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  • 1.
    Bosse, H.
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Evans, A.
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Germany.
    Zeleny, V.
    CMI Cesky Metrologicky Institut, Czech Republic.
    Czułek, D.
    GUM Central Office of Measures, Poland.
    Balsamo, A.
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    O'Connor, D.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Yandayan, T.
    UME Tubitak Ulusal Metroloji Enstitüsü, Turkey.
    Billington, D.
    EUSPEN European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, UK.
    Meli, F.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Ragusa, C. S.
    POLITO Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Flys, Olena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    AdvManuNet: A networking project on metrology for advanced manufacturing2020In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, EUSPEN 2020, euspen , 2020, p. 357-358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The networking project AdvManuNet has been started recently to accelerate the process of establishing an European Metrology Network (EMN) on Advanced Manufacturing. EMNs are intended by EURAMET, the association of metrology institutes in Europe, to provide a sustainable structure for ongoing stakeholder interaction in different thematic areas. Advanced manufacturing has been identified by the European Commission (EC) as one of six Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) with applications in multiple industries. Various EURAMET projects have partly addressed metrology needs for advanced manufacturing. However, a high-level coordination of the metrology community is currently absent and limits the impact of metrology developments on advanced manufacturing. AdvManuNet will address these limits by establishing a single hub for stakeholder consultation, a knowledge base on research results, and a strategic agenda for research and training to push forward advanced manufacturing and related KETs and strengthen Europe's position in advanced manufacturing via the EMN. 

  • 2.
    Brand, U.
    et al.
    PTB, Germany.
    Matus, M.
    BEV, Austria.
    Carcedo, L.
    CEM, Spain.
    Slusarski, L.
    GUM, Poland.
    Picotto, G. B.
    INRIM, Italy.
    Lassila, A.
    VTT, Finland.
    Hungwe, F.
    NMISA, South Africa.
    Flys, Olena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Aksulu, M.
    Tubi˙tak Ume, Turkey.
    Kosteev, V.
    Vniims Russian Research Institute for Metrological Service, Russia.
    Measurement of groove depth standards in the range 1 μm up to 1 mm (EURAMET project 1407)2020In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 57, no 1 A, article id 04001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison measurement between 10 national metrology institutes on two types of depth setting standards was conducted using mostly tactile but also two optical instruments for measurement. Three etched silicon standards with depths of 5, 20 and 50 μm and one diamond turned nickel coated copper standard with depths of 200, 600 and 900 μm were measured. The cross section of the grooves was trapezoidal. Most of the participants confirmed their CMC entries. Since many measurements had to be made, contamination of the standards and heavy wear on the standards were also observed after the comparison was completed. The wear consists of indentation marks from stylus instruments on both types of standards and as many as 70 scratch marks on the nickel coated copper artefact used. This indicates that the contact pressure of the tactile measuring devices used by some partners was too high. This can be caused by a too high probing force or a too small probing tip radius. Thus, for future comparisons the actual probing force and actual tip radius need to be measured during the comparison by the participants to assure that the recommended values (2 μm tip radius and 0.7 mN probing force) are not exceeded. The recently published German standard DIN 32567-3 "Determination of the influence of materials on the optical and tactile dimensional metrology-Part 3: Derivation of correction values for tactile measuring devices" describes methods to do both. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA)

