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  • 1.
    Blomberg, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Lundin, Maria
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Layer-by-layer assembly of biomacromolecular multilayers2011In: Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science / [ed] Ponisseril Somasundaran; Arthur Hubbard, CRC Press, 2011, 2ndChapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2. Feldötö, Zsombor
    et al.
    Varga, Imre
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Influence of salt and rinsing protocol on the structure of PAH/PSS polyelectrolyte multilayers2010In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 26, no 22, p. 17048-17057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and dual polarization interferometry (DPI) have been utilized to study how the structure of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) multilayers is affected by the rinsing method (i.e., the termination of polyelectrolyte adsorption). The effect of the type of counterions used in the deposition solution was also investigated, and the polyelectrolyte multilayers were formed in a 0.5 M electrolyte solution (NaCl and KBr). From the measurements, it was observed that thicker layers were obtained when using KBr in the deposition solution than when using NaCl. Three different rinsing protocols have been studied: (i) the same electrolyte solution as used during multilayer formation, (ii) purewater, and (iii) first a salt solution (0.5M) and then purewater.When the multilayerwith PAH as the outermost layer was exposed to pure water, an interesting phenomenon was discovered: a large change in the energy dissipationwas measured with theQCM.This could be attributed to the swelling of the layer, and from bothQCMandDPI it is obvious that only the outermost PAH layer swells (to a thickness of 25-30 nm) because of a decrease in ionic strength and hence an increase in intra- and interchain repulsion, whereas the underlying layers retain a very rigid and compact structure with a low water content. Interestingly, the outermost PAH layer seems to obtain very similar thicknesses in water independent of the electrolyte used for the multilayer buildup. Another interesting aspect was that the measured thickness with the DPI evaluated by a single-layer model did not correlate with the estimated thickness from the model calculations performed on theQCM-Ddata. Thus,we applied a two-layermodel to evaluate theDPI data and the resultswere in excellent agreement with the QCM-D results. To our knowledge, this evaluation of DPI data has not been done previously.

  • 3.
    Ferraris, M.
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Perero, S.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Ferraris, S.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Miola, M.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Vernè, E.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Skoglund, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, I.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Antibacterial silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings on stainless steel2017In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 396, p. 1546-1555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A coating made of silver nanocluster/silica composites has been deposited, via a radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering technique, for the first time onto stainless steel (AISI 304L) with the aim to improve its antibacterial properties. Different thermal treatments after coating deposition have been applied in order to optimize the coating adhesion, cohesion and its antibacterial properties. Its applicability has been investigated at realistic conditions in a cheese production plant. The physico-chemical characteristics of the coatings have been analyzed by means of different bulk and surface analytical techniques. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to assess coating morphology, composition, surface roughness, wetting properties, size and local distribution of the nanoparticles within the coating. Tape tests were used to determine the adhesion/cohesion properties of the coating. The amount and time-dependence of released silver in solutions of acetic acid, artificial water, artificial tap water and artificial milk were determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The antibacterial effect of the coating was evaluated at different experimental conditions using a standard bacterial strain of Staphylococcus aureus in compliance with National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) and AATCC 147 standards. The Ahearn test was performed to measure the adhesion of bacteria to the coated stainless steel surface compared with a control surface. The antibacterial coating retained its antibacterial activity after thermal treatment up to 450 °C and after soaking in common cleaning products for stainless steel surfaces used for e.g. food applications. The antibacterial capacity of the coating remained at high levels for 1-5 days, and showed a good capacity to reduce the adhesion of bacteria up to 30 days. Only a few percent of silver in the coating was released into acetic acid, even after 10 days of exposure at 40 °C. Most silver (> 90%) remained also in the coating even after 240 h of continuous exposure. Similar observations were made after repeated exposure at 100 °C. Very low levels of released silver in solution were observed in artificial milk. No release of silver nanoparticles was observed either in synthetic tap water or in artificial milk at given conditions. The coating further displayed good antibacterial properties also when tested during working conditions in a cheese production plant.

  • 4.
    Ferraris, Sara
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Perero, Sergio
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Miola, Marta
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Verne, Enrica
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Rosiello, A.
    Aero Sekur S.p.A., Italy.
    Ferrazo, V.
    Aero Sekur S.p.A., Italy.
    Valetta, G.
    Aero Sekur S.p.A., Italy.
    Sanchez, J.
    Bactiguard AB, Sweden.
    Ohrlander, Mattias
    Bactiguard AB, Sweden.
    Tjörhammar, Staffan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fokine, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Laurell, Frederik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Skoglund, Sara
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ferraris, Monica
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Chemical, mechanical and antibacterial properties of silver nanocluster/silica composite coated textiles for safety systems and aerospace applications2014In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 317, no Oct, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the chemical, mechanical and antibacterial properties of a novel silver nanocluster/silica composite coating, obtained by sputtering, on textiles for use in nuclear bacteriological and chemical (NBC) protection suites and for aerospace applications. The properties of the coated textiles were analyzed in terms of surface morphology, silver concentration and silver release in artificial sweat and synthetic tap water, respectively. No release of silver nanoparticles was observed at given conditions. The water repellency, permeability, flammability and mechanical resistance of the textiles before and after sputtering demonstrated that the textile properties were not negatively affected by the coating. The antibacterial effect was evaluated at different experimental conditions using a standard bacterial strain of Staphylococcus aureus and compared with the behavior of uncoated textiles. The coating process conferred all textiles a good antibacterial activity. Optimal deposition conditions were elaborated to obtain sufficient antibacterial action without altering the aesthetical appearance of the textiles. The antibacterial coating retained its antibacterial activity after one cycle in a washing machine only for the Nylon based textile.

