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  • 1.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Boda, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Posset, Uwe
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Schott, Marco
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Reflective and Complementary Transmissive All-Printed Electrochromic Displays Based on Prussian Blue2023Ingår i: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 25, nr 6, artikel-id 2201299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining the electrochromic (EC) properties of Prussian blue (PB) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), complementary EC displays manufactured by slot-die coating and screen printing on flexible plastic substrates are reported. Various display designs have been realized, resulting in displays operating in either transmissive or reflective mode. For the transmission mode displays, the color contrast is enhanced by the complementary switching of the two EC electrodes PB and PEDOT:PSS. Both electrodes are either exhibiting a concurrent colorless or blue appearance. For the displays operating in reflection mode, a white opaque electrolyte is used in conjunction with the EC properties of PB, resulting in a display device switching between a fully white state and a blue-colored state. The developments of the different device architectures, that either operate in reflection or transmission mode, demonstrate a scalable manufacturing approach of all-printed EC displays that may be used in a large variety of Internet of Things applications. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 2.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Aulin, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Nevo, Yuval
    Melodea Ltd, Israel.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Electrochromic Displays Screen Printed on Transparent Nanocellulose-Based Substrates2023Ingår i: Advanced Photonics Research, ISSN 2699-9293, artikel-id 2200012Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing of electronic devices via printing techniques is often considered to be an environmentally friendly approach, partially due to the efficient utilization of materials. Traditionally, printed electronic components (e.g., sensors, transistors, and displays) are relying on flexible substrates based on plastic materials; this is especially true in electronic display applications where, most of the times, a transparent carrier is required in order to enable presentation of the display content. However, plastic-based substrates are often ruled out in end user scenarios striving toward sustainability. Paper substrates based on ordinary cellulose fibers can potentially replace plastic substrates, but the opaqueness limits the range of applications where they can be used. Herein, electrochromic displays that are manufactured, via screen printing, directly on state-of-the-art fully transparent substrates based on nanocellulose are presented. Several different nanocellulose-based substrates, based on either nanofibrillated or nanocrystalline cellulose, are manufactured and evaluated as substrates for the manufacturing of electrochromic displays, and the optical and electrical switching performances of the resulting display devices are reported and compared. The reported devices do not require the use of metals and/or transparent conductive oxides, thereby providing a sustainable all-printed electrochromic display technology.

  • 3.
    Belaineh Yilma, Dagmawi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Sani, Negar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Say, Mehmet
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Karl MO
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Printable carbon-based supercapacitors reinforced with cellulose and conductive polymers2022Ingår i: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 50, artikel-id 104224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable electrical energy storage is one of the most important scientific endeavors of this century. Battery and supercapacitor technologies are here crucial, but typically the current state of the art suffers from either lack of large-scale production possibilities, sustainability or insufficient performance and hence cannot match growing demands in society. Paper and cellulosic materials are mature scalable templates for industrial roll-to-roll production. Organic materials, such as conducting polymers, and carbon derivatives are materials that can be synthesized or derived from abundant sources. Here, we report the combination of cellulose, PEDOT:PSS and carbon derivatives for bulk supercapacitor electrodes adapted for printed electronics. Cellulose provides a mesoscopic mesh for the organization of the active ingredients. Furthermore, the PEDOT:PSS in combination with carbon provides superior device characteristics when comparing to the previously standard combination of activated carbon and carbon black. PEDOT:PSS acts as a mixed ion-electron conducting glue, which physically binds activated carbon particles together, while at the same time facilitating swift transport of both electrons and ions. A surprisingly small amount (10%) of PEDOT:PSS is needed to achieve an optimal performance. This work shows that cellulose added to PEDOT:PSS-carbon enables high-performing, mechanically stable, printed supercapacitor electrodes using a combination of printing methods.

  • 4.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Greyscale and paper electrochromic polymer displays by UV patterning2019Ingår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikel-id 267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic devices have important implications as smart windows for energy efficient buildings, internet of things devices, and in low-cost advertising applications. While inorganics have so far dominated the market, organic conductive polymers possess certain advantages such as high throughput and low temperature processing, faster switching, and superior optical memory. Here, we present organic electrochromic devices that can switch between two high-resolution images, based on UV-patterning and vapor phase polymerization of poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) films. We demonstrate that this technique can provide switchable greyscale images through the spatial control of a UV-light dose. The color space was able to be further altered via optimization of the oxidant concentration. Finally, we utilized a UV-patterning technique to produce functional paper with electrochromic patterns deposited on porous paper, allowing for environmentally friendly electrochromic displays.

