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  • 1.
    Andersson, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fahlström, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB. University West, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Experiments and efficient simulations of distortions of laser beam–welded thin-sheet close beam steel structures2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, ISSN 0954-4054, E-ISSN 2041-2975, Vol. 233, no 3, p. 787-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, geometrical distortions of steel structures due to laser beam welding were analyzed. Two 700-mm-long U-beam structures were welded in overlap configurations: a double U-beam structure and a U-beam/flat structure. The structures were in different material combinations from mild steel to ultrahigh-strength steel welded with different process parameters. Different measures of distortions of the U-beam structures were evaluated after cooling. Significant factors of the welding process and the geometry of the structures were identified. Furthermore, welding distortions were modeled using two predictive finite element simulation models. The previously known shrinkage method and a newly developed time-efficient simulation method were evaluated. The new model describes the effects of expansion and shrinkage of the weld zone during welding and material plasticity at elevated temperatures. The new simulation method has reasonable computation times for industrial applications and improved agreement with experiments compared to the often used so-called shrinkage method.

  • 2.
    Fahlström, Karl
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. University West, Sweden.
    Andersson, O.
    Volvo Cars, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Melander, A.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Karlsson, L.
    University West, Sweden.
    Svensson, L. -E
    University West, Sweden.
    Correlation between laser welding sequence and distortions for thin sheet structures2017In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 150-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin ultra-high strength steel shaped as 700 mm long U-beams have been laser welded in overlap configuration to study the influence of welding sequence on distortions. Three different welding directions, three different energy inputs as well as stitch welding have been evaluated, using resistance spot welding (RSW) as a reference. Transverse widening at the ends and narrowing at the centre of the beam were measured. A clear correlation was found between the weld metal volume and distortion. For continuous welds there was also a nearly linear relationship between the energy input and distortion. However, the amount of distortion was not affected by a change in welding direction. Stitching and RSW reduced distortion significantly compared to continuous laser welding.

  • 3.
    Torkamany, Mohammad Javad
    et al.
    Tarbiat Modares University, Iran; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kaplan, Alexander F. H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ghaini, F. Malek
    Tarbiat Modares University, Iran.
    Vänskä, Mikko
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Salminen, Antti
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Fahlström, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Hedegård, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Wire deposition by a laser-induced boiling front2015In: Optics and Laser Technology, ISSN 0030-3992, E-ISSN 1879-2545, Vol. 69, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In laser materials processing the addition of material by wire is an option for techniques like laser welding, laser cladding or rapid prototyping. The stability of the wire deposition is strongly dependent on the wire interaction with the laser beam. For leading position wire feeding, high speed imaging was applied to study the melt transfer from the wire tip to the workpiece during keyhole welding. The observations revealed that a very stable concave processing front forms at the wire tip. A boiling front is established as an extension of the keyhole and the melt film at the front is sheared downwards by the ablation pressure of boiling. The deposition of the molten wire into the weld zone is smooth and controllable. Various wire front geometries and melt transitions are compared for different parameters. The option of laterally oscillating the laser beam is investigated and the interaction mechanism involved is discussed. Wire deposition by inducing a boiling front is explained here for the first time, which should promote future applications use of this very promising technique.

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