.
    ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Luxembourg.
    Vassart, Olivier
    ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Luxembourg.
    Glorieux, Antoine
    ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Luxembourg.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Gamba, Antonio
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Dumont, Fabien
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. RISE.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Xu, Dai
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Nadjai, Ali
    Ulster University, UK.
    Alam, Naveed
    Ulster University, UK.
    TRAFIR: Characterization of TRAvelling FIRes in large compartments2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspection of recent fire events in large compartments reveals them to have a great deal of non-uniformity, they generally burn locally and move across floor plates over a period of time. This phenomenon which generates transient heating of the structure is idealized as “travelling fire”.A first series of tests was launched to define a fire load representative of an office building according to Eurocodes. Additional tests where the fire dynamics were controlled were launched to develop an understanding of the fire exposure to steel structures.Then, a second series of large scale tests were performed in real building dimensions. These tests had no artificial control over the dynamics, which allowed a realistic characterization of the fire. The fire load was identical for all tests, only the openings were modified.CFD numerical models were developed to reproduce the experimental campaign and to launch parametrical analyses. This allowed to provide information concerning the conditions which may lead (or not) to a travelling fire scenario.An analytical model for the characterization of a travelling fire was developed and implemented in a simple calculation tool. It allows to evaluate the fire location, the gas temperatures in the flames, the heat fluxes in the different parts of the compartment and the temperature in a steel member. In addition, the methodology is introduced in the FEM software SAFIR and OpenSees.Ultimately, a design guide was prepared including worked examples which are detailed step-by-step and for which the influence of the inputs on the results is analysed.

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  • 24.
    Dai, Xu
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh, UK; Fire Engineering Buro Happold, UK.
    Gamba, Antonio
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Liu, Chang
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal Global R&D, Luxembourg.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    An engineering CFD model for fire spread on wood cribs for travelling fires2022In: Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN 0965-9978, E-ISSN 1873-5339, Vol. 173, article id 103213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature heterogeneity due to fire in large open-plan office compartments is closely associated with fire spread behaviour and has been historically limited to experimental investigations using timber cribs. This study explores the ability of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, specifically the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), to reproduce the results of full-scale tests involving fire spread over timber cribs for continuous fuel-beds. Mesh schemes are studied, with a fine mesh over the crib and 2 × 2 cells in the wood stick cross-section by default, this being relaxed in the surrounding regions to enhance computational efficiency. The simple pyrolysis model considers the charring phase and moisture. In application to the TRAFIR-Liège LB7 test, this calibrated “stick-by-stick” representation shows a good agreement for interrelated parameters of heat release rate, fire spread, gas phase temperature, and burn-away, a set of agreements which has not been demonstrated in previous studies. Fire spread shows relatively high sensitivities to: heat of combustion, ignition temperature, thermal inertia, radiation fraction, heat release rate per unit area, and the fuel load density. An approximately linear regression was found between the different fire modes and the thermal exposures, with “travelling” (and decaying) fires characterised by heat fluxes associated with the fire plume, while the growing fires were associated with proportionally higher heat fluxes on the horizontal surfaces of the sticks, in conditions where these receive more pre-heating. The trends in the overall HRR are more dependent on the fire spread rates than variations in the stick burning rates. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 25.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    A Sensitivity Study of a Thermal Propagation Model in an Automotive Battery Module2023In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal runaway is a major concern for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. A manufacturing fault or unusual operating conditions may lead to this event. Starting from a single battery cell, more cells may be triggered into thermal runaway, and the battery pack may be destroyed. To prevent this from happening, safety solutions need to be evaluated. Physical testing is an effective, yet costly, method to assessing battery safety performance. As such, the potential of a numerical tool, which can cut costs and reduce product development times, is investigated in terms of capturing a battery module’s tolerance to a single cell failure. A 3D-FE model of a battery module was built, using a commercial software, to study thermal runaway propagation. The model assumes that when the cell jelly roll reaches a critical value, thermal runaway occurs. This approach was considered to study the module’s tolerance to a single cell failure, which was in reasonable agreement with what had been observed in full-scale experiments. In addition, quantitative sensitivity study on the i) model input parameters, ii) model space, and iii) time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The critical temperature was found to have the greatest influence on thermal runaway propagation. The specific heat capacity of jelly roll was found to significantly impact the thermal runaway time duration. The multi-physics model for battery thermal propagation is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with physical testing.

