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  • 1.
    Cea, B.
    et al.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Fraboulet, I.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Feuger, O.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Hugony, F.
    ENEA, Italy.
    Morreale, C.
    Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria S.r.l, Italy.
    Migliavacca, G.
    Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria S.r.l, Italy.
    Andersen, J. S.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Warming-Jespersen, M. G.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Development and Evaluation of an Innovative Method Based on Dilution to Sample Solid and Condensable Fractions of Particles Emitted by Residential Wood Combustion2021In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 35, no 23, p. 19705-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An innovative and simple method based on dilution, named as the dilution chamber (DC), allowing the measurement of solid and condensable fractions of particulate matter emitted by residential wood combustion appliances has been developed, and its performances have been evaluated. The DC method was then tested by five European institutes (Ineris, ISSI/ENEA, DTI, and RISE) on advanced residential wood log/pellet stoves, under nominal output and low output combustion conditions and using different fuel types. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of the DC method to collect the condensable fraction. The DC method was compared with another manual method used to collect the solid and condensable fractions at the same time, the dilution tunnel (DT), on four sampling platforms. A third method, a combining heated filter and impinger filled in with isopropanol collection (SPC-IPA), was also used by Ineris only for comparison with the DC method. PM measurements based on the DC method globally showed a linear correlation with PM measurements based on DT (R2 ranged between 0.81 and 0.99, p < 0.05) specifically for the residential wood stoves under low output conditions when the condensable fraction contributes the most. An analysis and quantification of PAHs related to the total mass of PM of samples taken by the DC method and performed by ENEA/ISSI showed that it produces a condensation effect of semivolatile species comparable or even greater than the DT method. PM emission factors calculated from PM measurements based on the DC method were (i) about 2- to 20-fold higher for the residential wood stoves (EF ranged between 201 to 2420 g GJ-1) compared to those obtained for the residential pellet stoves (EF ranged between 108 to 556 g GJ-1) and (ii) of the same magnitude of PM emission factors from the literature or the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook.

  • 2.
    Denby, B. R.
    et al.
    Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET), Norway.
    Ketzel, M.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Ellermann, T.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Stojiljkovic, A.
    Nordic Envicon Oy, Finland.
    Kupiainen, K.
    Nordic Envicon Oy, Finland.
    Niemi, J. V.
    Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (HSY), Finland.
    Norman, M.
    Environment and Health Protection Administration of the City of Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, C.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Environment and Health Protection Administration of the City of Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, M.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, G.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Sundvor, I.
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Norway.
    Road salt emissions: A comparison of measurements and modelling using the NORTRIP road dust emission model2016In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 141, p. 508-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    De-icing of road surfaces is necessary in many countries during winter to improve vehicle traction. Large amounts of salt, most often sodium chloride, are applied every year. Most of this salt is removed through drainage or traffic spray processes but a certain amount may be suspended, after drying of the road surface, into the air and will contribute to the concentration of particulate matter. Though some measurements of salt concentrations are available near roads, the link between road maintenance salting activities and observed concentrations of salt in ambient air is yet to be quantified. In this study the NORTRIP road dust emission model, which estimates the emissions of both dust and salt from the road surface, is applied at five sites in four Nordic countries for ten separate winter periods where daily mean ambient air measurements of salt concentrations are available. The model is capable of reproducing many of the salt emission episodes, both in time and intensity, but also fails on other occasions. The observed mean concentration of salt in PM10, over all ten datasets, is 4.2 μg/m3 and the modelled mean is 2.8 μg/m3, giving a fractional bias of −0.38. The RMSE of the mean concentrations, over all 10 datasets, is 2.9 μg/m3 with an average R2 of 0.28. The mean concentration of salt is similar to the mean exhaust contribution during the winter periods of 2.6 μg/m3. The contribution of salt to the kerbside winter mean PM10 concentration is estimated to increase by 4.1 ± 3.4 μg/m3 for every kg/m2 of salt applied on the road surface during the winter season. Additional sensitivity studies showed that the accurate logging of salt applications is a prerequisite for predicting salt emissions, as well as good quality data on precipitation. It also highlights the need for more simultaneous measurements of salt loading together with ambient air concentrations to help improve model parameterisations of salt and moisture removal processes. © 2016 The Authors