  • 5.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    In the Search for Nanospecific Effects of Dissolution of Metallic Nanoparticles at Freshwater-Like Conditions: A Critical Review2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 4030-4044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge on relations between particle properties and dissolution/transformation characteristics of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in freshwater is important for risk assessment and product development. This critical review aims to elucidate nanospecific effects on dissolution of metallic NPs in freshwater and similar media. Dissolution rate constants are compiled and analyzed for NPs of silver (Ag), copper (Cu), copper oxide/hydroxide (CuO, Cu(OH) 2 ), zinc oxide (ZnO), manganese (Mn), and aluminum (Al), showing largely varying (orders of magnitude) constants when modeled using first order kinetics. An effect of small primary sizes (<15 nm) was observed, leading to increased dissolution rate constants and solubility in some cases. However, the often extensive particle agglomeration can result in reduced nanospecific effects on dissolution and also an increased uncertainty related to the surface area, a parameter that largely influence the extent of dissolution. Promising ways to model surface areas of NPs in solution using fractal dimensions and size distributions are discussed in addition to nanospecific aspects related to other processes such as corrosion, adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM), presence of capping agents, and existence of surface defects. The importance of the experimental design on the results of dissolution experiments of metal and metal oxide NPs is moreover highlighted, including the influence of ionic metal solubility and choice of particle dispersion methodology.

  • 6.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The importance of extracellular speciation and corrosion of copper nanoparticles on lung cell membrane integrity2016In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 141, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) are increasingly used in various biologically relevant applications and products, e.g., due to their antimicrobial and catalytic properties. This inevitably demands for an improved understanding on their interactions and potential toxic effects on humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the corrosion of copper nanoparticles in various biological media and to elucidate the speciation of released copper in solution. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lung cell (A549 type II) membrane damage induced by Cu NPs in the various media were studied. The used biological media of different complexity are of relevance for nanotoxicological studies: Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM), DMEM+ (includes fetal bovine serum), phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and PBS + histidine. The results show that both copper release and corrosion are enhanced in DMEM+, DMEM, and PBS + histidine compared with PBS alone. Speciation results show that essentially no free copper ions are present in the released fraction of Cu NPs in neither DMEM+, DMEM nor histidine, while labile Cu complexes form in PBS. The Cu NPs were substantially more membrane reactive in PBS compared to the other media and the NPs caused larger effects compared to the same mass of Cu ions. Similarly, the Cu NPs caused much more ROS generation compared to the released fraction only. Taken together, the results suggest that membrane damage and ROS formation are stronger induced by Cu NPs and by free or labile Cu ions/complexes compared with Cu bound to biomolecules.

  • 7.
    Hedberg, Y. S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Pradhan, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cappellini, F.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Karlsson, M. -E
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, H. L.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, I.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, J. F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Electrochemical surface oxide characteristics of metal nanoparticles (Mn, Cu and Al) and the relation to toxicity2016In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 212, p. 360-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most metal nanoparticles (NPs), except noble metal NPs, rapidly form a thin surface oxide in ambient conditions. The protective properties of these oxides improve or worsen depending on the environment, e.g., the human lung. Several properties, including the chemical/electrochemical stability and defect density, determine the capacity of these surface oxides to hinder the bulk metal from further oxidation (corrosion). The aim of this study was to investigate whether electrochemical surface oxide characterization of non-functionalized base metal NPs of different characteristics (Al, Mn and Cu) can assist in understanding their bioaccessibility (metal release) in cell media (DMEM+) and their cytotoxic properties following exposure in lung epithelial (A549) cells. The composition and valence states of surface oxides of metal NPs and their electrochemical activity were investigated using an electrochemical technique based on a graphite paste electrode to perform cyclic voltammetry in buffer solutions and open circuit potential measurements in DMEM+. The electrochemical surface oxide characterization was complemented and verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The open circuit potential trends in DMEM+ correlated well with metal release results in the same solution, and provided information on the kinetics of oxide dissolution in the case of Cu NPs. Extensive particle agglomeration in cell medium (DMEM+) was observed by means of photon-cross correlation spectroscopy for all metal NPs, with sedimentation taking place very quickly. As a consequence, measurements of the real dose of added non-functionalized metal NPs to cell cultures for cytotoxicity testing from a sonicated stock solution were shown necessary. The cytotoxic response was found to be strongly correlated to changes in physico-chemical and electrochemical properties of the surface oxides of the metal NPs, the most potent being Cu NPs, followed by Mn NPs. No cytotoxicity was observed for Al NPs. The electrochemical surface oxide characterization corresponded well with other tools commonly used for nanotoxicological characterization and provided additional information.

