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  • 1.
    Amin, Sidra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; University of Sindh, Pakistan´; Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Pakistan .
    Tahira, Aneela
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
    Solangi, Amber
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Morante, JR
    Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Spain.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Falhman, Mats
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Mazzaro, Raffaello
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
    Ibupoto, Zafar
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
    A practical non-enzymatic urea sensor based on NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles2019In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, no 25, p. 14443-14451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a new facile electrochemical sensing platform for determination of urea, based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo 2 O 4 ) nanoneedles. These nanoneedles are used for the first time for highly sensitive determination of urea with the lowest detection limit (1 μM) ever reported for the non-enzymatic approach. The nanoneedles were grown through a simple and low-temperature aqueous chemical method. We characterized the structural and morphological properties of the NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles by TEM, SEM, XPS and XRD. The bimetallic nickel cobalt oxide exhibits nanoneedle morphology, which results from the self-assembly of nanoparticles. The NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles are exclusively composed of Ni, Co, and O and exhibit a cubic crystalline phase. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the enhanced electrochemical properties of a NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedle-modified GCE by overcoming the typical poor conductivity of bare NiO and Co 3 O 4 . The GCE-modified electrode is highly sensitive towards urea, with a linear response (R 2 = 0.99) over the concentration range 0.01-5 mM and with a detection limit of 1.0 μM. The proposed non-enzymatic urea sensor is highly selective even in the presence of common interferents such as glucose, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. This new urea sensor has good viability for urea analysis in urine samples and can represent a significant advancement in the field, owing to the simple and cost-effective fabrication of electrodes, which can be used as a promising analytical tool for urea estimation.

  • 2.
    Bagheryan, Z.
    et al.
    Linkoping University, Sweden; University of Mazandaran, Iran.
    Raoof, J. -B
    University of Mazandaran, Iran.
    Golabi, M.
    Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Turner, A. P. F.
    Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Diazonium-based impedimetric aptasensor for the rapid label-free detection of Salmonella typhimurium in food sample2016In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 80, p. 566-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast and accurate detection of microorganisms is of key importance in clinical analysis and in food and water quality monitoring. Salmonella typhimurium is responsible for about a third of all cases of foodborne diseases and consequently, its fast detection is of great importance for ensuring the safety of foodstuffs.We report the development of a label-free impedimetric aptamer-based biosensor for S. typhimurium detection. The aptamer biosensor was fabricated by grafting a diazonium-supporting layer onto screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPEs), via electrochemical or chemical approaches, followed by chemical immobilisation of aminated-aptamer. FTIR-ATR, contact angle and electrochemical measurements were used to monitor the fabrication process. Results showed that electrochemical immobilisation of the diazonium-grafting layer allowed the formation of a denser aptamer layer, which resulted in higher sensitivity. The developed aptamer-biosensor responded linearly, on a logarithm scale, over the concentration range 1×101 to 1×108 CFU mL-1, with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1×101 CFU mL-1 and a limit of detection (LOD) of 6 CFU mL-1. Selectivity studies showed that the aptamer biosensor could discriminate S. typhimurium from 6 other model bacteria strains. Finally, recovery studies demonstrated its suitability for the detection of S. typhimurium in spiked (1×102, 1×104 and 1×106 CFU mL-1) apple juice samples.

  • 3.
    Beni, Valerio
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Arven, Patrik
    Electrical Engineering J2 Holding AB, Sweden.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Turner, Anthony Peter Francis
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Printed electrochemical instruments for biosensors2015In: ECS Transactions, 2015, Vol. 66, no 37, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile diagnostics for healthcare, food safety and environmental monitoring, demand a new generation of inexpensive sensing systems suitable for production in high volume. Herein we report on the development of a new disposable electrochemical instrument exploiting the latest advances in printed electronics and printed biosensors. The current system is manufactured under ambient conditions with all interconnections printed; electrochemical measurements and data elaboration are realized by the integration onto the platform of two chips: a MICROCHIP-PIC24F16KA101 and a Texas Instrument's LMP91000. A PEDOT.PSS vertical electrochromic display (VECD) is also incorporated into the system to visualize the data. A printed Enfucell 3V manganese dioxide battery was used to deliver the required power. Finally, in order to demonstrate the utility of the system, screen-printed sensors for the detection of glucose were added and the performance of the overall system was evaluated.