  • 5.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Isacsson, Patrik
    Linköping University, Sweden; Ahlstrom Group Innovation, France.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Paper Electronics Utilizing Screen Printing and Vapor Phase Polymerization2023Ingår i: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 7, nr 7, artikel-id 2300058Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of paper electronics has been accelerated due to the public push for sustainability. Electronic waste can potentially be avoided if certain materials in electronic components can be substituted for greener alternatives such as paper. Within this report, it is demonstrated that conductive polymers poly(3,4-ethylenedoxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole, and polythiophene, can be synthesized by screen printing combined with vapor phase polymerization on paper substrates and further incorporated into functional electronic components. High patterning resolution (100 µm) is achieved for all conductive polymers, with PEDOT showing impressive sheet resistance values. PEDOT is incorporated as conductive circuitry and as the active material in all-printed electrochromic displays. The conductive polymer circuits allow for functional light emitting diodes, while the electrochromic displays are comparable to commercial displays utilizing PEDOT on plastic substrates. 

  • 6.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Say, Mehmet
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Grimoldi, Andrea
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköpings University, Sweden.
    Supercapacitors on demand: All-printed energy storage devices with adaptable design2019Ingår i: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikel-id 015006Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands on the storage of energy have increased for many reasons, in part driven by household photovoltaics, electric grid balancing, along with portable and wearable electronics. These are fast-growing and differentiated applications that need large volume and/or highly distributed electrical energy storage, which then requires environmentally friendly, scalable and flexible materials and manufacturing techniques. However, the limitations on current inorganic technologies have driven research efforts to explore organic and carbon-based alternatives. Here, we report a conducting polymer:cellulose composite that serves as the active material in supercapacitors which has been incorporated into all-printed energy storage devices. These devices exhibit a specific capacitance of ≈90 F g -1 and an excellent cyclability (>10 000 cycles). Further, a design concept coined 'supercapacitors on demand' is presented, which is based on a printing-cutting-folding procedure, that provides us with a flexible production protocol to manufacture supercapacitors with adaptable configuration and electrical characteristics.

  • 7.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Borras, M.
    LEITAT Technological Center, Spain.
    Belaineh Yilma, Dagmawi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Martinez-Crespiera, S.
    LEITAT Technological Center, Spain.
    Aulin, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Nanocellulose based carbon ink and its application in electrochromic displays and supercapacitors2021Ingår i: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 6, nr 4, artikel-id 045011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional electronics have been highlighted as a very unsustainable technology; hazardous wastes are produced both during their manufacturing but also, due to their limited recyclability, during their end of life cycle (e.g. disposal in landfill). In recent years additive manufacturing processes (i.e. screen printing) have attracted significant interest as a more sustainable approach to electronic manufacturing (printed electronics). Despite the field of printed electronics addressing some of the issues related to the manufacturing of electronics, many components and inks are still considered hazardous to the environment and are difficult to recycle. Here we present the development of a low environmental impact carbon ink based on a non-hazardous solvent and a cellulosic matrix (nanocellulose) and its implementation in electrochromic displays (ECDs) and supercapacitors. As part of the reported work, a different protocol for mixing carbon and cellulose nanofibrils (rotation mixing and high shear force mixing), nanocellulose of different grades and different carbon: nanocellulose ratios were investigated and optimized. The rheology profiles of the different inks showed good shear thinning properties, demonstrating their suitability for screen-printing technology. The printability of the developed inks was excellent and in line with those of reference commercial carbon inks. Despite the lower electrical conductivity (400 S m-1 for the developed carbon ink compared to 1000 S m-1 for the commercial inks), which may be explained by their difference in composition (carbon content, density and carbon derived nature) compared to the commercial carbon, the developed ink functioned adequately as the counter electrode in all screen-printed ECDs and even allowed for improved supercapacitors compared to those utilizing commercial carbon inks. In this sense, the supercapacitors incorporating the developed carbon ink in the current collector layer had an average capacitance = 97.4 mF cm-2 compared to the commercial carbon ink average capacitance = 61.6 mF cm-2. The ink development reported herein provides a step towards more sustainable printed green electronics. © 2021 The Author(s).