  • 8.
    Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Sara
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mei, Nanxuan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wold, Susanna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanoparticles of WC-Co, WC, Co and Cu of relevance for traffic wear particles – Particle stability and reactivity in synthetic surface water and influence of humic matter2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 224, p. 275-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studded tyres made of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) are in the Northern countries commonly used during the winter time. Tungsten (W)-containing nano- and micron-sized particles have been detected close to busy roads in several European countries. Other typical traffic wear particles consist of copper (Cu). The aims of this study were to investigate particle stability and transformation/dissolution properties of nanoparticles (NPs) of WC-Co compared with NPs of tungsten carbide (WC), cobalt (Co), and Cu. Their physicochemical characteristics (primarily surface oxide and charge) are compared with their extent of sedimentation and metal release in synthetic surface water (SW) with and without two different model organic molecules, 2,3- and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) mimicking certain sorption sites of humic substances, for time periods up to 22 days. The WC-Co NPs possessed a higher electrochemical and chemical reactivity in SW with and without DHBA molecules as compared with NPs of WC, Co, and Cu. Co was completely released from the WC-Co NPs within a few hours of exposure, although it remained adsorbed/bonded to the particle surface and enabled the adsorption of negatively charged DHBA molecules, in contrast with the WC NPs (no adsorption of DHBA). The DHBA molecules were found to rapidly adsorb on the Co and Cu NPs. The sedimentation of the WC and WC-Co NPs was not influenced by the presence of the 2,3- or 3,4-DHBA molecules. A slight influence (slower sedimentation) was observed for the Co NPs, and a strong influence (slower sedimentation) was observed for the Cu NPs in SW with 2,3-DHBA compared with SW alone. The extent of metal release increased in the order: WC < Cu < Co < WC-Co NPs. All NPs released more than 1 wt-% of their metal total mass. The release from the Cu NPs was most influenced by the presence of DHBA molecules.

  • 9.
    Hedberg, Yolanda Susanne
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Maria Elisa
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Correlation between surface physicochemical properties and the release of iron from stainless steel AISI 304 in biological media2014In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 122, no Oct, p. 216-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stainless steel is widely used in biological environments, for example as implant material or in food applications, where adsorption-controlled ligand-induced metal release is of importance from a corrosion, health, and food safety perspective. The objective of this study was to elucidate potential correlations between surface energy and wettability of stainless steel surfaces and the release of iron in complexing biological media. This was accomplished by studying changes in surface energies calculated from contact angle measurements, surface oxide composition (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), and released iron (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy) for stainless steel grade AISI 304 immersed in fluids containing bovine serum albumin or citric acid, and non-complexing fluids such as NaCl, NaOH, and HNO3. It was shown that the surface wettability and polar surface energy components were all influenced by adventitious atmospheric carbon (surface contamination of low molecular weight), rather than differences in surface oxide composition in non-complexing solutions. Adsorption of both BSA and citrate, which resulted in ligand-induced metal release, strongly influenced the wettability and the surface energy, and correlated well with the measured released amount of iron.

  • 10.
    Hedberg, Yolanda Susanne
    et al.
    Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Killian, Manuela S.
    Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Virtanen, S.
    Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
    Schmuki, Patrik
    Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Interaction of bovine serum albumin and lysozyme with stainless steel studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy2012In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 28, no 47, p. 16306-16317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An in-depth mechanistic understanding of the interaction between stainless steel surfaces and proteins is essential from a corrosion and protein-induced metal release perspective when stainless steel is used in surgical implants and in food applications. The interaction between lysozyme (LSZ) from chicken egg white and bovine serum albumin (BSA) and AISI 316L stainless steel surfaces was studied ex situ by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) after different adsorption time periods (0.5, 24, and 168 h). The effect of XPS measurements, storage (aging), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and elevated temperature (up to 200 °C) on the protein layers, as well as changes in surface oxide composition, were investigated. Both BSA and LSZ adsorption induced an enrichment of chromium in the oxide layer. BSA induced significant changes to the entire oxide, while LSZ only induced a depletion of iron at the utmost layer. SDS was not able to remove preadsorbed proteins completely, despite its high concentration and relatively long treatment time (up to 36.5 h), but induced partial denaturation of the protein coatings. High-temperature treatment (200 °C) and XPS exposure (X-ray irradiation and/or photoelectron emission) induced significant denaturation of both proteins. The heating treatment up to 200 °C removed some proteins, far from all. Amino acid fragment intensities determined from ToF-SIMS are discussed in terms of significant differences with adsorption time, between the proteins, and between freshly adsorbed and aged samples. Stainless steel-protein interactions were shown to be strong and protein-dependent. The findings assist in the understanding of previous studies of metal release and surface changes upon exposure to similar protein solutions.

  • 11.
    Hedberg, Yolanda Susanne
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundin, Maria
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jacksén, Johan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Emmer, Åsa
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Chromium-protein complexation studies by adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry and MALDI-TOF-MS2012In: Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, ISSN 0021-891X, E-ISSN 1572-8838, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 349-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology using stripping voltammetry has been elaborated to enable sensitive and reliable protein-chromium complexation measurements. Disturbing effects caused by adsorption of proteins on the mercury electrode were addressed. At low concentrations of proteins (≤60-85 nM), chromium-protein complexation measurements were possible. Chromium(VI) complexation was quantitatively determined using differently sized, charged, and structured proteins: serum albumin (human and bovine), lysozyme, and mucin. Generated results showed a strong relation between complexation and protein size, concentration, and the number of amino acids per protein mass. Complexation increased nonlinearly with increasing protein concentrations. The nature of this complexation was based on weak interactions judged from combined results with MALDI-TOF-MS and adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry. 