  • 3.
    Fraboulet, I.
    et al.
    INERIS, France.
    Del-Gratta, F.
    INERIS, France.
    Andersen, J. S.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Warming-Jespersen, M. G.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Hugony, F.
    ENEA National Agency for New Technologies, Italy.
    Morreale, C.
    eINNOVHUB Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria s.r.l, Italy.
    European inter-comparison campaigns on pm and OGCS atmospheric emissions test methods from residential wood combustion using a stack simulator generating real biomass combustion gases2020In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2020, p. 812-816Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 20/20/20 target for Europe, will lead to an increased use of biomass combustion, e.g. using wood logs and wood pellets. On the other hand, the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) lies down stringent requirements on maximum levels of particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air. Domestic wood combustion emits particulate matter (PM) which are of concern to authorities and the public. Several different methods of PM measurements have historically been used to perform type testing of solid fuelled residential appliances and boilers. This method shall give repeatable results that are of a guaranteed traceable accuracy, and by this means give the consumer reliable information on the suitability of a particular appliance or boiler. One of the main methods used in Europe consists of sampling the solid fraction of aerosols using a heated filter, this method does not include the collection of the condensable fraction, OGC measurements are performed using FID method.The aim of this work carried out within the EMPIR IMPRESS2 Project was to evaluate the performances of this method by performing intercomparisons using a stack simulator generating real biomass combustion gases.

  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    VTI, Sweden.
    Järlskog, Ida
    VTI, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    VTI, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys, Sweden.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys, Sweden.
    Road dust load dynamics and influencing factors for six winter seasons in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: Atmospheric Environment: X, ISSN 2590-1621, Vol. 2, article id 100014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic related non-exhaust particulate sources and road dust are an increasingly important source for PM10 air pollution as exhaust sources are decreasing due to regulations. In the Nordic countries, the road dust problem is enhanced by use of studded tyres, causing increased road wear and winter road maintenance including gritting. Efforts to reduce road dust emissions requires knowledge on temporal and spatial road dust load dynamics. The city of Stockholm, Sweden, has therefore financed seasonal (October to May) road dust sampling to be able to optimize their winter and spring time street operation measures for reduced road dust emissions. This work describes the outcome of six seasons (2011/2012–2016/2017) of road dust sampling in five central streets using the VTI wet dust sampler (WDS).The results show that road dust load, expressed as DL180 (dust load smaller than 180 μm) has a seasonal variation with the highest loads (up to 200 g/m2) in late winter and early spring and a minimum (down to about 15 g/m2) in early autumn and late spring. The dust load varies between streets and is depending on pavement surface properties. On a smaller scale the dust load has a high variability across streets due to differences in rates of suspension from different parts of the road surface, with low amounts in wheel tracks and higher in-between and outside the tracks. Between 2 and 30% of the DL180 is smaller than 10 μm and could directly contribute to PM10 emissions. In general, higher road surface texture leads to higher dust loads, but the condition of the pavement (e.g. cracks, aggregate loss) might also have an effect. A new, wear resistant pavement accumulated markedly higher road dust amounts than a several years old pavement. This paper closes with a discussion on the complex relation between road dust load and PM10 concentrations and a discussion on the challenges and comparability of road dust sampling techniques and measures. © 2019 The Authors