  • 4.
    Berto, Marcello
    et al.
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Diacci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Theuer, Lorenz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Di Lauro, Michele
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy;Instituto Italiano di Tecnologia—Center for Translational Neurophysiology, Italy.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Bortolotti, Carlo A.
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Label free urea biosensor based on organic electrochemical transistors2018In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 024001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantification of urea is of the utmost importance not only in medical diagnosis, where it serves as a potential indicator of kidney and liver disfunction, but also in food safety and environmental control. Here, we describe a urea biosensor based on urease entrapped in a crosslinked gelatin hydrogel, deposited onto a fully printed PEDOT:PSS-based organic electrochemical transistor (OECT). The device response is based on the modulation of the channel conductivity by the ionic species produced upon urea hydrolysis catalyzed by the entrapped urease. The biosensor shows excellent reproducibility, a limit of detection as low as 1 μM and a response time of a few minutes. The fabrication of the OECTs by screen-printing on flexible substrates ensures a significant reduction in manufacturing time and costs. The low dimensionality and operational voltages (0.5 V or below) of these devices contribute to make these enzymatic OECT-based biosensors as appealing candidates for high-throughput monitoring of urea levels at the point-of-care or in the field.

  • 5.
    Cherian, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Armgarth, Astrid
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Linderhed, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Large-area printed organic electronic ion pumps2019In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological systems use a large variety of ions and molecules of different sizes for signaling. Precise electronic regulation of biological systems therefore requires an interface which translates the electronic signals into chemically specific biological signals. One technology for this purpose that has been developed during the last decade is the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP). To date, OEIPs have been fabricated by micropatterning and labor-intensive manual techniques, hindering the potential application areas of this promising technology. Here we show, for the first time, fully screen-printed OEIPs. We demonstrate a large-area printed design with manufacturing yield >90%. Screen-printed cation- and anion-exchange membranes are both demonstrated with promising ion selectivity and performance, with transport verified for both small ions (Na+, K+, Cl) and biologically-relevant molecules (the cationic neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and the anionic anti-inflammatory salicylic acid). These advances open the 'iontronics' toolbox to the world of printed electronics, paving the way for a broader arena for applications.

  • 6.
    Debela, A. M.
    et al.
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Ortiz, Mayreli
    Rovira i Virgili University, Spain.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lesage, Denis
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Cole, Richard B.
    Sorbonne University, France.
    O'Sullivan, Ciara K.
    Rovira i Virgili University, Spain; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançais, Spain.
    Thorimbert, Serge
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Hasenknopf, Bernold
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Functionalized deoxynucleotides and DNA primers for electrochemical diagnostics of disease predispostions2017In: ECS Transactions, Electrochemical Society Inc. , 2017, no 11, p. 1873-1883Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Redox labeled DNAs are of increasing interest for the fabrication of next generation molecular tools. In the present work we are investigating the use of various redox labeled dNTPs, ddNTPs and DNA primers for use in detection of diseases. We have reported the use of Polyoxometalate (POM) labeled DNA primers and dNTPs for use in PCR and subsequently used for direct electrochemical detection of PCR products. The use of POM labeled DNAs in PCR enabled us to check the compatibility with polymerases and PCR incorporability of the modified DNAs. Furthermore we have investigated the solid-phase array based primer extension (é-PEX) with redox labelled ddNTPs (ferrocene (Fc), anthraquinone (AQ) phenothiazine (PTZ) and methylene blue (MB)) to prove the strategy of detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms using the labeled ddNTPs. This strategy will allow the development of cost-effective, rapid and user-friendly platform for the screening of known and unknown genetic mutations.