  • 12.
    Hedberg, Yolanda Susanne
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Xuying
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas F.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Lundin, Maria
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Surface-protein interactions on different stainless steel grades: Effects of protein adsorption, surface changes and metal release2013In: Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, ISSN 0957-4530 , Vol. 24, no 4, p. 1015-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implantation using stainless steels (SS) is an example where an understanding of protein-induced metal release from SS is important when assessing potential toxicological risks. Here, the protein-induced metal release was investigated for austenitic (AISI 304, 310, and 316L), ferritic (AISI 430), and duplex (AISI 2205) grades in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) solution containing either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or lysozyme (LSZ). The results show that both BSA and LSZ induce a significant enrichment of chromium in the surface oxide of all stainless steel grades. Both proteins induced an enhanced extent of released iron, chromium, nickel and manganese, very significant in the case of BSA (up to 40-fold increase), whereas both proteins reduced the corrosion resistance of SS, with the reverse situation for iron metal (reduced corrosion rates and reduced metal release in the presence of proteins). A full monolayer coverage is necessary to induce the effects observed.

  • 13. Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Lingström, Rikard
    Wågberg, Lars
    Adhesive interaction between polyelectrolyte multilayers of polyallylamine hydrochloride and polyacrylic acid studied using atomic force microscopy and surface force apparatus2009In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 2887-2894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the adhesion between substrates treated with identical polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) from polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAR) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the Surface force apparatus (SFA). The AFM measurements, conducted under wet conditions for PEMs formed at pH 7.5, showed a higher adhesion (pull-off force) when PAH was adsorbed in the outermost layers. There was also a difference depending on the Molecular mass of the polymers, demonstrating a greater adhesion for the low molecular mass combination of polyelectrolytes. Furthermore, die time in contact showed to be of importance, with increasing pull-off forces with contact time at maximum load. The SFA measurements were conducted under dry conditions, at 100% RH, and under wet conditions for PEMs adsorbed at pH 7.5/3.5. The SFA adhesion measurements showed that under dry conditions, the adhesive forces between two high energetic mica substrates were lowered when they were covered by PEMs before the measurements. The thickness of the adsorbed layers was also measured using SFA. This showed that there was a significant swelling when the dry layers were exposed to 100% RH or to wet conditions. The swelling was higher, indicating a less rigid layer, when PAH was adsorbed in the outermost layer than when the PEM was capped with PAA.

  • 14.
    Kessler, Amanda
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    McCarrick, Sarah
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Adsorption of Horseradish Peroxidase on Metallic Nanoparticles: Effects on Reactive Oxygen Species Detection Using 2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescin Diacetate2021In: Chemical Research in Toxicology, ISSN 0893-228X, E-ISSN 1520-5010, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1481-1495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluorescent probe 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) together with the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is widely used in nanotoxicology to study acellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from nanoparticles (NPs). This study examined whether HRP adsorbs onto NPs of Mn, Ni, and Cu and if this surface process influences the extent of metal release and hence the ROS production measurements using the DCFH assay in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), saline, or Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). Adsorption of HRP was evident onto all NPs and conditions, except for Mn NPs in PBS. The presence of HRP resulted in an increased release of copper from the Cu NPs in PBS and reduced levels of nickel from the Ni NPs in saline. Both metal ions in solution and the adsorption of HRP onto the NPs can change the activity of HRP and thus influence the ROS results. The effect of HRP on the NP reactivity was shown to be solution chemistry dependent. Most notable was the evident affinity/adsorption of phosphate toward the metal NPs, followed by a reduced adsorption of HRP, the concomitant reduction in released manganese from the Mn NPs, and increased levels of released metals from the Cu NPs in PBS. Minor effects were observed for the Ni NPs. The solution pH should be monitored since the release of metals can change the solution pH and the activity of HRP is known to be pH-dependent. It is furthermore essential that solution pH adjustments are made following the addition of NaOH during diacetyl removal of DCFH-DA. Even though not observed for the given exposure conditions of this study, released metal ions could possibly induce agglomeration or partial denaturation of HRP, which in turn could result in steric hindrance for H2O2 to reach the active site of HRP. This study further emphasizes the influence of HRP on the background kinetics, its solution dependence, and effects on measured ROS signals. Different ways of correcting for the background are highlighted, as this can result in different interpretations of generated results. The results show that adsorption of HRP onto the metal NPs influenced the extent of metal release and may, depending on the investigated system, result in either under- or overestimated ROS signals if used together with the DCFH assay. HRP should hence be used with caution when measuring ROS in the presence of reactive metallic NPs. © 2021 The Authors. 