  • 3.
    Flys, Olena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rosen, B. -G
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Using confocal fusion for measurement of metal AM surface texture2020In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 024003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly complex nature of as printed metal AM surfaces pose other challenges for making measurements compared to surfaces made with many conventional processing methods. The high complexity is caused by high aspect ratios, a mix of high and low reflexivity, steep angles etc. It is not clear which method is the most suitable for measuring these surfaces. The objective of this study was to compare four different measurement modes available in one instrument to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of the respective techniques regarding measurements of metal AM surfaces. The evaluated measurement modes are Confocal Microscopy, Coherence Scanning Interferometry, Focus Variation and Confocal Fusion. The effect of advantages and drawbacks of studied techniques was tested on typical surfaces produced by L-PBF process. Surfaces printed at 0° and 90° inclinations were compared regarding the measurement results achieved from the different methods. The Power Spectral Density analysis and visual comparison were used for the examination of studied measurements methods. Besides the comparison of areal measurements acquired by different modes available in the instrument also extracted profile measurements were compared with profile images acquired using an Optical Microscope. This study reveals that confocal fusion is a promising technique for AM surface characterisation, due to the highest amount of valid data points in the typical measurement. The new approach developed in the study showed that PSD analysis can be used for evaluation of fill in algorithms incorporated in different software. Results of the profile comparisons help to illustrate features that can be depicted by surface measurements, applying different measurement principles, as well as enables comparison of raw profile data between different types of measurements. Further investigation of measurements on AM surfaces in the frequency domain will bring more understanding about the limitations of measurement techniques. 

  • 4.
    Flys, Olena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Rosen, B. -G
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Applicability of characterization techniques on fine scale surfaces2018In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 034015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, several surface topographies typical for dental implants were evaluated by different measurement techniques. The samples were prepared by machine turning, wet chemical etching and electrochemical polishing of titanium discs. The measurement techniques included an atomic force microscope (AFM), coherence scanning interferometer (CSI) and a 3D stereo scanning electron microscope (SEM). The aim was to demonstrate and discuss similarities and differences in the results provided by these techniques when analyzing submicron surface topographies. The estimated surface roughness parameters were not directly comparable since the techniques had different surface spatial wavelength band limits. However, the comparison was made possible by applying a 2D power spectral density (PSD) function. Furthermore, to simplify the comparison, all measurements were characterized using the ISO 25178 standard parameters. Additionally, a Fourier transform was applied to calculate the instrument transfer function in order to investigate the behavior of CSI at different wavelength ranges. The study showed that 3D stereo SEM results agreed well with AFM measurements for the studied surfaces. Analyzed surface parameter values were in general higher when measured by CSI in comparison to both AFM and 3D stereo SEM results. In addition, the PSD analysis showed a higher power spectrum density in the lower frequency range 10-2-10-1 μm-1 for the CSI compared with the other techniques.

  • 5.
    Flys, Olena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Johansson, M.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hosseini, Seyed
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Hatami, Sepehr
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Oikonomou, C.
    Uddeholm AB, Sweden.
    Rosen, B. -G
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Heat transfer and flow performance in additively manufactured cooling channels with varying surface topography2020In: Seimitsu Kogaku Kaishi/Journal of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, ISSN 0912-0289, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flexibility in respect of design and manufacturing freedom that additive manufacturing (AM) offer are key driving factors for many industrial scctors. For example, designing and manufacturing unique internal conformal cooling/heating channels with enhanced functionalities for various applications like tools and heat cxchangcrs. However, for the majority of the metal AM-processes in the as-build condition, AM is associated with high surface roughness, which has a measurable impact e.g on the heat transfer and flow properties. Hence, proper characterization of the fluid flow and heat transfer is vital to understand how the AM surfaces should be optimized for maximum output. The current study considers the cffcct of surface roughness and channels dimensions on the pressure drop and heat transfer. An experimental investigation was made of cooling channels produced by Powdcr-Bcd-Fusion using Lascr-Bcam-Mclting (PBF-LBM) additive manufacturing technique. Cooling channels with as-build surfaces was compared to post-processed cooling channels such as extrude honing and drilled channels, respectively. Results showed the lowest pressure drop for extrude honed channels compare to drilled and as-build channels, while heat transfer showed the same trend for as-build and extrude honed channels. The complexity of surface topography of as-build channels need to be described by parameters suitable for the detection of fluid interaction. Combination of different parameters remains to be investigated.