  • 5.
    Hesselgren, Lars
    et al.
    PLP Architecture, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Ingemar
    LogistikCentrum, Sweden.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Prieto Rábade, Miguel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    NuMo – New Urban Mobility: New urban infrastructure support for autonomous vehicles2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreword All transport systems have a certain capacity determined by its configurations. For cars the most efficient current form is constant speed driving, e.g. the motorway. Its capacity is limited by the time separation between vehicles. Any transport system that stops because of congestion or other causes by definition sees its capacity reduced to zero. Hence traffic jams are hugely disruptive. Public transport operates on a model inherited from the 19 th Century. Vehicles (buses, trams, railways, metros) run on a regular (timetabled) basis and stops at every station (bus stop). Since there is no pre-booking and the need of transport is hard to foresee, the vehicles are often almost empty, at other times hugely congested. The NuMo technology emerges from decades of work across the whole transportation industry. Autonomous electric vehicles (AEVs) equipped with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication can safely keep shorter distances. In practical terms this means that a platooned car system has the same capacity in one lane as a double-lane motorway. Automated intelligent controls ensure that the NuMo systems never stops, thus achieving the highest capacity. Instead of waiting for the mass deployment of fully automated vehicles, NuMo starts with dedicated networks that integrate tightly with existing infrastructure for step-wise smooth transition to fully automated transport system. NuMo includes an on-demand public transport system which only runs when it is needed. The system will take advantage of close-spacing possible with robot controls – vehicles can run close together and also use less road width by less wiggling. Equally importantly stations and access to the normal road network is arranged such that the traffic flow never stops. The urban impact can be imagined by understanding the impact of modern public transport systems currently under construction. Some of them are underground to avoid disrupting the street patterns. Some are elevated, some rely on physical separation at grade. One interesting option is to use tunnels underground or in water to further reduce disruption. Many cities are abandoning the traditional port infrastructure giving huge opportunities to again regard water as a connector rather than something to cross. The NuMo system uses all of those techniques and detailed design studies are under way for each of those options. NuMo will make an important contribution to environmental sustainability in many respects. Firstly, it will accelerate adoption of electric propulsion; secondly it will encourage vehicle sharing; and thirdly by only running when needed will save on unnecessary movements and finally its construction costs will be less than conventional systems. Sketches of NuMo networks are presented on places as diverse as Stockholm, Gothenburg and New York. Naturally the system will also be crucial in the development of new cities. This report is a summary of the studies performed within the project “New urban infrastructure support for autonomous vehicles” financed by Vinnova through the Strategic Innovation Program InfraSweden2030. The aim is to explore the infrastructure support to accelerate the introduction of autonomous electric vehicles for future mobility.

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  • 6.
    Janhäll, Sara
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Review on urban vegetation and particle air pollution - Deposition and dispersion2015In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 105, p. 130-137Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban vegetation affects air quality through influencing pollutant deposition and dispersion. Both processes are described by many existing models and experiments, on-site and in wind tunnels, focussing e.g. on urban street canyons and crossings or vegetation barriers adjacent to traffic sources. There is an urgent need for well-structured experimental data, including detailed empirical descriptions of parameters that are not the explicit focus of the study.This review revealed that design and choice of urban vegetation is crucial when using vegetation as an ecosystem service for air quality improvements. The reduced mixing in trafficked street canyons on adding large trees increases local air pollution levels, while low vegetation close to sources can improve air quality by increasing deposition. Filtration vegetation barriers have to be dense enough to offer large deposition surface area and porous enough to allow penetration, instead of deflection of the air stream above the barrier. The choice between tall or short and dense or sparse vegetation determines the effect on air pollution from different sources and different particle sizes. © 2015 The Author.

  • 7.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Emissions of particles and organic compounds from small and medium scaled biomass combustion2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biomass for domestic heating is common in some parts of the world. Biomass is a Renewable Energy Source (RES) and it is considered as a climate friendly fuel since it is a CO

    2 neutral energy source. However, combustion of wood biomass in the residential sector is a main contributor to pollution of the ambient air, mainly in terms of fine particles. This is a severe health problem and needs to be addressed to improve the air quality. There is also a gap between calculated air quality particle concentrations using the available emission data, measured at the stack, that needs to be addressed. The concentrations of organic particles in the atmosphere are higher than expected from reported emission factors, but there is also a gap between emission factors registered in different countries, emphasising the need of similar standards for individual countries, or at least more information around the emission data.