  • 15.
    Khort, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; National University of Science and Technology, Russia.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Western University, Canada.
    Mei, Nanxuan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Romanovski, Valentin
    National University of Science and Technology, Russia; National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Belarus.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Karolinska Insitute, Sweden.
    Corrosion and transformation of solution combustion synthesized Co, Ni and CoNi nanoparticles in synthetic freshwater with and without natural organic matter2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 7860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pure metallic Co, Ni, and their bimetallic compositions of Co3Ni, CoNi, and CoNi3 nanomaterials were prepared by solution combustion synthesis. Microstructure, phase composition, and crystalline structure of these nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized along with studies of their corrosion and dissolution properties in synthetic freshwater with and without natural organic matter (NOM). The nanomaterials consisted of aggregates of fine NPs (3–30 nm) of almost pure metallic and bimetallic crystal phases with a thin surface oxide covered by a thin carbon shell. The nanomaterials were characterized by BET surface areas ranging from ~ 1 to 8 m2/g for the Ni and Co NPs, to 22.93 m2/g, 14.86 m2/g, and 10.53 m2/g for the Co3Ni, CoNi, CoNi3 NPs, respectively. More Co and Ni were released from the bimetallic NPs compared with the pure metals although their corrosion current densities were lower. In contrast to findings for the pure metal NPs, the presence of NOM increased the release of Co and Ni from the bimetallic NPs in freshwater compared to freshwater only even though its presence reduced the corrosion rate (current density). It was shown that the properties of the bimetallic nanomaterials were influenced by multiple factors such as their composition, including carbon shell, type of surface oxides, and the entropy of mixing. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 16. Lundin, Maria
    et al.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Tilton, Robert D
    Polymer dynamics in layer-by-layer assemblies of Chitosan and Heparin2010In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 3242-3251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The layer-by-layer deposition method has been used to build a multilayer thin film with two polysaccharides, chitosan CH(weak polycation) and heparin HEP (strong polyanion), on planar quartz surfaces. The film structure and dynamics in aqueous solution were studied with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). Particular emphasis was placed on the effect of deposition conditions, i.e., pH and salt concentration, on the out-of-plane (vertical) diffusion of fluorescence labeled chitosan in the chitosan/heparin (CH/HEP) film. FRET analysis showed that CH molecules diffused within the film with a diffusion coefficient that was not significantly sensitive to the deposition pH and solution ionic strength. A pH-sensitive label bound to CH embedded within the CH/HEP film was sensitive to the charge of the outermost polymer layer even when buried under 14 alternate layers of CH and HEP. A consideration of the results obtained with both fluorescence techniques showed that the structure of the CH/HEP thin film was highly interpenetrated without clear boundaries between each layer. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the previously observed exponential-like film growth of CH and HEP in terms of layer thickness and deposited amount versus deposition cycle can be attributed to out-of-plane diffusion of CH molecules in the multilayer.

  • 17. Lundin, Maria
    et al.
    Elofsson, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Adsorption of lysozyme, beta-casein and their layer-by-layer formation on hydrophilic surfaces: Effect of ionic strength2010In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorbed amount and layer structure of lysozyme, _x0002_-casein and mixed layers of the two proteins were studied on hydrophilic silica and quartz surfaces using the following techniques: ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). Particular emphasis was put on the effect of solution ionic strength on the layer formation. Both lysozyme and _x0002_-casein showed a higher affinity for the silica surface when adsorbed from a solution of low ionic strength even though _x0002_-casein and silica are negatively charged at the pH used. No _x0002_-casein remained adsorbed after rinsing with a 150mMbuffer solution. The adsorbed amount of lysozyme on silica exceeded a monolayer coverage irrespective of the solution conditions and displayed a rigid structure. _x0002_-Casein forms more than a single layer on pre-adsorbed lysozyme; an inner flat layer and an outer layer with an extended structure, which largely desorbs on rinsing. The build-up through sequential adsorption of lysozyme and _x0002_-casein is favoured at intermediate and high ionic strength. The total adsorbed amount increased slightly with each deposition cycle and the mixed lysozyme/_x0002_-casein layers contain higher amounts of protein compared to those of pure lysozyme or _x0002_-casein. Sequential adsorption gives rise to a proteinaceous layer consisting of both lysozyme and _x0002_-casein. The protein layers are probably highly interpenetrated with no clear separation between them.

  • 18.
    Lundin, Maria
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Solaqa, Faten
    Thormann, Esben
    Macakova, Lubica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Layer-by-layer assemblies of chitosan and heparin: effect of ionic strength and pH2011In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 7537-7548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of polysaccharide multilayers consisting of positively charged chitosan (CH) and negatively charged heparin (HEP) was monitored in situ by employing a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) and dual-polarization interferometry (DPI). The main focus was on how the physicochemical properties of the solution affect the growth and structure of the resulting multilayer film These results showed that when increasing the ionic strength of the polysaccharide solutions at a fixed pH, both the "dry" (optical) (DPI) mass and wet (QCM) mass of the adsorbed multilayer film increased. The same effect was found when increasing the pH while keeping the ionic strength constant. Furthermore, the growth of multilayers showed an exponential-like behavior independent of the solution conditions that were used in this study. It was also established that chitosan was the predominant species present in the chitosan heparin multilayer film. We discuss the viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed layers and their variation during the multilayer buildup. Interestingly and contrary to common interpretation of the QCM-D results, we found that under one particular solution condition (pH 4.2 and 30 mM NaCl) the increase in the dissipation of oscillation energy from the adsorbed layer was a consequence of layer stiffening rather than indicating a more hydrated and viscous film. On the basis of the widely used Voigt viscoelastic model for an adsorbed layer, we show that it is the film viscosity and shear that define the layer viscoelasticity (structure) of the film and not the absolute value of energy dissipation, which in fact can be very misleading.

  • 19.
    McCarrick, Sarah
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Cappellini, Francesca
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Kessler, Amanda
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Moelijker, Nynke
    Toxys, Netherlands.
    Derr, Remco
    Toxys, Netherlands.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wold, Susanna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hendriks, Giel
    Toxys, Netherlands.
    Karlsson, Hanna L
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    ToxTracker Reporter Cell Lines as a Tool for Mechanism-Based (geno)Toxicity Screening of Nanoparticles-Metals, Oxides and Quantum Dots.2020In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 10, no 1, article id E110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of nanoparticles (NPs) requires efficient testing of their potential toxic effects. A promising approach is to use reporter cell lines to quickly assess the activation of cellular stress response pathways. This study aimed to use the ToxTracker reporter cell lines to investigate (geno)toxicity of various metal- or metal oxide NPs and draw general conclusions on NP-induced effects, in combination with our previous findings. The NPs tested in this study (n = 18) also included quantum dots (QDs) in different sizes. The results showed a large variation in cytotoxicity of the NPs tested. Furthermore, whereas many induced oxidative stress only few activated reporters related to DNA damage. NPs of manganese (Mn and Mn3O4) induced the most remarkable ToxTracker response with activation of reporters for oxidative stress, DNA damage, protein unfolding and p53-related stress. The QDs (CdTe) were highly toxic showing clearly size-dependent effects and calculations suggest surface area as the most relevant dose metric. Of all NPs investigated in this and previous studies the following induce the DNA damage reporter; CuO, Co, CoO, CdTe QDs, Mn, Mn3O4, V2O5, and welding NPs. We suggest that these NPs are of particular concern when considering genotoxicity induced by metal- and metal oxide NPs.