  • 26.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ramachandra, Vasudev
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Modelling thermal runaway initiation and propagation for batteries in dwellings to evaluate tenability conditions2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal propagation is one of the major challenges when batteries will be used in dwellings in large scale. It means the exothermic reactions in the cell are out of control and can lead to a fast release of flammable and toxic gases. In a system involving a large number of cells, thermal runaway can rapidly propagate from one battery cell to the whole system, which means substantial fire and explosion risks, an event that is important to mitigate and prevent. Multi-physics simulations together with full-scale testing is a cost-effective method for designing safer batteries. This project aims at simulating thermal runaway initiation and propagation using a multi-physics commercial software GT-Suite. 

    A battery thermal runaway model containing 12 prismatic cells based on 3-D Finite Element approach was built using GT-Suite. The computed thermal runaway time instants versus thermal runaway cell number were compared with full-scale experimental data with reasonable agreement. Quantitative sensitivity study on the model input parameters and model space and time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The thermal runaway model was then extended with an electric equivalent sub-model to simulate the short circuit. With the electrical model acting as the input to the thermal model, the most interesting output of the simulation is the change in temperature of the cells, dependent on the current in the cells, with respect to time. The current is determined by the value of the external resistance through which the short takes place and the voltage level of the battery pack. The obtained results from the above short circuit simulations can only be used as a starting point and not as absolute values for neither triggering the thermal model nor for accurately simulating a battery under an electrical load. Furthermore, GT-Suite was applied to simulate the gas dispersion inside a room. A comparative study of the dispersion of toxic gases during thermal runaway, utilising an arbitrary release of HCN to represent the battery gases, in a small compartment with natural ventilation was investigated and the results compared the same situation simulated in FDS. The pipe based modelling supported by GT-Suite has limited applicability and overestimated the concentrations close to the ceiling whereas the lateral concentrations where underestimated. 

    The multi-physics model for battery thermal runaway process is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with full-scale testing. 

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  • 27.
    Jenninger, Berthold
    et al.
    CERN, Switzerland.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Bernien, Matthias
    PTB, Germany.
    Bundaleski, Nenad
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Dimitrova, Hristiyana
    CERN, Switzerland.
    Granovskij, Mihail
    VACOM Vakuum Komponenten & Messtechnik GmbH, Germany.
    Illgen, Claus
    PTB, Germany.
    Setina, Janez
    IMT Institute of Metals and Technology, Slovenia.
    Jousten, Karl
    PTB, Germany.
    Kucharski, Pawel
    CERN, Switzerland.
    Reinhardt, Christian
    VACOM Vakuum Komponenten & Messtechnik GmbH, Germany.
    Scuderi, Francesco
    INFICON AG, Liechtenstein.
    Silva, Ricardo
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Stöltzel, Anke
    CERN, Switzerland.
    Teodoro, Orlando
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Trzpil-Jurgielewicz, Beata
    CERN, Switzerland.
    Wüest, Martin
    INFICON AG, Liechtenstein.
    Development of a design for an ionisation vacuum gauge suitable as a reference standard2021In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 183, article id 109884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EURAMET EMPIR project “16NRM05 - Ion gauge” aims to develop an ionisation vacuum gauge suitable as a reference vacuum standard. In such a gauge the electron trajectories and their kinetic energy inside the ionisation volume should be well defined and stable. In the search for a suitable design, a series of simulations on different ionisation gauge concepts that have the potential to meet stringent stability requirements have been carried out. Different software packages were used for this purpose. This paper focuses on the design aspects and the performance of the different ionisation gauge concepts that have been investigated by simulation. Parameters such as ionisation gauge sensitivity, ion collection efficiency and electron transmission efficiency, have been determined as a function of emission current, pressure and electron source alignment.