    The residential combustion of wood biomasses is characterized by incomplete processes leading to high concentrations of gases and particles containing both organic and inorganic substances. The formation of organic particles is a temperature dependent process where Semi Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) condense on solid particles or form particles after nucleation. Thus, the temperature where particle emissions are measured is crucial to the result. There are many different standard methods for the measurement of combustion generated particle emission, some differ between different combustion sources. Most standards focus on the most straight forward measurement methods, collecting particles directly from the hot fumes, while in other standards the particles collection is after a dilution of the exhaust gases, taking into account the condensation of organic gases.

    In particularly for residential biomass heating appliances there is no European harmonized standard for measuring particles and a few Member States provided with own method (to be performed during laboratory type testing). The methods are different each other: one method is adapted from the standard used to measure particles produced by big plant fed with fossil fuels (just collecting solid particles at high temperatures), the other method is based on the dilution of sampled gases to collect solid and condensed particles.

    The aim of the present work is to provide background information both on different emission standards used in combustion appliances and on the development of the particles from the combustion zone to the ambient air at a larger distance from the source. The development of the particles change the amount of particles originating form biomass combustion by both number and mass. Input data for this study is taken from the literature and from a survey sent to laboratories engaged in emission measurement from small to medium scaled biomass combustion facilities.

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  • 8.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Genell, Anders
    VTI, Sweden.
    Askemar, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Hur påverkar hälsoeffekter planeringen avelektrifierade byggarbetsplatser?2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How does health and environment affect electrification of working sites? Electrification of construction sites mainly relates to climate emissions, but the local environment is also affected through reduced emissions of exhaust gases and engine noise. This work presents a way to take into account both noise and air pollution in the choice of which work machines should be electrified in the first place. The work is based on interviews and literature about emissions from different types of work machines, about how decisions about which work machines are used in different types of contracts are made, as well as current legislation about noise and air pollution and the exposure that people are at risk of being exposed to in different situations. The project also presents a first draft of a model to be able to compare different working equipment, but does not go into how noise and exhaust gases should be valued between each other, nor on emission factors for the combustion engines that the electric work machines are expected to replace. Instead, the focus is on identifying the decision-making paths and aligning the various expert areas of noise and air in the choice of which work machine should be prioritized for electrification.

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  • 9.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Genell, Anders
    VTI, Sweden.
    Val av vägbeläggning : Hur påverkas buller, partiklar (vägdamm) och rullmotstånd?2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pavement choice - effects on noise, road dust and rolling resistance.

    A literature review of environmental effects related to the choice of road pavement is presented here, starting from noise-reduced pavements, and with a focus on non-exhaust particles, as a great deal of research is being performed in the area of road dust. A simple description of pavements based on the Swedish Transport Administration's requirements introduces the description of the relationship between pavements and the three areas of noise, road dust and rolling resistance. The conclusions are that environmental aspects are important to address already when choosing the pavement. There is great potential to limit the negative environmental effects through pavement choices, especially if simpler connections can be made, e.g. using the ideas we present in this report. We recommend further research on functional relationships, especially in the particle domain where the relationships between pavement and emissions of non-exhaust particles is seldom quantified. The relationships between pavement and each of the parameters; noise; non-exhaust particles; and rolling resistance, need to be modelled to be able to understand the processes fully, preferably including friction. Road dust also creates a risk of reducing the acoustic life of porous pavements, i.e. a type of pavement reducing noise emissions. Including the resuspension of road dust in the emissions is of great importance to increase the possibilities of using pavement choices to limit road dust emissions. A first detailed description is published in this report.