  • 20.
    Mei, N.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, I.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of Biocorona Formation on the Transformation and Dissolution of Cobalt Nanoparticles under Physiological Conditions2019In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cobalt (Co) nanoparticles (NPs) are produced in different applications and unintentionally generated at several occupational and traffic settings. Their diffuse dispersion may lead to interactions with humans and aquatic organisms via different exposure routes that include their transformation/dissolution in biological media. This paper has investigated the particle stability and reactivity of Co NPs (dispersed by sonication prior to exposure) interacting with selected individual biomolecules (amino acids, polypeptides, and proteins) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). No or minor adsorption of amino acids (glutamine, glutamic acid, lysine, and cysteine) was observed on the Co NPs, independent of the functional group and charge. Instead, phosphate adsorption resulted in the formation of a surface layer (a corona) of Co phosphate. The adsorption of larger biomolecules (polyglutamic acid, polylysine, lysozyme, and mucin) was evident in parallel with the formation of Co phosphate. The dissolution of the Co NPs was rapid as 35-55% of the particle mass was dissolved within the first hour of exposure. The larger biomolecules suppressed the dissolution initially compared to exposure in PBS only, whereas the dissolution was essentially unaffected by the presence of amino acids, with cysteine as an exception. The formation of Co phosphate on the NP surface reduced the protective properties of the surface oxide of the Co NPs, as seen from the increased levels of the released Co when compared with the nonphosphate-containing saline. The results underline the diversity of possible outcomes with respect to surface characteristics and dissolution of Co NPs in biological media and emphasize the importance of surface interactions with phosphate on the NP characteristics and reactivity.

  • 21.
    Mei, Nanxuan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekvall, Mikael T.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kelpsiene, Egle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Cedervall, Tommy
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Transfer of Cobalt Nanoparticles in a Simplified Food Web: From Algae to Zooplankton to Fish2021In: Applied nano, E-ISSN 2673-3501, Vol. 2, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cobalt (Co) nanoparticles (NPs) may be diffusely dispersed into natural ecosystems from various anthropogenic sources such as traffic settings and eventually end up in aquatic systems. As environmentally dispersed Co NPs may be transferred through an aquatic food web, this study investigated this transfer from algae (Scendesmus sp.) to zooplankton (Daphnia magna) to fish (Crucian carp, Carassius carassius). Effects of interactions between naturally excreted biomolecules from D. magna and Co NPs were investigated from an environmental fate perspective. ATR-FTIR measurements showed the adsorption of both algae constituents and excreted biomolecules onto the Co NPs. Less than 5% of the Co NPs formed heteroagglomerates with algae, partly an effect of both agglomeration and settling of the Co NPs. The presence of excreted biomolecules in the solution did not affect the extent of heteroagglomeration. Despite the low extent of heteroagglomeration between Co NPs and algae, the Co NPs were transferred to the next trophic level (D. magna). The Co uptake in D. magna was 300 times larger than the control samples (without Co NP), which were not influenced by the addition of excreted biomolecules to the solution. Significant uptake of Co was observed in the intestine of the fish feeding on D. magna containing Co NPs. No bioaccumulation of Co was observed in the fish. Moreover, 10–20% of the transferred Co NP mass was dissolved after 24 h in the simulated gut solution of the zooplankton (pH 7), and 50–60% was dissolved in the simulated gut solution of the fish (pH 4). The results elucidate that Co NPs gain different properties upon trophic transfer in the food web. Risk assessments should hence be conducted on transformed and weathered NPs rather than on pristine particles.

  • 22.
    Partanen, Riitta
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Forssell, Pirkko M.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Mackie, Alan R.
    Institute of Food Research, United Kingdom.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Interfacial cross-linking of β-casein changes the structure of the adsorbed layer2013In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 271-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism of transglutaminase-induced cross-linking of interfacial β-casein layer was investigated in tetradecane/buffer system. Monolayer studies were carried out in a Langmuir trough, where incubation with the enzyme mostly affected the compression of the film through adsorption of transglutaminase to the interface. Interfacial shear rheology was used to follow the kinetics of formation of a visco-elastic film upon cross-linking. Substrate concentration affected the rate of the interfacial cross-linking, when enzyme was dosed per protein concentration. This was most likely due to the saturated substrate layer at the interface in all cases. SDS-PAGE revealed that most of the β-casein at the interface was not cross-linked by intermolecular links, but rather, intramolecular links were formed. Finally, studies of adsorbed β-casein layers on polystyrene beads revealed that cross-linking reduced the thickness of the adsorption layer from 11-12 nm to 8-9 nm. These results suggest that it may be mainly intra-molecular cross-linking which modifies the physical interactions of β-caseins at the interface resulting in a higher layer density and thus, formation of a visco-elastic network.