  • 8.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    All-Printed Electrochromic Stickers2023Ingår i: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 308, nr 9, artikel-id 2300044Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Displays are one of the most mature technologies in the field of printed electronics. Their ability to be manufactured in large quantities and at low cost has led to their recent uptake into the consumer market. Within this article this technology is extended to electrochromic display stickers. This is achieved using a recent reverse display architecture screen printed on textile and paper sticker substrates. The electrochromic stickers are comparable to plastic control substrates and show little performance difference even when adhered to curved surfaces. The electrochromic display technology is extended to sticker labels for authentication applications by patterning either the dielectric or the graphical layer. A proof-of-concept prototype emulating a wax seal on an envelope is presented to show that other colors can be implemented in this technology. © 2023 The Authors.

  • 9.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Lay, M
    Linköping University, Sweden; Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Germany.
    Jain, K
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Francon, H
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Say, Mehmet
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Belaineh Yilma, Dagmawi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Wang, Xin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Wågberg, L
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Engquist, I
    Linköping University, Sweden; .
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Berggren, M
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nanocellulose and PEDOT:PSS composites and their applications2023Ingår i: Polymer Reviews, ISSN 1558-3724, nr 2, s. 437-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for achieving sustainable technologies has encouraged research on renewable and biodegradable materials for novel products that are clean, green, and environmentally friendly. Nanocellulose (NC) has many attractive properties such as high mechanical strength and flexibility, large specific surface area, in addition to possessing good wet stability and resistance to tough chemical environments. NC has also been shown to easily integrate with other materials to form composites. By combining it with conductive and electroactive materials, many of the advantageous properties of NC can be transferred to the resulting composites. Conductive polymers, in particular poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), have been successfully combined with cellulose derivatives where suspensions of NC particles and colloids of PEDOT:PSS are made to interact at a molecular level. Alternatively, different polymerization techniques have been used to coat the cellulose fibrils. When processed in liquid form, the resulting mixture can be used as a conductive ink. This review outlines the preparation of NC/PEDOT:PSS composites and their fabrication in the form of electronic nanopapers, filaments, and conductive aerogels. We also discuss the molecular interaction between NC and PEDOT:PSS and the factors that affect the bonding properties. Finally, we address their potential applications in energy storage and harvesting, sensors, actuators, and bioelectronics. © 2022 The Author(s). 

  • 10.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Mitraka, Evangelie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sardar, Samim
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Infrared electrochromic conducting polymer devices2017Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 5, nr 23, s. 5824-5830Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is well known for its electrochromic properties in the visible region. Less focus has been devoted to the infrared (IR) wavelength range, although tunable IR properties could enable a wide range of novel applications. As an example, modern day vehicles have thermal cameras to identify pedestrians and animals in total darkness, but road and speed signs cannot be easily visualized by these imaging systems. IR electrochromism could enable a new generation of dynamic road signs that are compatible with thermal imaging, while simultaneously providing contrast also in the visible region. Here, we present the first metal-free flexible IR electrochromic devices, based on PEDOT:Tosylate as both the electrochromic material and electrodes. Lateral electrochromic devices enabled a detailed investigation of the IR electrochromism of thin PEDOT:Tosylate films, revealing large changes in their thermal signature, with effective temperature changes up to 10 °C between the oxidized (1.5 V) and reduced (-1.5 V) states of the polymer. Larger scale (7 × 7 cm) vertical electrochromic devices demonstrate practical suitability and showed effective temperature changes of approximately 7 °C, with good optical memory and fast switching (1.9 s from the oxidized state to the reduced state and 3.3 s for the reversed switching). The results are highly encouraging for using PEDOT:Tosylate for IR electrochromic applications.