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  • 6.
    Flys, Olena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Källberg, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Ged, Guillaume
    LNE Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais, France.
    Silvestri, Zaccaria
    LNE Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais, France.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Characterization of surface topography of a newly developed metrological gloss scale2015In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 3, no 4, article id 045001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Joint Research Project “Multidimensional reflectometry for industry”, a new gloss scale has been developed with the aim to represent different levels of gloss, hue, roughness and refractive indices. In this paper, the surfaces of six selected samples have been thoroughly investigated using various measuring techniques in order to verify the outcome of the novel manufacturing processes in terms of distinct levels as well as types of surface roughness. The aim of the evaluation was to capture surface structures in different wavelength intervals utilizing a confocal microscope, a coherence scanning interferometer and an atomic force microscope. Also, PSD functions calculated from the measurements have been used to determine suitability of techniques for different roughness scales. Measurements show the expected surface characteristics as well as different rms roughness values intimately connected to the perceived glossiness.

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  • 7.
    Glon, F.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden; ENISE, France.
    Flys, Olena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Lööf, P.- J.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Rosen, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    3D SEM for surface topography quantification - A case study on dental surfaces2014In: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, Met and Props 2013, 2014, Vol. 483, p. 12026article id 012026Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    3D analysis of surface topography is becoming a more used tool for industry and research. New ISO standards are being launched to assist in quantifying engineering surfaces. The traditional optical measuring instrumentation used for 3D surface characterization has been optical interferometers and confocal based instrumentation. However, the resolution here is limited in the lateral dimension to the wavelength of visible light to about 500 nm. The great advantage using the SEM for topography measurements is the high flexibility to zoom from low magnifications and locating interesting areas to high magnification of down to nanometer large surface features within seconds. This paper presents surface characterization of dental implant micro topography. 3D topography data was created from SEM images using commercial photogrammetric software. A coherence scanning interferometer was used for reference measurements to compare with the 3D SEM measurements on relocated areas. As a result of this study, measurements emphasizes that the correlation between the accepted CSI measurements and the new technology represented by photogrammetry based on SEM images for many areal characterization parameters are around or less than 20%. The importance of selecting sampling and parameter sensitivity to varying sampling is high-lighted. Future work includes a broader study of limitations of the photogrammetry technique on certified micro-geometries and more application surfaces at different scales.

  • 8.
    Krishna, Amogh
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Flys, Olena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Reddy, Vijeth
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Leicht, Alexander
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Hammar, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Rosen, B. -G
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Potential approach towards effective topography characterization of 316L stainless steel components produced by selective laser melting process2018In: European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, Conference Proceedings - 18th International Conference and Exhibition, EUSPEN 2018, 2018, p. 259-260Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an attempt is made to explain the surface texture of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) parts more satisfyingly than the existing methods. Investigations were carried out on the 316L stainless steel SLM samples. To account for most of the surface conditions, a truncheon artefact was employed for the analysis. A Stylus Profilometer was employed as a metrology tool for obtaining the 3D surface measurements. A methodology is proposed to extract and characterize the topographic features of Additive Manufactured (AM) surfaces. Here, the overall roughness of the surface is segregated into the roughness of the powder particles and the waviness due to thermal and the "staircase" effects. Analyzing these features individually results in an increased understanding of the AM process and an opportunity to optimize machine settings.

  • 9.
    Krishna, Amogh
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Flys, Olena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Reddy, Vjeth
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Rosén, B. -G
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Surface topography characterization using 3D stereoscopic reconstruction of SEM images2018In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 024006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major drawback of the optical microscope is its limitation to resolve finer details. Many microscopes have been developed to overcome the limitations set by the diffraction of visible light. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one such alternative: it uses electrons for imaging, which have much smaller wavelength than photons. As a result high magnification with superior image resolution can be achieved. However, SEM generates 2D images which provide limited data for surface measurements and analysis. Often many research areas require the knowledge of 3D structures as they contribute to a comprehensive understanding of microstructure by allowing effective measurements and qualitative visualization of the samples under study. For this reason, stereo photogrammetry technique is employed to convert SEM images into 3D measurable data. This paper aims to utilize a stereoscopic reconstruction technique as a reliable method for characterization of surface topography. Reconstructed results from SEM images are compared with coherence scanning interferometer (CSI) results obtained by measuring a roughness reference standard sample. This paper presents a method to select the most robust/consistent surface texture parameters that are insensitive to the uncertainties involved in the reconstruction technique itself. Results from the two-stereoscopic reconstruction algorithms are also documented in this paper.