  • 23.
    Pradhan, Sulena
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wold, Susanna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of sonication on particle dispersion, administered dose and metal release of non-functionalized, non-inert metal nanoparticles2016In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 18, no 9, article id 285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we elucidate the effect of different sonication techniques to efficiently prepare particle dispersions from selected non-functionalized NPs (Cu, Al, Mn, ZnO), and corresponding consequences on the particle dose, surface charge and release of metals. Probe sonication was shown to be the preferred method for dispersing non-inert, non-functionalized metal NPs (Cu, Mn, Al). However, rapid sedimentation during sonication resulted in differences between the real and the administered doses in the order of 30–80 % when sonicating in 1 and 2.56 g/L NP stock solutions. After sonication, extensive agglomeration of the metal NPs resulted in rapid sedimentation of all particles. DLVO calculations supported these findings, showing the strong van der Waals forces of the metal NPs to result in significant NP agglomeration. Metal release from the metal NPs was slightly increased by increased sonication. The addition of a stabilizing agent (bovine serum albumin) had an accelerating effect on the release of metals in sonicated solutions. For Cu and Mn NPs, the extent of particle dissolution increased from <1.6 to ~5 % after sonication for 15 min. A prolonged sonication time (3–15 min) had negligible effects on the zeta potential of the studied NPs. In all, it is shown that it is of utmost importance to carefully investigate how sonication influences the physico-chemical properties of dispersed metal NPs. This should be considered in nanotoxicology investigations of metal NPs. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

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  • 24.
    Pradhan, Sulena
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rosenqvist, Jörgen
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Caroline M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wold, Susanna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallinder, Inger O.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of humic acid and dihydroxy benzoic acid on the agglomeration, adsorption, sedimentation and dissolution of copper, manganese, aluminum and silica nanoparticles-A tentative exposure scenario2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0192553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on kinetic aspects of stability, mobility, and dissolution of bare Cu, Al and Mn, and SiO2 NPs in synthetic freshwater (FW) with and without the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). This includes elucidation of particle and surface interactions, metal dissolution kinetics, and speciation predictions of released metals in solution. Dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHBA) and humic acid adsorbed rapidly on all metal NPs (&lt;1 min) via multiple surface coordinations, followed in general by rapid agglomeration and concomitant sedimentation for a large fraction of the particles. In contrast, NOM did not induce agglomeration of the SiO2 NPs during the test duration (21 days). DHBA in concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM was unable to stabilize the metal NPs for time periods longer than 6 h, whereas humic acid, at certain concentrations (20 mg/L) was more efficient (&gt;24 h). The presence of NOM increased the amount of released metals into solution, in particular for Al and Cu, whereas the effect for Mn was minor. At least 10% of the particle mass was dissolved within 24 h and remained in solution for the metal NPs in the presence of NOM. Speciation modeling revealed that released Al and Cu predominantly formed complexes with NOM, whereas less complexation was seen for Mn. The results imply that potentially dispersed NPs of Cu, Al and Mn readily dissolve or sediment close to the source in freshwater of low salinity, whereas SiO2 NPs are more stable and therefore more mobile in solution. © 2018 Pradhan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 25.
    Skoglund, Sara
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallinder, Inger O.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Grillo, Isabelle
    Institut Laue Langevin, France.
    Pedersen, Jan S.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Bergström, L Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A novel explanation for the enhanced colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles in the presence of an oppositely charged surfactant2017In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 19, no 41, p. 28037-28043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural behavior in aqueous mixtures of negatively charged silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) together with the cationic surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), respectively, has been investigated using SANS and SAXS. From our SANS data analysis we are able to conclude that the surfactants self-assemble into micellar clusters surrounding the Ag NPs. We are able to quantify our results by means of fitting experimental SANS data with a model based on cluster formation of micelles with very good agreement. Based on our experimental results, we propose a novel mechanism for the stabilization of negatively charged Ag NPs in a solution of positively charged surfactants in which cluster formation of micelles in the vicinity of the particles prevents the particles from aggregating. Complementary SAXS and DLS measurements further support this novel way of explaining stabilization of small hydrophilic nanoparticles in surfactant-containing solutions.

  • 26.
    Skoglund, Sara
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yunda, Elena
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia.
    Godymchuk, Anna
    National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia; National University of Science and Technology, Russia.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Difficulties and flaws in performing accurate determinations of zeta potentials of metal nanoparticles in complex solutions - Four case studies2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 7, article id e0181735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The zeta potential (ZP) is a parameter commonly used to characterize metal nanoparticles (NPs) in solution. Such determinations are for example performed in nanotoxicology since the ZP influences e.g. the interaction between cells and different biomolecules. Four case studies on different metal NPs (Cu and Zn NPs, and citrate capped Ag NPs) are presented in this study in order to provide guidance on how to accurately interpret and report ZP data. Solutions of high ionic strength (150 mM NaCl) induce a higher extent of particle agglomeration (elucidated with Ag NPs) when compared with conditions in 10 mM NaCl, which further complicates the prediction of the ZP due to e.g. sedimentation and broadening of the zeta potential distribution. The particle size is seldom included specifically in the standard ways of determining ZP (Hückel and Smoluchowski approximations). However corrections are possible when considering approximations of the Henry function. This was seen to improve the analysis of NPs, since there are cases when both the Hückel and the Smulochowski approximations are invalid. In biomolecule-containing cell media (BEGM), the signal from e. g. proteins may interfere with the measured ZP of the NPs. The intensity distribution of the ZP of both the blank solution and the solution containing NPs should hence be presented in addition to the mean value. Due to an increased ionic strength for dissolving of metal NPs (exemplified by Zn NPs), the released metal ions must be considered when interpreting the zeta potential measurements. In this work the effect was however negligible, as the particle size was several hundred nm, conditions that made the Smoluchowski approximation valid despite an increased ionic strength. However, at low ionic strengths (mM range) and small-sized NPs (tens of nm), the effect of released metal ions can influence the choice of model for determining the zeta potential. Sonication of particle dispersions influences not only the extent of metal release but also the outermost surface oxide composition, which often results in an increased ZP. Surface compositional changes were illustrated for sonicated and non-sonicated Cu NPs. In all, it can be concluded that accurate measurements and interpretations are possible in most cases by collecting and reporting complementary data on characteristics such as particle size, ZP distributions, blank sample information, and particle oxide composition. © 2017, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

