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  • 1.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE, Innventia.
    Experimental study of non-linear stress relaxation and creep of paper materials and the relation between the two types of experiments2010In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 351-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The non-linear time-dependent mechanical behaviour of three different commercial paper grades was investigated. Stress relaxation and creep tests were carried out in MD and CD using different load levels. The strain in each test was split in a linear part and a non-linear part. From the stress and the linear part of the strain in the test, a stress relaxation modulus or a creep compliance was calculated. The stress relaxation moduli and creep compliances determined in this way were observed to be independent of the load level. The stress relaxation moduli and creep compliances for each paper were further independent of the loading direction (MD/CD) when scaled by the elastic modulus. It was also shown that the stress relaxation modulus was approximately equal to the inverse of the creep compliance, which is what would have been expected if linear viscoelastic theory had been applicable.

  • 2.
    Alfthan, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Björklund, Magnus
    Measuring creep with confidence2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Lindberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Flodberg, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Yang, Li
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Mechanical performance of polymer powder bed fused objects: FEM simulation and verification2018In: Additive manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 24, p. 577-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) enables the designing and producing of complex geometries in a layer-by-layer approach. The layered structure leads to anisotropic behaviour in the material. To accommodate anisotropic behaviour, geometrical optimization is needed so that the 3D printed object meets the pre-set strength and quality requirements. In this article a material description for polymer powder bed fused also or selective laser sintered (SLS) PA12 (Nylon-12), which is a common 3D printing plastic, was investigated, using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The Material Model parameters were obtained by matching them to the test results of multipurpose test specimens (dumb-bells or dog bones) and the model was then used to simulate/predict the mechanical performance of the SLS printed lower-leg prosthesis components, pylon and support. For verification purposes, two FEM designs for a support were SLS printed together with additional test specimens in order to validate the used Material Model. The SLS printed prosthesis pieces were tested according to ISO 10328 Standard. The FEM simulations, together with the Material Model, was found to give good estimations for the location of a failure and its load. It was also noted that there were significant variations among individual SLS printed test specimens, which impacted on the material parameters and the FEM simulations. Hence, to enable reliable FEM simulations for the designing of 3D printed products, better control of the SLS process with regards to porosity, pore morphology and pore distribution is needed.

  • 4.
    Odeberg Glasenapp, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE, Innventia.
    Köhke, Katharina
    Standards for corrugated board converting2016In: IAPRI 2016 - 20th World conference on packaging: Innovation, Development and Sustainability in Packaging, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrugated board is the dominant transport packaging material. All corrugated board blanks have to pass converting machines in order to produce packaging. The corrugated board converting process should be precise to avoid waste and machine stops. There are standards existing that state tolerances for the corrugated board converting process. These tolerances can be set for corrugated board properties like warp and dimensions or tolerances to be achieved for the ready packaging. The standards are issued among others by FEFCO, GIFCO, VDW, and SUW (The International Development Group of Corrugated Board), but also by some large brand owners. A comparison of tolerances mentioned in the most important standards was conducted. Further actual tolerances of corrugated board and corrugated board packages converted in several corrugated board plants and used at the brand owners were investigated. At corrugated board plants and brand owners the ambient temperature and humidity were measured. Also the temperature and humidity in the corrugated board stacks and the warp of the sheets were investigated. The runnability in the converting machines was evaluated by machine drivers. Some of these results will be shown. Furthermore thickness, folding strength of creases and misalignment, fishtailing, gap of manufactures joint and width and length of folded blanks of slotted boxes were determined. The results indicate that stricter tolerances for corrugated board are possible. The results of the plant trials will be used to propose a new SUW standard with new tolerance levels e.g. for warp and dimensions of the corrugated board sheets and packages. The new tolerances will be discussed within the corrugated board branch, converting machine suppliers and users of corrugated board. New stricter tolerances for corrugated board packaging in the converting process contribute to a better competitiveness of this renewable and sustainable packaging material in the future.