  • 7.
    Di Lauro, Michele
    et al.
    Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy; Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    la Gatta, Simona
    Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro", Italy; Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici, Italy.
    Bortolotti, Carlo
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Parkula, Vitalya
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Drakopoulou, Sofia
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Giordani, Martina
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Berto, Marcello
    Università di Ferrara, Italy.
    Milano, Francesco
    Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici, Italy.
    Cramer, Tobias
    Università degli Studi di Bologna, Italy.
    Murgia, Mauro
    Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, Italy.
    Agostiano, Angela
    Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro", Italy; Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici, Italy.
    Farinola, Gianluca
    Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro", Italy.
    Trotta, Massimo
    Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici, Italy.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy; Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    A Bacterial Photosynthetic Enzymatic Unit Modulating Organic Transistors with Light2019In: Advanced Electronic Materials, ISSN 2199-160X, article id 1900888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The photochemical core of every photosynthetic apparatus is the reaction center, a transmembrane enzyme that converts photons into charge-separated states across the biological membrane with an almost unitary quantum yield. A light-responsive organic transistor architecture, which converts light into electrical current by exploiting the efficiency of this biological machinery, is presented. Proper surface tailoring enables the integration of the bacterial reaction center as photoactive element in organic transistors, allowing the transduction of its photogenerated voltage into photomodulation of the output current up to two orders of magnitude. This device architecture, termed light-responsive electrolyte-gated organic transistor, is the prototype of a new generation of low-power hybrid bio-optoelectronic organic devices.

  • 8.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kuralay, Filiz
    Ordu University, Turkey.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Electrochemical bacterial detection using poly(3-aminophenylboronic acid)-based imprinted polymer2017In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 93, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosensors can deliver the rapid bacterial detection that is needed in many fields including food safety, clinical diagnostics, biosafety and biosecurity. Whole-cell imprinted polymers have the potential to be applied as recognition elements in biosensors for selective bacterial detection. In this paper, we report on the use of 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) for the electrochemical fabrication of a cell-imprinted polymer (CIP). The use of a monomer bearing a boronic acid group, with its ability to specifically interact with cis-diol, allowed the formation of a polymeric network presenting both morphological and chemical recognition abilities. A particularly beneficial feature of the proposed approach is the reversibility of the cis-diol-boronic group complex, which facilitates easy release of the captured bacterial cells and subsequent regeneration of the CIP. Staphylococcus epidermidis was used as the model target bacteria for the CIP and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was explored for the label-free detection of the target bacteria. The modified electrodes showed a linear response over the range of 103–107 cfu/mL. A selectivity study also showed that the CIP could discriminate its target from non-target bacteria having similar shape. The CIPs had high affinity and specificity for bacterial detection and provided a switchable interface for easy removal of bacterial cell.

  • 9.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Padiolleau, Laurence
    Linköping University, Sweden; Cranfield University, UK.
    Chen, Xi
    Linköping University, Sweden; University of Dundee, UK.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sheikhzadeh, Elham
    Linköping University, Sweden; Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Doping polypyrrole films with 4-N-Pentylphenylboronic acid to enhance affinity towards bacteria and dopamine2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, article id e0166548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we demonstrate the use of a functional dopant as a fast and simple way to tune the chemical affinity and selectivity of polypyrrole films. More specifically, a boronic-functionalised dopant, 4-N-Pentylphenylboronic Acid (PBA), was used to provide to polypyrrole films with enhanced affinity towards diols. In order to prove the proposed concept, two model systems were explored: (i) the capture and the electrochemical detection of dopamine and (ii) the adhesion of bacteria onto surfaces. The chemisensor, based on overoxidised polypyrrole boronic doped film, was shown to have the ability to capture and retain dopamine, thus improving its detection; furthermore the chemisensor showed better sensitivity in comparison with overoxidised perchlorate doped films. The adhesion of bacteria, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, onto the boric doped polypyrrole film was also tested. The presence of the boronic group in the polypyrrole film was shown to favour the adhesion of sugar-rich bacterial cells when compared with a control film (Dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) doped film) with similar morphological and physical properties. The presented single step synthesis approach is simple and fast, does not require the development and synthesis of functional monomers, and can be easily expanded to the electrochemical, and possibly chemical, fabrication of novel functional surfaces and interfaces with inherent pre-defined sensing and chemical properties.