  • 11.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Majee, Subimal
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Olsson, Oliver
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Aandres
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    All-Printed Multilayers and Blends of Poly(dioxythiophene) Derivatives Patterned into Flexible Electrochromic Displays2023Ingår i: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 308, nr 2, artikel-id 2200453Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-cost, flexible and thin display technology is becoming an interesting field of research as it can accompany the wide range of sensors being developed. Here, the synthesis of poly(dimethylpropylene-dioxythiophene) (PProDOT-Me2) by combining vapor phase polymerization and screen printing is presented. A multilayer architecture using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and PProDOT-Me2 to allow for electrochromic switching of PProDOT-Me2, thereby eliminating the need for a supporting transparent conductive (metal oxide) layer is introduced. Furthermore, the technology is adapted to a blended architecture, which removes the additional processing steps and results in improved color contrast (∆E* > 25). This blend architecture is extended to other conductive polymers, such as PEDOT and polypyrrole (PPy), to highlight the ability of the technique to adjust the color of all-printed electrochromic displays. As a result, a green color is obtained when combining the blue and yellow states of PEDOT and PPy, respectively. This technology has the potential to pave the way for all-printed multicolored electrochromic displays for further utilization in printed electronic systems in various Internet of Things applications. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 12.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Electrochromic Displays Manufactured by a Combination of Vapor Phase Polymerization and Screen Printing2022Ingår i: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, nr 8, artikel-id 2200054Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart label technology such as indicators is a growing field due to society's demand for Internet of Things devices. New materials and technologies are continuously being discovered and developed in order to provide better resolution, better performance, or more environmentally friendly devices. Within this report, screen printing technology is combined with vapor phase polymerization to synthesize three conductive polymers; poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy), and polythiophene (PTh). The conductive polymers are created in micrometer resolution and investigated for their electrochromic properties. PEDOT and PPy samples are combined into printed, laminated, transmissive electrochromic displays. The technology is further advanced to establish separate PEDOT, PPy, and PTh all-printed electrochromic displays using several screen printed layers. The PEDOT displays show improved color retention as compared to displays created with commercially available PEDOT:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) with comparable contrast and switching behavior. All-printed PPy and PTh electrochromic displays with impressive electrochromic behavior are demonstrated. More complex patterns of 7-segment displays are created, thereby highlighting flexibility and individually switched sections of the conductive polymers. This research extends the screen printing and vapor phase polymerization combination to other conductive polymers and the potential commercialization of multicolor electrochromic displays that has been otherwise dominated by monochromatic PEDOT:PSS. 

  • 13.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Hübscher, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Belaineh Yilma, Dagmawi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Combining Vapor Phase Polymerization and Screen Printing for Printed Electronics on Flexible Substrates2022Ingår i: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, nr 7, artikel-id 2101665Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large area manufacturing of printed electronic components on ~A4-sized substrates is demonstrated by the combination of screen printing and vapor phase polymerization (VPP) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The oxidant layer required for the polymerization process is screen printed, and the resulting conductive polymer patterns are manufactured at high resolution (100 µm). Successful processing of several common oxidant species is demonstrated, and the thickness can be adjusted by altering the polymerization time. By comparing the polymer films of this work to a commercial PEDOT:PSS (PEDOT doped with poly(styrene sulfonate)) screen printing ink shows improved surface roughness (26 vs 69 nm), higher conductivity (500 vs 100 S cm–1) and better resolution (100 vs 200 µm). Organic electrochemical transistors, in which the transistor channel is polymerized into PEDOT through VPP, are also demonstrated to further emphasize on the applicability of this manufacturing approach. The resulting transistor devices are not only functional, they also show remarkable switching behavior with respect to ON current levels (–70 mA at –1 V), ON/OFF ratios (>105), switching times (tens of ms) and transconductance values (>100 mS) in standalone transistor devices, in addition to a high amplification factor (>30) upon integration into a screen printed inverter circuit. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 14.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Hübscher, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Hagel, Olle
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Large-scale paper supercapacitors on demand2022Ingår i: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 50, artikel-id 104191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clean, sustainable electrical energy could be the next greatest challenge and opportunity of mankind. While the creation of clean energy has been proven, the storage of such energy requires much more research and development. Battery and energy storage technology today relies heavily on rare metals which cannot support large production needs of society. Therefore, the need for energy storage technology to be created sustainably is of great importance. Recently, conductive polymers, a class of organic materials, have shown impressive results in energy storage but requires further development if this technology is to be implemented in various energy storage applications. Here, we report a new ‘on demand’ design for supercapacitors that allows for individual devices in addition to devices in parallel and in series to increase the capacitance and voltage, respectively. The individual device showed impressive capacity up to 10 F while increasing the area with the large parallel device increased the capacitance to a record 127.8 F (332.8 mF/cm2). The ‘on demand’ design also allows paper supercapacitors to be in series to increase the operating voltage with an example device showing good charging behavior up to 5 V when 4 individual paper supercapacitors were arranged in series. Finally, the paper supercapacitors were incorporated into a prototype titled: ‘Norrkoping Starry Night’ which bridges the gap between art and science. An all-printed electrochromic display showing the city of Norrkoping, Sweden, complete with a touch sensor as an on/off switch and silicon solar cells to charge the paper supercapacitors is presented to bring several printed technologies together, highlighting the possibilities of the new paper supercapacitors within this report. © 2022