  • 28.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Pelo, Christian
    Ramböll AB, Sweden.
    A Round Robin of fire modelling for performance-based design2021In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 985-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nine participants, representing eight different Swedish fire consultancy firms participated in a Round Robin study where two different cases were simulated with the Fire Dynamics Simulator. The first case included a large open warehouse where the activation of a sprinkler system was to be studied. In the second case time to critical conditions in a theatre was to be calculated. The participants were given clear instructions on the building layout and heat release rate for the two cases. Still, the results demonstrate a significant variation in time to sprinkler system activation (range of 110 seconds) and available safe escape time (range of 60 seconds), between the participants. It is important to emphasise that some degree of variation is unavoidable, as engineers can model things differently without the modelling solution necessarily being incorrect. Even though it is hard to isolate and specific cause of the variation, some of the variation seen in this study is related to modelling choices that are questionable and consequently problematic for the reliability of the fire safety design. © 2020 The Authors. 

  • 29.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Pelo, Christian
    Ramboll, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    CFD-beräkningar vid brandteknisk dimensionering - En Round Robin studie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien utförde nio deltagande aktörer samma beräkningsuppgifter utan att veta vad de andra kommit fram till. Resultatsammanställningen visar en relativt stor spridning som till största delen kan förklaras med att deltagarna gör olika ingenjörsmässiga val. Läs den och fundera på vilka ingenjörsmässiga val du gör i vardagen.

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  • 30.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Modelling in fire resistance and fire dynamics2012In: Brandposten, no 47, p. 26-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Safer battery systems in electrified vehicles – an electrified bus perspective2016In: Eurotransport, ISSN 1478–8217, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 50-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries offer great energy and power densities accompanied with long battery life time. However, if a mechanical fault occurs or the batteries over-heat, the flammable electrolyte of the Li-ion battery may pose a  risk. For Eurotransport, colleagues  from  the SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP) and Chalmers University of Technology explore further, identifying the risks involved with electric buses.

  • 32.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thermal Modelling of Cell-to-Cell Fire Propagation and Cascading Thermal Runaway Failure Effects for Lithium-Ion Battery Cells and Modules Using Fire Walls2016In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 163, no 14, p. A2854-A2865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model is presented for predicting the cell-to-cell propagation of a thermal runaway/fire in a lithium-ion battery cell to neighboring cells by simulating the temperature development in neighboring cells. The modelling work comprises of two major steps; setting up a model of the cells including the thermal properties of the cells, and then validating the model through experiments where the boundary conditions in the validation test must be determined carefully. The model is developed to allow a fast evaluation of several different preventive means of thermal insulation, it is not modelling the pack and cells to a great detail. Still the experimental validation indicates that the model is good enough to fulfil its purpose of the model. A feasibility study using the model is conducted assessing two different types of fire walls between battery modules of 10 cells. The results show that there is a substantial risk for a cascading of thermal events in a battery pack, although cooling systems and fire walls may mitigate these risks

  • 33.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Svensson, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Husted, Bjarne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wahlqvist, Jonatan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Verification, validation and evaluation of FireFOAM as a tool for performance design2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The open source CFD code FireFOAM has been verified and validated against analytical solution and real fire tests. The verification showed that FireFOAM solves the three modes of heat transfer appropriately. The validation against real fire tests yielded reasonable results. FireFOAM has not been validated for a large set of real fires, which is the case for FDS. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the user to perform the validation, before using the code. One of the advantages of FireFOAM compared to the Fire Dynamic Simulator is that FireFOAM can use unstructured grid. FireFOAM is parallelised and scales reasonable well, but is in general considerably slower in computation speed than the Fire Dynamic Simulator. Further, the software is poorly documented and has a steep learning curve. At present it is more a tool for researchers than for fire consultants.