  • 5.
    Odeberg Glasenapp, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Holmqvist, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Yang, Li
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Berthold, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Next level of corrugated board research2019In: 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2019: Serving society innovative perspectives on packaging, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     For the first time in the Bioeconomy research program at RISE, corrugatedboard has an own research area. Research is building around the main driving forcesin the corrugated board value chain like e-commerce, improved box performance anddigital printing. The main weakness of corrugated board, its moisture sensitivity, isalso addressed.These main driving forces and weaknesses of corrugated board are mirrored in thethemes of this large research program area:Fibre sorption and deformation mechanismsFundamental knowledge on the mechanisms behind moisture sorption and deformation on fibre level is developed to increase moisture and creep resistance throughmodification of paper materials. State of the art methods for characterization ofthe fibre ultra- and nano-structure such as Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy(FTIR), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS)give new insights on mechanisms and clarify effects of moisture as well as chemicalmodifications.Papermaking for improved base sheetsConcepts that are explored are fibre-based strength additives produced with novelrefining techniques, and modified ZD-profiles in the sheet for better mechanical properties.Box mechanicsMechanical performance of structures such as corrugated board boxes can be predicted through physically based mathematical modelling by taking the behaviour ofthe constituent materials as well as the geometry into account. Appropriate materialmodels for the corrugated board are identified and finite element models for simulation of corrugated board packaging performance are developed.Tool for inkjet printability on corrugatedThere is a genuine need for improved inkjet printability on corrugated materials thanksto rapid development in e-commerce as well as digitalization along the corrugatedvalue chain. Effective measurement methods and knowledge around ink-substrateinteractions are developed to enable board producers and converters to have effective product development and predictable printability on not only liners but also oncorrugated materials.

  • 6.
    Odeberg Glasenapp, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Pötzsch, Sina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    DuraWell : novel approach to enhance the moisture resistance of corrugated board paper2017In: 28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2017, p. 178-197Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Odeberg Glasenapp, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Sundin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Nordlinder, J.
    Swedish Patent- and Registration Office, Sweden.
    Berthold, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Water-free bonding of corrugated board2018In: 21st IAPRI World Conference on Packaging 2018: Packaging: Driving a Sustainable Future, DEStech Publications Inc. , 2018, p. 608-616Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The "water-free bonding of corrugated board" concept focuses on the development, waste management and market potential of a new corrugated board production method. It has earlier been shown that by integrating PLA into paper, certain mechanical properties of corrugated board papers can be enhanced. These enhanced papers have been used for producing corrugated board. Corrugated board is usually produced by gluing the corrugated board paper layers with a starch suspension. This process is reducing the mechanical paper strength and is also energy consuming, as the water added by the starch suspension in the process has to be evaporated. In this study, two new water-free joining techniques for corrugated board have been investigated: PLA-welding, which melts the inherent PLA of the paper to create a bond and using PLA as an adhesive. Both techniques have shown promising results and are recommended for further investigation, however, replacing starch glue with PLA seems to be a solution closer to the market. For the material to fit in a future circular economy it is important that the waste is managed in a way that is sustainable for the environment and the society. Repulpability testing in combination with literature studies indicate that the new material would be possible to recycle, and that the new material could function in every step described in the EU Waste Framework Directive.

  • 8.
    Odeberg Glasenapp, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Sundin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Nordlinder, Johanna
    Swedish patent- and registration office, Sweden.
    Berthold, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Water-free bonding of corrugated board2018In: Packaging: Driving a sustainable future / [ed] Wang S-W, 2018, p. 608-616Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The "water-free bonding of corrugated board" concept focuses on thedevelopment, waste management and market potential of a new corrugated board production method. It has earlier been shown that by integrating PLA into paper, certain mechanical properties of corrugated board papers can be enhanced. These enhanced papers have been used for producing corrugated board. Corrugated board is usually produced by gluing the corrugated board paper layers with a starch suspension. This process is reducing the mechanical paper strength and is also energy consuming, as the water added by the starch suspension in the process has to be evaporated. In this study, two new water-free joining techniques for corrugated board have been investigated: PLA-welding, which melts the inherent PLA of the paper to create a bond and using PLA as an adhesive. Both techniques have shown promising results and are recommended for further investigation, however, replacing starch glue with PLA seems to be a solution closer to the market. For the material to fit in a future circular economy it is important that the waste is managed in a way that is sustainable for the environment and the society. Repulp ability testing in combination with literature studies indicate that the new material would be possible to recycle, and that the new material could function in every step described in the EU Waste Framework Directive.

  • 9.
    Trost, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE, Innventia.
    Corrugated boxes and transportation demands: a feasibility study2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The exporting industry has problems finding the right transport packaging materials and solutions for export to different markets. Many different standards exist for different purposes. On the other hand, there are missing standards in some cases, e.g. high humidity and creep. Also, each industry branch has different requirements and demands. From the industry’s point of view there is a wish to specify how the packages will be used and which environmental hazards they have to withstand. Performance of the box is important, not the specific paper properties, even if they affect the performance.This presentation will clarify some of the problems the users of corrugated packaging have and ways to improve the situation in an effort for "real optimized" transport packaging. Different test methods for corrugated will be presented and compared with the industries needs on transport packaging. Test methods will be covered at paper level, board level and box level.

  • 10.
    Trost, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE, Innventia.
    Performance and test methods for corrugated board packagingConference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Trost, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    The real world of corrugated: focus on packaging performance2017In: 28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2017, p. 136-141Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 11 of 11
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