  • 15.
    Che, C.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Vagin, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ail, U.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gueskine, V.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Phopase, J.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Gabrielsson, R.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, M. P.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Mak, W. C.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, X.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Twinning Lignosulfonate with a Conducting Polymer via Counter-Ion Exchange for Large-Scale Electrical Storage2019Ingår i: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 3, nr 9, artikel-id 1900039Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignosulfonate (LS) is a large-scale surplus product of the forest and paper industries, and has primarily been utilized as a low-cost plasticizer in making concrete for the construction industry. LS is an anionic redox-active polyelectrolyte and is a promising candidate to boost the charge capacity of the positive electrode (positrode) in redox-supercapacitors. Here, the physical-chemical investigation of how this biopolymer incorporates into the conducting polymer PEDOT matrix, of the positrode, by means of counter-ion exchange is reported. Upon successful incorporation, an optimal access to redox moieties is achieved, which provides a 63% increase of the resulting stored electrical charge by reversible redox interconversion. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and concentrations, of included components, on the polymer–polymer interactions are optimized to exploit the biopolymer-associated redox currents. Further, the explored LS-conducting polymer incorporation strategy, via aqueous synthesis, is evaluated in an up-scaling effort toward large-scale electrical energy storage technology. By using an up-scaled production protocol, integration of the biopolymer within the conducting polymer matrix by counter-ion exchange is confirmed and the PEDOT-LS synthesized through optimized strategy reaches an improved charge capacity of 44.6 mAh g−1. 

  • 16.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kühne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Knight, Sean
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln, US.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Sweden; University of Nebraska-Lincoln, US; Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    On the anomalous optical conductivity dispersion of electrically conducting polymers: Ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry combined with a Drude-Lorentz model2019Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, nr 15, s. 4350-4362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) are becoming increasingly important in areas such as optoelectronics, biomedical devices, and energy systems. Still, their detailed charge transport properties produce an anomalous optical conductivity dispersion that is not yet fully understood in terms of physical model equations for the broad range optical response. Several modifications to the classical Drude model have been proposed to account for a strong non-Drude behavior from terahertz (THz) to infrared (IR) ranges, typically by implementing negative amplitude oscillator functions to the model dielectric function that effectively reduce the conductivity in those ranges. Here we present an alternative description that modifies the Drude model via addition of positive-amplitude Lorentz oscillator functions. We evaluate this so-called Drude-Lorentz (DL) model based on the first ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry study of ECPs, spanning over four orders of magnitude: from 0.41 meV in the THz range to 5.90 eV in the ultraviolet range, using thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:Tos) as a model system. The model could accurately fit the experimental data in the whole ultrawide spectral range and provide the complex anisotropic optical conductivity of the material. Examining the resonance frequencies and widths of the Lorentz oscillators reveals that both spectrally narrow vibrational resonances and broader resonances due to localization processes contribute significantly to the deviation from the Drude optical conductivity dispersion. As verified by independent electrical measurements, the DL model accurately determines the electrical properties of the thin film, including DC conductivity, charge density, and (anisotropic) mobility. The ellipsometric method combined with the DL model may thereby become an effective and reliable tool in determining both optical and electrical properties of ECPs, indicating its future potential as a contact-free alternative to traditional electrical characterization.