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  • 34.
    McNamee, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    The development of façade fire testing in Sweden2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Façade fire testing has been high on the agenda worldwide due to the increased hazard of many occurrences of severe fire spread on façades. There is also international work going on to create a European standard for façade fire testing. In this context it is interesting to clarify what different national test methodologies are based on. This report is a review of the development that led to the Swedish standard for assessing fire performance of façades, SP Fire 105. The review starts from the development in the 1950s with assessing fire exposure from compartment fires and follows further development until 1990s. The fire exposure in the first edition of SP Fire 105 published 1985 was based on two test campaigns including external flames from room fires performed at Lund University during the late 70-ties and early 80-ties. In the early 90-ties the geometry of the air intake in the combustion chamber and the opening under the test specimen was slightly reduced leading to a lower effective thermal exposure of the façade than in the first edition of SP Fire 105. An important observation done already in the 1950s at the Swedish fire laboratory in Stockholm and in the late 1970s at Lund University was that the wind is influencing the test results when doing experiments outside.

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  • 35.
    Nilsson, Markus
    et al.
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Husted, Bjarne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Axel
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    A numerical comparison of protective measures againstexternal fire spread2018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 493-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of different passive protective measures against external vertical firespread was investigated using the numerical tool Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS).The numerical study was divided into a validation study and a comparative analysis.The validation study was performed to evaluate FDS as a calculation tool for modellingexternal vertical fire spread and was conducted using experimental results from alarge‐scale fire test done on a SP FIRE 105 test rig at SP, Sweden. It was concludedthat FDS 6.2.0 could reproduce the experimental results with a reasonable level ofdetail. In the comparative analysis, the impact on the external fire from a smallerapartment was studied in FDS with different configurations of horizontal projectionsand spandrels in the building exterior. Also, the effects of an upper and lower facadeset‐back configuration were studied. The results show that facade solutions based ona horizontal projection or an upper facade set‐back configuration result in comparableor better protection compared with a defined spandrel height. The results also showthat a spandrel height of at least 1.2 m can be replaced by a 60‐cm‐deep horizontalprojection, given that the balcony is wider than the underlying opening.

  • 36.
    Nilsson, Markus
    et al.
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Axel
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Husted, Bjarne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Compare the impact of horizontal projections and spandrels on external fire spread using FDS2016In: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Olsson, Kim
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Uncertainty propagation in FE modelling of a fire resistance test using fractional factorial design based model reduction and deterministic sampling2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, p. 517-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, fractional factorial design (FFD) and deterministic sampling (DS) are applied to a finite element (FE) model of a fire resistance test of a loaded steel beam, to investigate how uncertainties are propagated through the FE model. The sought quantity was the time when the deflection of the beam exceeded 225. mm. The FFD method was used as a model reduction technique which reduced the number of uncertain parameters from 5 to 3. The DS method was compared to a reference Monte Carlo (MC) method of 1000 simulations from all 5 uncertain parameters, which was the minimum number of simulations in order for the statistical moments to converge. The combined FFD and DS method successfully computed the propagation of the mean and standard deviation in the model, compared to the MC method. Given the uncertainties in the FE model, the fractional factorial design reduced the number of simulations required in the DS method by 82%. The combined method of FFD and DS reduced the number of required simulations by 96% compared to the MC method. The DS method did not capture the tails of the probability distribution and is therefore not a suitable candidate for probabilistic evaluation of the time of failure at the edges of the domain of possible failure times. Future research could very well be on improving the tails in DS. However, the DS method provides a conservative 95% coverage interval of 6. min for the time to failure of the steel beam.

  • 38.
    Runefors, Marcus
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Wahlqvist, Jonathan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Husted, Bjarne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    A comparison of radiative transfer models in firefoam and FDS2016In: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 59-69Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Hallberg, Emil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Large scale exposure of fires to facade - Initial testing of proposed European method2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a series of tests of the new proposed method for assessing the performance of façades when exposed to flashover fires. The tests consider the large fire exposure and consists of the 8.5 meter high incombustible walls placed in a 90° angle towards each other. The report assesses reproducibility and the effect of moisture content, stick size, wind and depth of the combustion chamber.The data from the report will be publicly available at the project website for further use and scrutiny. https://www.ri.se/en/what-we-do/projects/finalisation-of-the-european-approach-to-assess-the-fire-performance-of-facades 