  • 10.
    Hernandez, Cesar A
    et al.
    Universidad de los Andes, Colombia.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Osma, Johann F
    Universidad de los Andes, Colombia.
    Fully Automated Microsystem for Unmediated Electrochemical Characterization, Visualization and Monitoring of Bacteria on Solid Media; E. coli K-12: A Case Study.2019In: Biosensors, ISSN 2079-6374, Vol. 9, no 4, article id E131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a non-fluidic microsystem for the simultaneous visualization and electrochemical evaluation of confined, growing bacteria on solid media. Using a completely automated platform, real-time monitoring of bacterial and image-based computer characterization of growth were performed. Electrochemical tests, using Escherichia coli K-12 as the model microorganism, revealed the development of a faradaic process at the bacteria-microelectrode interface inside the microsystem, as implied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectrometry measurements. The electrochemical information was used to determine the moment in which bacteria colonized the electrode-enabled area of the microsystem. This microsystem shows potential advantages for long-term electrochemical monitoring of the extracellular environment of cell culture and has been designed using readily available technologies that can be easily integrated in routine protocols. Complementarily, these methods can help elucidate fundamental questions of the electron transfer of bacterial cultures and are potentially feasible to be integrated into current characterization techniques.

  • 11.
    Méhes, Gabor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Mulla, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Che, Canyan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Solar Heat-Enhanced Energy Conversion in Devices Based on Photosynthetic Membranes and PEDOT:PSS-Nanocellulose Electrodes2020In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 1900100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy harvesting from photosynthetic membranes, proteins, or bacteria through bio-photovoltaic or bio-electrochemical approaches has been proposed as a new route to clean energy. A major shortcoming of these and solar cell technologies is the underutilization of solar irradiation wavelengths in the IR region, especially those in the far IR region. Here, a biohybrid energy-harvesting device is demonstrated that exploits IR radiation, via convection and thermoelectric effects, to improve the resulting energy conversion performance. A composite of nanocellulose and the conducting polymer system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is used as the anode in biohybrid cells that includes thylakoid membranes (TMs) and redox mediators (RMs) in solution. By irradiating the conducting polymer electrode by an IR light-emitting diode, a sixfold enhancement in the harvested bio-photovoltaic power is achieved, without compromising stability of operation. Investigation of the output currents reveals that IR irradiation generates convective heat transfer in the electrolyte bulk, which enhances the redox reactions of RMs at the anode by suppressing diffusion limitations. In addition, a fast-transient thermoelectric component, originating from the PEDOT:PSS-nanocellulose-electrolyte interphase, further increases the bio-photocurrent. These results pave the way for the development of energy-harvesting biohybrids that make use of heat, via IR absorption, to enhance energy conversion efficiency. 

  • 12.
    Sensi, Matteo
    et al.
    Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Berto, Marcello
    Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Candini, Andrea
    Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattività (ISOF)−CNR, Italy; Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (CNR-IMM), Italy.
    Liscio, Andrea
    Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (CNR-IMM), Italy.
    Cossarizza, Andrea
    Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy; .
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy; Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy.
    Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto
    Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Modulating the Faradic Operation of All-Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors by Facile in Situ Modification of the Gate Electrode2019In: ACS Omega, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 5374-5381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) operated in the faradic regime were shown as outperforming transducers of bioelectric signals in vitro and in vivo. Fabrication by additive manufacturing techniques fosters OECTs as ideal candidates for point-of-care applications, as well as imposes limitations on the choice of materials and their processing conditions. Here, we address the question of how the response of fully printed OECTs depends on gate electrode material. Toward this end, we investigate the redox processes underlying the operation of OECTs under faradic regime, to show OECTs with carbon gate (C-gate) that exhibit no current modulation gate voltages <1.2 V. This is a hallmark that no interference with the faradic operation of the device enabled by redox processes occurs when operating C-gate OECTs in the low-voltage range as label-free biosensors for the detection of electroactive (bio)molecules. To tune the faradic response of the device, we electrodeposited Au on the carbon gate (Au-C-gate), obtaining a device that operates at lower gate voltage values than C-gate OECT. The presence of gold on the gate allowed further modification of the electrical performances by functionalization of the Au-C-gate with different self-assembled monolayers by fast potential-pulse-assisted method. Moreover, we show that the presence in the electrolyte solution of an external redox probe can be used to drive the faradic response of both C- and Au-C-gate OECTs, impacting on the gate potential window that yields effective drain current modulation. The results presented here suggest possible new strategies for controlling the faradic operation regime of OECTs sensors by chemical modification of the gate surface.