  • 17.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Spampinato, Nicoletta
    University Bordeaux, France.
    Kuang, Chaoyang
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Kang, Evan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Pavlopoulou, Eleni
    University Bordeaux, France.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Unraveling vertical inhomogeneity in vapour phase polymerized PEDOT:Tos films2020Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 8, nr 36, s. 18726-18734Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) forms a promising alternative to conventional inorganic conductors, where deposition of thin filmsviavapour phase polymerization (VPP) has gained particular interest owing to high electrical conductivity within the plane of the film. The conductivity perpendicular to the film is typically much lower, which may be related not only to preferential alignment of PEDOT crystallites but also to vertical stratification across the film. In this study, we reveal non-linear vertical microstructural variations across VPP PEDOT:Tos thin films, as well as significant differences in doping level between the top and bottom surfaces. The results are consistent with a VPP mechanism based on diffusion-limited transport of polymerization precursors. Conducting polymer films with vertical inhomogeneity may find applications in gradient-index optics, functionally graded thermoelectrics, and optoelectronic devices requiring gradient doping. 

  • 18.
    Edberg, Jesper
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Boda, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Mulla, Yusuf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Pantzare, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Economou, Konstantin
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Armgarth, Astrid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    A Paper‐Based Triboelectric Touch Interface: Toward Fully Green and Recyclable Internet of Things2023Ingår i: Advanced Sensor Research, Vol. 2, nr 1, artikel-id 2200015Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a sustainable society is driving the development of green electronic solutions designed to have a minimal environmental impact. One promising route to achieve this goal is to construct electronics from biobased materials like cellulose, which is carbon neutral, non‐toxic, and recyclable. This is especially true for internet‐of‐things devices, which are rapidly growing in number and are becoming embedded in every aspect of our lives. Here, paper‐based sensor circuits are demonstrated, which use triboelectric pressure sensors to help elderly people communicate with the digital world using an interface in the form of an electronic “book”, which is more intuitive to them. The sensors are manufactured by screen printing onto flexible paper substrates, using in‐house developed cellulose‐based inks with non‐hazardous solvents. The triboelectric sensor signal, generated by the contact between a finger and chemically modified cellulose, can reach several volts, which can be registered by a portable microcontroller card and transmitted by Bluetooth to any device with an internet connection. Apart from the microcontroller (which can be easily removed), the whole system can be recycled at the end of life. A triboelectric touch interface, manufactured using printed electronics on flexible paper substrates, using cellulose‐based functional inks is demonstrated. These metal‐free green electronics circuits are implemented in an “electronic book” demonstrator, equipped with wireless communication that can control remote devices, as a step toward sustainable and recyclable internet‐of‐things devices.

  • 19.
    Edberg, Jesper
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, Papperstillverkning och förpackningar.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Improving the Performance of Paper Supercapacitors Using Redox Molecules from Plants2019Ingår i: Advanced Sustainable Systems, Vol. 3, nr 8, artikel-id 1900050Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A supercapacitor made from organic and nature‐based materials, such as conductive polymers (PEDOT:PSS), nanocellulose, and an the organic dye molecule (alizarin), is demonstrated. The dye molecule, which historically was extracted from the roots of the plant rubia tinctorum, is here responsible for the improvement in energy storage capacity, while the conductive polymer provides bulk charge transport within the composite electrode. The forest‐based nanocellulose component provides a mechanically strong and nonporous network onto which the conductive polymer self‐organizes. The electrical and electrochemical properties of the material composition are investigated and prototype redox‐enhanced supercapacitor devices with excellent specific capacitance exceeding 400 F g−1 and an operational stability over >1000 cycles are demonstrated. This new class of supercapacitors, which in part are based on organic materials from plants, represents an important step toward a green and sustainable energy technology.

