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  • 1.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Greyscale and paper electrochromic polymer displays by UV patterning2019In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic devices have important implications as smart windows for energy efficient buildings, internet of things devices, and in low-cost advertising applications. While inorganics have so far dominated the market, organic conductive polymers possess certain advantages such as high throughput and low temperature processing, faster switching, and superior optical memory. Here, we present organic electrochromic devices that can switch between two high-resolution images, based on UV-patterning and vapor phase polymerization of poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) films. We demonstrate that this technique can provide switchable greyscale images through the spatial control of a UV-light dose. The color space was able to be further altered via optimization of the oxidant concentration. Finally, we utilized a UV-patterning technique to produce functional paper with electrochromic patterns deposited on porous paper, allowing for environmentally friendly electrochromic displays.

  • 2.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Girayhan Say, Mehmet
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Grimoldi, Andrea
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Supercapacitors on demand: all-printed energy storage devices withadaptable design2019In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 015006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands on the storage of energy have increased for many reasons, in part driven by householdphotovoltaics, electric grid balancing, along with portable and wearable electronics. These are fastgrowingand differentiated applications that need large volume and/or highly distributed electricalenergy storage, which then requires environmentally friendly, scalable and flexible materials andmanufacturing techniques. However, the limitations on current inorganic technologies have drivenresearch efforts to explore organic and carbon-based alternatives. Here, we report a conductingpolymer:cellulose composite that serves as the active material in supercapacitors which has beenincorporated into all-printed energy storage devices. These devices exhibit a specific capacitance of≈90 F g−1 and an excellent cyclability (>10 000 cycles). Further, a design concept coined ‘supercapacitorson demand’ is presented, which is based on a printing–cutting–folding procedure, thatprovides us with a flexible production protocol to manufacture supercapacitors with adaptableconfiguration and electrical characteristics.

  • 3.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Say, Mehmet
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Grimoldi, Andrea
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköpings University, Sweden.
    Supercapacitors on demand: All-printed energy storage devices with adaptable design2019In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 015006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands on the storage of energy have increased for many reasons, in part driven by household photovoltaics, electric grid balancing, along with portable and wearable electronics. These are fast-growing and differentiated applications that need large volume and/or highly distributed electrical energy storage, which then requires environmentally friendly, scalable and flexible materials and manufacturing techniques. However, the limitations on current inorganic technologies have driven research efforts to explore organic and carbon-based alternatives. Here, we report a conducting polymer:cellulose composite that serves as the active material in supercapacitors which has been incorporated into all-printed energy storage devices. These devices exhibit a specific capacitance of ≈90 F g -1 and an excellent cyclability (>10 000 cycles). Further, a design concept coined 'supercapacitors on demand' is presented, which is based on a printing-cutting-folding procedure, that provides us with a flexible production protocol to manufacture supercapacitors with adaptable configuration and electrical characteristics.

  • 4.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Mitraka, Evangelie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sardar, Samim
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Infrared electrochromic conducting polymer devices2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 5, no 23, p. 5824-5830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is well known for its electrochromic properties in the visible region. Less focus has been devoted to the infrared (IR) wavelength range, although tunable IR properties could enable a wide range of novel applications. As an example, modern day vehicles have thermal cameras to identify pedestrians and animals in total darkness, but road and speed signs cannot be easily visualized by these imaging systems. IR electrochromism could enable a new generation of dynamic road signs that are compatible with thermal imaging, while simultaneously providing contrast also in the visible region. Here, we present the first metal-free flexible IR electrochromic devices, based on PEDOT:Tosylate as both the electrochromic material and electrodes. Lateral electrochromic devices enabled a detailed investigation of the IR electrochromism of thin PEDOT:Tosylate films, revealing large changes in their thermal signature, with effective temperature changes up to 10 °C between the oxidized (1.5 V) and reduced (-1.5 V) states of the polymer. Larger scale (7 × 7 cm) vertical electrochromic devices demonstrate practical suitability and showed effective temperature changes of approximately 7 °C, with good optical memory and fast switching (1.9 s from the oxidized state to the reduced state and 3.3 s for the reversed switching). The results are highly encouraging for using PEDOT:Tosylate for IR electrochromic applications.