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  • 40.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    External fire plumes from mass timber compartment fires—Comparison to test methods for regulatory compliance of façades2023In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-flashover fires inherently lead to external fire plumes, constituting a hazard for rapid fire spread over façades. As multi-storey mass timber buildings with internal visible timber surfaces become more common, there are concerns that such buildings would produce larger external plumes and hazards (assuming all other parameters equal). The literature reveals only indications of this, and how the actual exposure relates to different test methods for assessment is unknown. Here we utilise a series of full-scale mass timber compartment tests to quantify the exposure to the external façade. An incombustible external façade is instrumented with gauges at positions corresponding to reference data from several different assessment methods. The results show that there is an increase in plume duration, height, and temperatures when increasing the areas of exposed timber, but that this increase is less for normal- to large-opening compartments, than was previously seen in small-opening compartments. Also, normal variations in external wind speed have a larger influence on plume heights than the effect of doubling exposed timber surfaces. Test methods used for regulatory compliance differ significantly not only in exposure but also in pass/fail criteria. The proposed European large exposure method and the BS8414 method exhibit exposures on par with the severe end of what could be expected from mass timber compartments, whereas methods like SP Fire 105 and Lepir II produce significantly less severe plumes. However, the safety level is always a combination of exposure and assessment criteria. This data can help justify assessment criteria from a performance perspective. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 41.
    Temple, Alastair
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    BREND 2.0: Fire simulation technical report2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and other vehicles with alternative energy carriers (such as hydrogen) are becoming increasingly common, and with them new fire risks. This report provides the technical details of computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out as part of the BREND 2.0 project to assess the tenability conditions within a ro-ro space from EV fires, via assessment of temperatures, radiation and spread of toxic species. The simulations primarily considered variation in compartment ventilation and fuel source. In all scenarios a selection of gaseous species, gas temperatures and radiative intensity are recorded at point locations and as 2D slices across the ro-ro space. From the gaseous species fractional effective concentrations, for irritant gases, and fraction effective doses, for asphyxiants, can be calculated to provide an assessment for tenability conditions in each scenario. This report contains the results of the simulations and some general observations but no detailed analysis of the implications of the results in terms of safety of EV fires on a ro-ro space.

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  • 42.
    Temple, Alastair
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sokoti, Hasan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. RISE.
    Vermina Plathmer, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Development of Experimental Method for Assessing Risk of Lithium Fires Related with Fusion Reactor Lithium Cooling Loops2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to provide the basis for risk assessments relating to the risk of lithium leaks in the DONES project. This report firstly summarizes the current knowledge of risks and reaction features at different scales with liquid lithium. Note that the review is limited to fire behaviour of lithium in its liquid state and does not consider additional risks connected with breeding tritium or corrosive effects of impurities. Some of the questions important for this project are to limit the lithium reaction with water, limit the spread of fire started by a reaction with lithium and extinguish flame of lithium induced fires. The second part of the report consists discussion of some initial small-scale experiments, undertaken to provide a basis for limiting the extent for further larger tests, and a proposal for an experimental device where lithium reactions can be studied in a controlled environment, i.e. with controlled amount of oxygen, nitrogen or humidity in the experiment. This will then be the basis for risk assessment for liquid lithium loop in the DONES facility.

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  • 43.
    Wickström, Ulf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Measuring incident heat flux and adiabatic surface temperature with plate thermometers in ambient and high temperatures2019In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 51-56, article id 2667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new more insulated and faster responding plate thermometer (PT) is introduced,which has been developed for measurements particularly in air at ambient temperature.It is a cheaper and more practical alternative to water‐cooled heat flux meters(HFMs). The theory and use of PTs measuring incident radiation heat flux and adiabaticsurface temperature are presented. Comparisons of measurements with PTsand HFMs are made. Finally, it is concluded that incident radiation in ambient aircan be measured with HFMs as well as with the new insulated type of PT. In hot gasesand flames, however, only PTs can be recommended. At elevated gas temperatures,convection makes measurements with HFMs difficult to interpret and use for calculations.However, they can be used in standard or well‐defined configurations forcomparisons.