  • 20.
    Edberg, Jesper
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Laser-induced graphitization of a forest-based ink for use in flexible and printed electronics2020Ingår i: npj Flexible Electron., ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 4, artikel-id 17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser-induced graphitization (LIG) is a method of converting a carbon-rich precursor into a highly conductive graphite-like carbon by laser scribing. This method has shown great promise as a versatile and low-cost patterning technique. Here we show for the first time how an ink based on cellulose and lignin can be patterned using screen printing followed by laser graphitization. Screen printing is one of the most commonly used manufacturing techniques of printed electronics, making this approach compatible with existing processing of various devices. The use of forest-based materials opens the possibility of producing green and sustainable electronics. Pre-patterning of the ink enables carbon patterns without residual precursor between the patterns. We investigated the effect of the ink composition, laser parameters, and additives on the conductivity and structure of the resulting carbon and could achieve low sheet resistance of 3.8 Ω sq-1 and a high degree of graphitization. We demonstrated that the process is compatible with printed electronics and finally manufactured a humidity sensor which uses lignin as the sensing layer and graphitized lignin as the electrodes.

  • 21.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Screen Printed Reflective Electrochromic Displays for Paper and Other Opaque Substrates2023Ingår i: ACS Applied Optical Materials, ISSN 2771-9855, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 578-586Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper electronics is a viable alternative to traditional electronics, leading to more sustainable electronics. Many challenges still require solutions before paper electronics become mainstream. Here, we present a solution to enable the manufacturing of reflective all-printed organic electrochromic displays (OECDs) on paper substrates; devices that are usually printed on transparent substrates, for example, plastics. In order to operate on opaque paper substrates, an architecture for reversely printed OECDs (rOECDs) is developed. In this architecture, the electrochromic layer is printed as the last functional layer and can therefore be viewed from the print side. Square shaped 1 cm2 rOECDs are successfully screen printed on paper, with a high manufacturing yield exceeding 99%, switching times <3 s and high color contrast (ΔE* > 27). Approximately 60% of the color is retained after 15 min in open-circuit mode. Compared to the conventional screen printed OECD architectures, the rOECDs recover approximately three times faster from storage in a dry environment, which is particularly important in systems where storage in low humidity atmosphere is required, for example, in many biosensing applications. Finally, a more complex rOECD with 9 individually addressable segments is successfully screen printed and demonstrated.

  • 22.
    Majee, Subimal
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Zhao, Wei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Gillgren, .T
    BillerudKorsnäs AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, J. A.
    BillerudKorsnäs AB, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Zhang, Z. -B
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Zhang, S. -L
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Highly Conductive Films by Rapid Photonic Annealing of Inkjet Printable Starch–Graphene Ink2021Ingår i: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 9, nr 5, artikel-id 2101884Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A general formulation engineering method is adopted in this study to produce a highly concentrated (≈3 mg mL−1) inkjet printable starch–graphene ink in aqueous media. Photonic annealing of the starch–graphene ink is validated for rapid post-processing of printed films. The experimental results demonstrate the role of starch as dispersing agent for graphene in water and photonic pulse energy in enhancing the electrical properties of the printed graphene patterns, thus leading to an electrical conductivity of ≈2.4 × 104 S m−1. The curing mechanism is discussed based on systematic material studies. The eco-friendly and cost-efficient approach presented in this work is of technical potential for the scalable production and integration of conductive graphene inks for widespread applications in printed and flexible electronics. 

  • 23.
    Malti, A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Liu, X.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Zhao, D.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Fahlman, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, M. P.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, X.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Freestanding electrochromic paper2016Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 4, nr 41, s. 9680-9686Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic displays based on conducting polymers exhibit higher contrasts and are cheaper, faster, more durable, and easier to synthesize as well as to process than their non-polymeric counterparts. However, current devices are typically based on thin electrochromic layers on top of a reflecting surface, which limits the thickness of the polymer layer to a few hundred nanometers. Here, we embed a light-scattering material within the electrochromic material to achieve a freestanding electrochromic paper-like electrode (50 to 500 μm). The device is based on a cellulose composite combining PEDOT:PSS as the electrochromic material and TiO2 nanoparticles as the reflecting material. Owing to the excellent refractive properties of TiO2, this nanocomposite is white in the neutral state and, when reduced, turns blue resulting in a color contrast around 30. The composite has a granular morphology and, as shown by AFM, an intermingling of TiO2 and PEDOT:PSS at the surface. Variation of the amount of TiO2 within the composite material is shown to result in a trade-off in optical and electrical properties. A proof-of-concept freestanding electrochromic device was fabricated by casting all layers successively to maximize the interlayer conformation. This freestanding device was found to be stable for over 100 cycles when ramped between 3 and -3 V.