  • 10.
    Krishna, Amogh Vedantha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Flys, Olena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Reddy, Vijeth
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rosen, B. -G
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Areal surface topography representation of as-built and post-processed samples produced by powder bed fusion using laser beam melting2020In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 024012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing interest in Additive Manufacturing (AM) is due to its huge advantage in producing parts without any geometrical limitations. It is due to this reason, AM is extensively utilized in automotive, aerospace, medical and dental applications. Despite their popularity, AM is often associated with inferior surface quality which is one of the many reasons why it has failed to fully replace traditional methods. Hence, AM is always followed by a subsequent post-processing step to produce the end-product. To establish control over the surface quality it is first necessary to fully understand the surface behaviour concerning the factors affecting it. In this paper, the focus is mainly on having a better understanding of the surfaces by using scale-sensitive fractal analysis. In addition, the paper documents the influence of build inclination and post-processing in particular shot blasting on surface topography and utilizes a multi-scale approach to identify the most important scale and parameters for characterization. Results of this study reveal that shot blasting has a minimalistic effect on surface features at a large scale as it cannot remove the waviness completely. At smaller scales, blasting imparts additional features on the surface due to the impact of abrasive particles at high pressure. At the intermediate scales, the influence of shot blasting is highest as it successfully eliminates the surface features comprising of partially melted powder particles and stair-step effect.

  • 11.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Flys, Olena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    European Consultation on Metrological Traceability, Standards and Dissemination of Metrology in Industrial Nanotechnology2011Report (Refereed)
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  • 12.
    Przyklenk, A.
    et al.
    PTB, Germany.
    Balsamo, A.
    INRIM, Italy.
    O’Connor, D.
    NPL, UK.
    Evans, A.
    BAM, Germany.
    Yandayan, T.
    TUBITAK UME, Turkey.
    Akgöz, S. A.
    TUBITAK UME, Turkey.
    Flys, Olena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Zeleny, V.
    CMI, Czech Republic.
    Czułek, D.
    GUM, Poland.
    Phillips, D.
    EUSPEN, UK.
    Meli, F.
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Ragusa, C. S.
    POLITO, Italy.
    Bosse, H.
    PTB, Germany.
    AdvManuNet: Support for a European Metrology Network for advanced manufacturing2021In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, EUSPEN 2021, euspen , 2021, p. 321-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced manufacturing has been identified as one of the key enabling technologies (KET) with applications in multiple industries. Advanced manufacturing requires new and enhanced metrology methods to assure the quality of manufacturing processes and resulting products. However, a high-level coordination of the metrology community in Europe is currently absent in this domain and limits the impact of metrology developments on advanced manufacturing. This gap aims to be closed through the establishment of a European Metrology Network (EMN) for advanced manufacturing. Here we report on the approach, first activities and the latest progress to establish a EMN on advanced manufacturing within EURAMET, the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (NMI). The objectives of this EMN are to set up a permanent stakeholder dialogue, to develop a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for metrology input needed for advanced manufacturing technologies, to create and maintain a knowledge sharing programme and to implement a web-based service desk for stakeholders involved in advanced manufacturing.

  • 13.
    Reddy, Vijeth V.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Flys, Olena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Chaparala, Anish
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Berrimi, Chihab E.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Amogh, V.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Rosen, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Study on surface texture of Fused Deposition Modeling2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, Elsevier B.V. , 2018, p. 389-396Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is mostly used to develop functional prototypes and in some applications for end-use parts. It is important to study the surfaces produced by FDM to understand the certainty of process. Truncheon design test artefacts are printed at different print settings and surfaces are measured using stylus profilometer. Taguchi's design of experiments, signal-to-noise ratio and multiple regression statistics are implemented to establish a concise study of the individual and combined effect of process variables on surface texture parameters. Further, a model is developed to predict the roughness parameters and is compared with experimental values. The results suggest significant roughness parameter values decrease with increase in build inclination and increases with increase in layer thickness except the roughness peak count.

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