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  • 1.
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kantarelis, Efthymios
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Performance analysis and fate of bromine in a single screw reactor for pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)2020In: Process Safety and Environmental Protection, ISSN 0957-5820, E-ISSN 1744-3598, Vol. 143, p. 313-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on chemical recycling of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), which constitutes a problematic waste fraction due to the presence of brominated flame retardants. An auger reactor has been designed and used for this study. Real WEEE material provided by Stena Technoworld has been pyrolyzed under different temperature conditions. The performance of the reactor as well as other important parameters such as the fate of the bromine have been investigated and evaluated. The main outcome of this investigation is to simulate a continuous process, which can be useful for designing a full-scale industrial process. The mass balance results after performing thermal treatment at 400, 500, and 600 °C, showed a high gas yield (44 %wt) at the temperature of 600 °C, which energy content is enough to self-sustain the auger reactor. At the low temperature of 400 °C the oil production reaches its maximum yield as well as maximum concentration of bromine, corresponding to 0.5 wt% in the oil. Several valuable organic compounds have been detected in the oil composition, which can be used as precursors for feedstock recycling producing new plastics. © 2020 The Authors

  • 2.
    Gulshan, Samina
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shafaghat, Hoda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Yang, Hanmin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Performance analysis and production of aromatics for ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of engineered WEEE2024In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 179, article id 106510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of engineered waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) was conducted in a two-stage reactor using HZSM-5 catalyst. The effect of the catalysis temperature and the catalyst-to-feedstock (C/F) ratio on products yield, gas and oil composition, and products characterization were investigated in this study. Results indicated that lower reforming temperature and C/F ratio favored organic fractions production. The highest yield of organic fraction was obtained at a catalysis temperature of 450 °C and at a C/F ratio of 0.15, corresponding to 28.5 and 27.4 wt %, respectively. The highest selectivity toward aromatic hydrocarbons and the lowest TAN value of the organic fraction were obtained at a catalysis temperature of 450 °C and a C/F ratio of 0.2, respectively. Most of the alkali and transition metals and 23 % of Br remained in the solid residue after the catalytic pyrolysis of low-grade electronic waste (LGEW). 

  • 3.
    Persson, H.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Han, T.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Xia, W.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, W.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fractionation of liquid products from pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass by stepwise thermal treatment2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 154, p. 346-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal properties of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin can be utilized to improve the characteristics of pyrolysis liquids. In this study, a concept of stepwise pyrolysis to fractionate the liquid based on the thermal properties of the biomass constituents was investigated. Lignocellulosic biomass was thermally treated in two steps: 200–300 °C followed by 550 °C. Derived liquids were studied for GC/MS analysis, water content, acid concentration and a solvent extraction method. Pyrolytic liquid derived from 550 °C after treatment at lower temperatures have a higher relative composition of phenolic compounds compared to one-step pyrolysis (increased from 58 to 90% of GC/MS peak area). Also, compounds known to promote aging, such as acids and carbonyl compounds, are derived at lower temperatures which may suppress aging in the liquid derived downstream at 550 °C. For liquids derived at 550 °C, the total acid number was reduced from 125 in one-step treatment to 14 in two-step treatment. Overall, no significant difference in the total liquid yield (sum of the liquids derived in separated treatments) nor any variations in their collective composition compared to one-step treatment at 550 °C was observed, i.e. stepwise pyrolysis can be utilized for direct fractionation of pyrolytic vapors.

  • 4.
    Shafaghat, Hoda
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Gulshan, S
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Yang, W.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Selective recycling of BTX hydrocarbons from electronic plastic wastes using catalytic fast pyrolysis2022In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 605, article id 154734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis of two waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) fractions, with two different copper contents (low- and medium-grade WEEE named as LGE and MGE, respectively), were performed using micro- and lab-scale pyrolyzers. This research aimed to fundamentally study the feasibility of chemical recycling of the WEEE fractions via pyrolysis process considering molecular interactions at the interfaces of catalyst active sites and WEEE pyrolyzates which significantly influence the chemical functionality of surface intermediates and catalysis by reorganizing the pyrolyzates near catalytic active sites forming reactive surface intermediates. Hence, Al2O3, TiO2, HBeta, HZSM-5 and spent FCC catalysts were used in in-situ micro-scale pyrolysis. Results indicated that HBeta and HZSM-5 zeolites were more suitable than other catalysts for selective production of aromatic hydrocarbons and BTX. High acidity and shape selectivity of zeotype surfaces make them attractive frameworks for catalytic pyrolysis processes aiming for light hydrocarbons like BTX. Meanwhile, the ex-situ pyrolysis of LGE and MGE were carried out using HZSM-5 in micro- and lab-scale pyrolyzers to investigate the effect of pyrolysis configuration on the BTX selectivity. Although the ex-situ pyrolysis resulted in higher formation of BTX from LGE, the in-situ configuration was more efficient to produce BTX from MGE. © 2022 The Author(s)

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