  • 24.
    Say, Mehmet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Grimoldi, Andrea
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Belaineh, Dagmawi
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Spray-coated paper supercapacitors2020Ingår i: npj Flexible Electronics, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikel-id 14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demands to further electrify and digitalize our society set demands for a green electrical energy storage technology that can be scaled between very small, and heavily distributed electrical energy sources, to very large volumes. Such technology must be compatible with fast-throughput, large-volume and low-cost fabrication processes, such as using printing and coating techniques. Here, we demonstrate a sequential production protocol to fabricate supercapacitors including electrodes based on cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS. Thin and lightweight paper electrodes, carbon adhesion layers and the gel electrolyte are fabricated using spray coating, screen printing, and bar coating, respectively. These all solid-state supercapacitors are flexible, mechanically robust and exhibit a low equivalent series resistance (0.22 Ω), thus resulting in a high power density (∼104 W/kg) energy technology. The supercapacitors are combined and connected to a power management circuit to demonstrate a smart packaging application. This work shows that operational and embedded supercapacitors can be manufactured in a manner to allow for the integration with, for instance smart packaging solutions, thus enabling powered, active internet-of-things (IoT) devices in a highly distributed application. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 25.
    Say, Mehmet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sahalianov, Ihor
    Linköping University, Sweden; Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Migliaccio, Ludovico
    Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic.
    Głowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Sweden; Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Donahue, Mary
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ultrathin Paper Microsupercapacitors for Electronic Skin Applications2022Ingår i: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, nr 8, artikel-id 2101420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrathin devices are rapidly developing for skin-compatible medical applications and wearable electronics. Powering skin-interfaced electronics requires thin and lightweight energy storage devices, where solution-processing enables scalable fabrication. To attain such devices, a sequential deposition is employed to achieve all spray-coated symmetric microsupercapacitors (μSCs) on ultrathin parylene C substrates, where both electrode and gel electrolyte are based on the cheap and abundant biopolymer, cellulose. The optimized spraying procedure allows an overall device thickness of ≈11 µm to be obtained with a 40% active material volume fraction and a resulting volumetric capacitance of 7 F cm−3. Long-term operation capability (90% of capacitance retention after 104 cycles) and mechanical robustness are achieved (1000 cycles, capacitance retention of 98%) under extreme bending (rolling) conditions. Finite element analysis is utilized to simulate stresses and strains in real-sized μSCs under different bending conditions. Moreover, an organic electrochromic display is printed and powered with two serially connected μ-SCs as an example of a wearable, skin-integrated, fully organic electronic application. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 26.
    Wang, Xin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Say, M. G.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Lassnig, Roman
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Berggren, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Engquist, Isak
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Upscalable ultra thick rayon carbon felt based hybrid organic-inorganic electrodes for high energy density supercapacitors2022Ingår i: Energy Storage, ISSN 2578-4862, Vol. 4, nr 5, artikel-id e348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low weight, small footprint, and high performances are essential requisites for the implementation of energy storage devices within consumer electronics. One way to achieve these goals is to increase the thickness of the active material layer. In this work, carbonized and graphitized rayon felt, a cellulose-derived material, is used as a three-dimensional current collector scaffold to enable the incorporation of large amount of active energy storage materials and ionic liquid-based gel electrolyte in the supercapacitor devices. PEDOT:PSS, alone or in combination with active carbon, has been used as the active material. Three-dimensional supercapacitors with high per unit area capacitance (more than 1.1 F/cm2) have been achieved owing to the loading of large amount of active material in the felt matrix. Areal energy density of more than 101 μWh/cm2 and areal power density of more than 5.9 mW/cm2 have been achieved for 0.8 V operating voltage at a current density of 1 mA/cm2. A nanographite material was found to be beneficial in reducing the internal serial resistance of the supercapacitor to lower than 1.7 Ω. Furthermore, it was shown that even after 2000 times cycling test, the devices could still retain its performance with at least 88% coulombic efficiency for all the devices. All the materials are readily available commercially, environmentally sustainable and the process can potentially be upscaled with industrial process. © 2022 The Authors.

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