  • 27.
    Skoglund, Sara
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lowe, Troy A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Odnevall Walinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wold, Susanne
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundin, Maria
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of laundry surfactants on surface charge and colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles2013In: Langmuir, Vol. 29, no 28, p. 8882-8891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) potentially released from clothing during a laundry cycle and their interactions with laundry-relevant surfactants [anionic (LAS), cationic (DTAC), and nonionic (Berol)] have been investigated. Surface interactions between Ag NPs and surfactants influence their speciation and stability. In the absence of surfactants as well as in the presence of LAS, the negatively charged Ag NPs were stable in solution for more than 1 day. At low DTAC concentrations (≤1 mM), DTAC-Ag NP interactions resulted in charge neutralization and formation of agglomerates. The surface charge of the particles became positive at higher concentrations due to a bilayer type formation of DTAC that prevents from agglomeration due to repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged colloids. The adsorption of Berol was enhanced when above its critical micelle concentration (cmc). This resulted in a surface charge close to zero and subsequent agglomeration. Extended DLVO theory calculations were in compliance with observed findings. The stability of the Ag NPs was shown to depend on the charge and concentration of the adsorbed surfactants. Such knowledge is important as it may influence the subsequent transport of Ag NPs through different chemical transients and thus their potential bioavailability and toxicity.

  • 28.
    Wang, Xin
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Adsorption of lysozyme on silver and its influence on silver release2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 46, p. 13877-13889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silver is increasingly used in antimicrobial coatings of biomedical devices and implants to hinder infections. As proteins have been shown to largely influence the extent of released metals from various metal surfaces at biological conditions, silver may also be influenced in the same way. The aim of this study is to relate the structure of adsorbed lysozyme (LSZ) to the release of silver from metallic silver surfaces. Simultaneous adsorption measurements were performed in real time on the same surface using combined ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring measurements to provide a more comprehensive understanding on the adsorption kinetics and the layer structures. The concentration of LSZ in 0.15 M NaNO3 solution (pH 7, 25 °C) influences the structure of the adsorbed layer. Monolayer coverage is obtained at concentrations 0.1 g/L, while a bilayer structure with a rigid inner layer and a relatively loosely adsorbed outer layer is formed at 1 g/L. The inner layer of LSZ is assumed to bind firmly to silver via disulfide bridges, which makes it irreversibly adsorbed with respect to dilution. The amount of released silver is further influenced by the structure of the LSZ layer. At low LSZ concentrations (0.1 g/L) the amount of released silver is not significantly different compared with non-protein-containing NaNO3 solutions; however, noticeable reduction was observed at higher concentrations (1 g/L). This reduction in silver release has several possible explanations, including (i) surface complexation between LSZ and silver ions that may result in the incorporation of silver in the irreversible adsorbed layer and, hence, reduce the amount of released silver into solution, and (ii) net charge reversal at the protein/solution interface to slightly positive surface potentials. Any release of silver will therefore exhibit an electrostatic repulsion during transportation through the protein layer results in a reduced amount of silver in solution.

  • 29.
    Wang, Xuying
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Adsorption of bovine serum albumin on silver surfaces enhances the release of silver at pH neutral conditions2015In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 17, no 28, p. 18524-18534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallic biomaterials are widely used to replace and/or restore the function of damaged bodily parts. The use of silver as antibacterial coatings onto implants has recently gained large interest in medical applications. The extent of silver that can be released into different biological fluids from such coatings is, except for the surface characteristics of the coating, governed by parameters such as protein characteristics, adsorbed layer properties, formation of silver-protein complexes as well as concentrations of proteins in the solution. This study aims to relate the structure of adsorbed net negatively charged bovine serum albumin (BSA), which is the most abundant protein in serum, to the release of silver from metallic silver surfaces in order to elucidate if the net charge of the protein has any effect of the silver release. Simultaneous adsorption measurements were performed in real time on the very same surface using combined ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measurements to provide a more comprehensive understanding on adsorption kinetics and layer structures. The amount of released silver into solution was measured by means of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The structure of the adsorbed BSA layer largely influenced the amount of released silver, an enhancement that increased with BSA concentration. These observations are in complete contrast to the effect of net positively charged lysozyme (LSZ) adsorbed on silver, previously studied by the authors, for which a complete surface coverage suppressed the possibility for silver release. The underlying mechanisms behind the enhanced release of silver in the presence of BSA were mainly attributed to surface complexation between BSA and silver followed by an enhanced exchange rate of these surface complexes with BSA molecules in the solution, which in turn increase the amount of released silver in solution.

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