  • 5.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kühne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Knight, Sean
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln, US.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Sweden; University of Nebraska-Lincoln, US; Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    On the anomalous optical conductivity dispersion of electrically conducting polymers: Ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry combined with a Drude-Lorentz model2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 15, p. 4350-4362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) are becoming increasingly important in areas such as optoelectronics, biomedical devices, and energy systems. Still, their detailed charge transport properties produce an anomalous optical conductivity dispersion that is not yet fully understood in terms of physical model equations for the broad range optical response. Several modifications to the classical Drude model have been proposed to account for a strong non-Drude behavior from terahertz (THz) to infrared (IR) ranges, typically by implementing negative amplitude oscillator functions to the model dielectric function that effectively reduce the conductivity in those ranges. Here we present an alternative description that modifies the Drude model via addition of positive-amplitude Lorentz oscillator functions. We evaluate this so-called Drude-Lorentz (DL) model based on the first ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry study of ECPs, spanning over four orders of magnitude: from 0.41 meV in the THz range to 5.90 eV in the ultraviolet range, using thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:Tos) as a model system. The model could accurately fit the experimental data in the whole ultrawide spectral range and provide the complex anisotropic optical conductivity of the material. Examining the resonance frequencies and widths of the Lorentz oscillators reveals that both spectrally narrow vibrational resonances and broader resonances due to localization processes contribute significantly to the deviation from the Drude optical conductivity dispersion. As verified by independent electrical measurements, the DL model accurately determines the electrical properties of the thin film, including DC conductivity, charge density, and (anisotropic) mobility. The ellipsometric method combined with the DL model may thereby become an effective and reliable tool in determining both optical and electrical properties of ECPs, indicating its future potential as a contact-free alternative to traditional electrical characterization.

  • 6.
    Edberg, Jesper
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Improving the Performance of Paper Supercapacitors Using Redox Molecules from Plants2019In: Advanced Sustainable SystemsArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A supercapacitor made from organic and nature‐based materials, such as conductive polymers (PEDOT:PSS), nanocellulose, and an the organic dye molecule (alizarin), is demonstrated. The dye molecule, which historically was extracted from the roots of the plant rubia tinctorum, is here responsible for the improvement in energy storage capacity, while the conductive polymer provides bulk charge transport within the composite electrode. The forest‐based nanocellulose component provides a mechanically strong and nonporous network onto which the conductive polymer self‐organizes. The electrical and electrochemical properties of the material composition are investigated and prototype redox‐enhanced supercapacitor devices with excellent specific capacitance exceeding 400 F g−1 and an operational stability over >1000 cycles are demonstrated. This new class of supercapacitors, which in part are based on organic materials from plants, represents an important step toward a green and sustainable energy technology.

  • 7.
    Malti, A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Liu, X.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Zhao, D.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Fahlman, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, M. P.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, X.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Freestanding electrochromic paper2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 4, no 41, p. 9680-9686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic displays based on conducting polymers exhibit higher contrasts and are cheaper, faster, more durable, and easier to synthesize as well as to process than their non-polymeric counterparts. However, current devices are typically based on thin electrochromic layers on top of a reflecting surface, which limits the thickness of the polymer layer to a few hundred nanometers. Here, we embed a light-scattering material within the electrochromic material to achieve a freestanding electrochromic paper-like electrode (50 to 500 μm). The device is based on a cellulose composite combining PEDOT:PSS as the electrochromic material and TiO2 nanoparticles as the reflecting material. Owing to the excellent refractive properties of TiO2, this nanocomposite is white in the neutral state and, when reduced, turns blue resulting in a color contrast around 30. The composite has a granular morphology and, as shown by AFM, an intermingling of TiO2 and PEDOT:PSS at the surface. Variation of the amount of TiO2 within the composite material is shown to result in a trade-off in optical and electrical properties. A proof-of-concept freestanding electrochromic device was fabricated by casting all layers successively to maximize the interlayer conformation. This freestanding device was found to be stable for over 100 cycles when ramped between 3 and -3 V.

1 - 7 of 7
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