  • 13.
    Theuer, Lorentz
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Randek, Judit
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Junne, Stefan
    Neubauer, Peter
    Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Single-use printed biosensor for l-lactate and its application in bioprocess monitoring2020In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 8, no 3, article id 321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a profound need in bioprocess manufacturing for low-cost single-use sensors that allow timely monitoring of critical product and production attributes. One such opportunity is screen-printed enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, which have the potential to enable low-cost online and/or off-line monitoring of specific parameters in bioprocesses. In this study, such a singleuse electrochemical biosensor for lactate monitoring is designed and evaluated. Several aspects of its fabrication and use are addressed, including enzyme immobilization, stability, shelf-life and reproducibility. Applicability of the biosensor to off-line monitoring of bioprocesses was shown by testing in two common industrial bioprocesses in which lactate is a critical quality attribute (Corynebacterium fermentation and mammalian Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultivation). The specific response to lactate of the screen-printed biosensor was characterized by amperometric measurements. The usability of the sensor at typical industrial culture conditions was favorably evaluated and benchmarked with commonly used standard methods (HPLC and enzymatic kits). The single-use biosensor allowed fast and accurate detection of lactate in prediluted culture media used in industrial practice. The design and fabrication of the biosensor could most likely be adapted to several other critical bioprocess analytes using other specific enzymes. This makes this single-use screen-printed biosensor concept a potentially interesting and versatile tool for further applications in bioprocess monitoring. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 14.
    Zhybak, Mykhailo T.
    et al.
    National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Vagin, Mikhail Yu.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Dempsey, Eithne
    Institute of Technology Tallaght, Ireland.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Korpan, Yaroslav I.
    National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Direct detection of ammonium ion by means of oxygen electrocatalysis at a copper-polyaniline composite on a screen-printed electrode2016In: Microchimica Acta, ISSN 0026-3672, E-ISSN 1436-5073, Vol. 183, no 6, p. 1981-1987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a composite material for use in electrochemical oxygen reduction. A screen-printed electrode (SPE) was consecutively modified with electrodeposited copper, a Nafion membrane and electropolymerized polyaniline (PANi) to give an electrocatalytic composite of type PANi/Nafion/Cu2O/SPE that displays good electrical conductivity at neutral pH values. It is found that the presence of ammonia causes complex formation with Cu(I), and this causes electroreduction of oxygen to result in an increased cathodic current. The finding was applied to the quantification of ammonium ions in the 1 to 1000 μM concentration range by amperometry at −0.45 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). This Faradaic phenomenon offers the advantage of direct voltammetric detection, one of the lowest known limits of detection (0.5 μM), and high sensitivity (250 mA∙M−1∙cm−2). It was applied to the determination of ammonium ion in human serum where it compared well with the photometric routine approach for clinical analysis using glutamate dehydrogenase. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

  • 15.
    Özgür, Erdogan
    et al.
    Hacettepe University, Turkey ; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Parlak, Onur
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Uzun, Lokman
    Hacettepe University, Turkey ; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bioinspired design of a polymer-based biohybrid sensor interface2017In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 251, p. 674-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key step in the construction of efficient and selective analytical separations or sensors is the design of the recognition interface. Biomimicry of the recognition features typically found in biological molecules, using amino acids, peptides and nucleic acids, provides plausible opportunities to integrate biological molecules or their active sites into a synthetic polymeric backbone. Given the basic role of functional amino acids in biorecognition, we focused on the synthesis of polymerizable amino acid derivatives and their incorporation into a polymer-based biohybrid interface to construct generic bioinspired analytical tools. We also utilized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a sacrificial polymer to adjust the porosity of these biohybrid interfaces. The surface morphologies of the interfaces on gold electrodes were characterized by using scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopies. The electrochemical behavior of the polymeric films was systematically investigated using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) to demonstrate the high affinity of the biohybrid interfaces for Cu(II) ions. The presence of macropores also significantly improved the recognition performance of the interfaces while enhancing interactions between the target [Cu(II) ions] and the functional groups. As a final step, we showed the applicability of the proposed analytical platform to create a Cu(II) ion-mediated supramolecular self-assembly on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrode surface in real time.

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