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  • 1.
    Carlmark, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    A polymeric coat for nanodroplets2019In: Nature Nanotechnology, ISSN 1748-3387, E-ISSN 1748-3395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grafting nanodroplets by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization can be carried out at liquid–liquid interfaces.

  • 2.
    Carlmark, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Modification of nanocellulose with tailored latex nanoparticles2018In: Recent advances in cellulose nanotechnology research: production, characterization and applications, Trondheim: RISE PFI , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Carlsson, Linn
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ingverud, Tobias
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Hanna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Surface characteristics of cellulose nanoparticles grafted by surface-initiated ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone2015In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 1063-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, surface-initiated ring-opening polymerization has been employed for the grafting of e-caprolactone from cellulose nanoparticles, made by partial hydrolysis of cellulose cotton linters. A sacrificial initiator was employed during the grafting reactions, to form free polymer in parallel to the grafting reaction. The degree of polymerization of the polymer grafts, and of the free polymer, was varied by varying the reaction time. The aim of this study was to estimate the cellulose nanoparticle degree of surface substitution at different reaction times. This was accomplished by combining measurement results from spectroscopy and chromatography. The prepared cellulose nanoparticles were shown to have 3.1 (±0.3) % of the total anhydroglucose unit content present at the cellulose nanoparticle surfaces. This effectively limits the amount of cellulose that can be targeted by the SI-ROP reactions. For a certain SIROP reaction time, it was assumed that the resulting degree of polymerization (DP) of the grafts and the DP of the free polymer were equal. Based on this assumption it was shown that the cellulose nanoparticle surface degree of substitution remained approximately constant (3–7 %) and seemingly independent of SI-ROP reaction time. We believe this work to be an important step towards a deeper understanding of the processes and properties controlling SI-ROP reactions occurring at cellulose surfaces.

  • 4.
    Träger, Andrea
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlmark, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Interpenetrated Networks of Nanocellulose and Polyacrylamide with Excellent Mechanical and Absorptive Properties2018In: Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print), ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 303, no 5, article id 1700594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composites based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) aerogels and polyacrylamide are prepared and exhibit robust mechanical, water retaining, and re-swelling capacities. Furthermore, their swelling behavior is not affected by an increased ionic strength of the aqueous phase. These unprecedented IPNs combine the water retaining capacity of the polyacrylamide with the mechanical strength provided by the CNF aerogel template. The CNF aerogel/polyacrylamide composites exhibit a compressive stress at break greater than 250% compared with a neat polyacrylamide hydrogel. Furthermore, the composites retain their wet compression properties after drying and re-swelling, whereas the neat polyacrylamide hydrogels fail at a significantly lower stress and strain after drying and re-swelling. These composite materials highlight the potential of CNF aerogels to strengthen the mechanical properties and reduce the number of fracture defects during the drying and re-swelling of a hydrogel. These composites show the potential of being optimized for a plethora of applications, especially in the hygiene field and for biomedical devices. 

  • 5.
    Träger, Andrea
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Klein, Gregor
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carrick, Christopher
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pendergraph, Samuel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlmark, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Macroscopic cellulose probes for the measurement of polymer grafted surfaces2019In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 1467-1477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: A synthesis protocol was identified to produce covalent grafting of poly(dimethyl siloxane) from cellulose, based on prior studies of analogous ring opening polymerizations. Following this polymer modification of cellulose, the contact adhesion was anticipated to be modified and varied as a function of the polymer molecular mass. The synthetic details were optimized for a filter paper surface before grafting the polymer from bulk cellulose spheres. The adhesion of the unmodified and grafted, bulk cellulose spheres were evaluated using the Johnson–Kendall–Roberts (JKR) theory with a custom build contact adhesion testing setup. We report the first example of grafting poly(dimethyl siloxane) directly from bulk cellulose using ring opening polymerization. For short grafting lengths, both the JKR work of adhesion and the adhesion energy at the critical energy release rate (Gc) were comparable to unmodified cellulose beads. When polymer grafting lengths were extended sufficiently where chain entanglements occur, both the JKR work of adhesion and Gc were increased by as much as 190%. Given the multitude of options available to graft polymers from cellulose, this study shows the potential to use this type of cellulose spheres to study the interaction between different polymer surfaces in a controlled manner. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

  • 6.
    Östmark, Emma
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Nyström, D
    Lindqvist, J
    Carlmark, Anna
    Malmström, Eva
    Hydroxypropyl cellulose as multifunctional initiator for controlled polymerizations2008In: Polymer Preprints, ISSN 0032-3934, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 585-586Article in journal (Refereed)
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