  • 44.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Toxic Gases from Fire in Electric Vehicles2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing shift to electromobility has identified new risk areas. Fires involving electric vehicles have attracted considerable media attention and a strong concern related to burning electric vehicles containing lithium-ion batteries is the release of toxic gas. This report includes a literature review, vehicle fire tests, battery fire tests and simulations to gather and present data on gas and heat release during fire in electric vehicles. One electrical vehicle and one conventional vehicle in the full-scale fire tests were of the same model from the same manufacturer which enable a good comparison between the powertrains. Peak heat release rate and total heat release are affected by the fire scenario and vehicle model, but not significantly on the powertrain. Regarding toxic gases, hydrogen fluoride represents the largest difference between electric vehicles and conventional vehicles, but when smoke from vehicle fire is inhaled there are several acute toxic gases present regardless of the type of vehicle burning. Except hydrogen fluoride, there are also some specific metals present in the smoke that constitutes a large difference between the powertrains.

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    fulltext
  • 45.
    Xu, Dai
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    CHARACTERISING NATURAL FIRES IN LARGE COMPARTMENTS – REVISITING AN EARLY TRAVELLING FIRE TEST (BST/FRS 1993) WITH CFD2019In: Interflam 2019, proceedings / [ed] Stephen Grayson, Interscience Communications, 2019, Vol. 15, p. 2111-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a careful assessment of fire conditions in a long enclosure, open only at one end, which contained a regularly spaced timber crib fire load and is dominated by under-ventilated combustion. Though the geometrical arrangement, with fully enclosed side walls, differs from many more recent “travelling fire” tests, the essential fire behaviour shows a very clear progression of the main burning zone, driven by a combination of fire spread, ventilation and fuel burn out. By contrast many other travelling fire tests have been designed to be fuel-controlled, in much more open structures. Moreover, due to the enclosed nature of the test, it was observed to result in very high temperatures in the protected and unprotected steel beam members, especially during the phase when the fire travelled back from the opening to the ignition location at the rear of the compartment. The investigated test in this paper is Test number 2, which is one of nine tests carried out at the BRE Cardington laboratory in the UK, led by British Steel Technical (BST) and hosted by the Fire Research Station (FRS).CFD modelling, with NIST’s Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), is invoked to assist in exploration and interpretation of the test results, and to evaluate model capabilities for this complex fire scenario. For simplicity, instead of modelling the complex pyrolysis and combustion of timber on a stick-by-stick basis, the entire wood cribs are represented in the FDS model as single objects. Thus ignition and burning are represented in a simplified manner at the scale of the individual crib faces, with idealised mass loss curves derived from measurements in selected rows. Though tied to empirical mass loss, the model is stretched in representing heavily under-ventilated conditions occurring in certain domains. Despite these simplifications and challenges the model does prove capable of representing the qualitative behaviours to a satisfactory level. In particular, with appropriate parameter choice for reaction-to-fire properties, the FDS models are able to represent the fire spread rates for the two distinct stages of the fire: the fire travelling from rear to the front of the compartment in search of oxygen; and the fire travelling back from the opening to the rear as fuel is consumed. The results suggest the potential value of such simplified representations of cribs in FDS for travelling fire scenarios.In the calibrated model, the magnitude of the thermocouple (TC) temperatures at three locations (ignition location, centre location, and opening location) shows generally good agreement between the FDS model and the test at the stage when the fire travels to the opening. However, significantly higher discrepancy appears at the stage when the fire travels back. In addition to the highly simplified representation of crib burning, another likely reason for the latter may be the malfunction of the mass loss measurement in several wood cribs at this stage, which led to significant uncertainties in prescribed burning rates. Another large source of uncertainty relates to residual heat in compartment boundaries and fuel embers, the latter not being easy to represent in CFD models. These results suggest avenues to explore in future model development.

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