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  • 10.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Lööf, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Normkritik och samarbeten inom fastighetsautomation2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Norms, gender and collaboration in proptech Here, an engineering approach to norm criticism is used to study a male-dominated interdisciplinary digitization project in the area of prop tech. In property automation (prop tech) the participants are in principle exclusively men, and thus the platforms and program development that will be the basis for all prop tech development are coded in a male context. There are also major challenges, as in most interdisciplinary groups, where the balance of power is often skewed through different norms. The project has mainly addressed challenges due to the interdisciplinary groups, while the gender perspective has been given less focus. The focus on norms has been assigned a full work package, with a similar budget as the other work packages focused on other areas and the norm work package has interacted very closely with all parts of the project, including the more technical ones. In this way, the norm critics has created a platform of its own in the project, based on how a norm critical analysis could be offered to help other work packages in their tasks. Based on the work on norms; discussions, workshops and surveys have been supplemented with interviews, in close collaboration with other work packages. Through the norm-critical analysis, different groups, both within the project and in the industry around prop tech, have been identified. Differences between these groups relate to understanding of different types of technology, priorities, communication and balance of power. Norm criticism has been a way of supporting the entire project in both the expansion of business models and interaction between the various scientific areas that are part of the project. The norm criticism has been well received by the project group and many are aware that the industry is facing a change that requires new ways of thinking, new business models and new collaboration models. There is a new awareness in both the conversations within the project and the surveys and interviews based on the understanded need to see multiple perspectives. This awareness has also been used to broaden the business model. The understanding that it is more difficult to see the order of power for those who belong to the prioritized group has also increased. At the same time, we see a large effect of personal, or corporate, interest in norm criticism, which strongly influences how respondents react to the questions about norm criticism. The project shows that the method of using norm criticism in collaborative processes between different groups has been successful.

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  • 11.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Petersson, Mikaela
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Öman, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sommertune, Jens
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Kåredal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Messing, Maria E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Release of carbon nanotubes during combustion of polymer nanocomposites in a pilot-scale facility for waste incineration2021In: NanoImpact, ISSN 2452-0748, Vol. 24, article id 100357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposites, formed by incorporating nanoparticles into a matrix of standard materials, are increasing on the market. Little focus has been directed towards safe disposal and recycling of these new materials even though the disposal has been identified as a phase of the products' life cycle with a high risk of uncontrolled emissions of nanomaterials. In this study, we investigate if the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), when used as a filler in two types of polymers, are fully destructed in a pilot-scale combustion unit designed to mimic the combustion under waste incineration. The two polymer nanocomposites studied, polycarbonate (PC) with CNT and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with CNT, were incinerated at two temperatures where the lower temperature just about fulfilled the European waste incineration directive while the upper was chosen to be on the safe side of fulfilling the directive. Particles in the flue gas were sampled and analysed with online and offline instrumentation along with samples of the bottom ash. CNTs could be identified in the flue gas in all experiments, although present to a greater extent when the CNTs were introduced in PC as compared to in HDPE. In the case of using PC as polymer matrix, CNTs were identified in 3–10% of the analysed SEM images while for HDPE in only ~0.5% of the images. In the case of PC, the presence of CNTs decreased with increasing bed temperature (from 10% to 3% of the images). The CNTs identified were always in bundles, often coated with remnants of the polymer, forming particles of ~1–4 μm in diameter. No CNTs were identified in the bottom ash, likely explained by the difference in time when the bottom ash and fly ash are exposed to high temperatures (~hours compared to seconds) in the pilot facility. The results suggest that the residence time of the fly ash in the combustion zone is not long enough to allow full oxidation of the CNTs. Thus, the current regulation on waste incineration (requiring a residence time of the flue gas >850 °C during at least 2 s) may not be enough to obtain complete destruction of CNTs in polymer composites. Since several types of CNTs are known to be toxic, we stress the need for further investigation of the fate and toxicity of CNTs in waste treatment processes.

  • 12.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden; , KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Järlskog, Ida
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Wet Dust Sampler—a Sampling Method for Road Dust Quantification and Analyses2019In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 230, no 8, article id 180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern countries, the climate, and consequently the use of studded tyres and winter traction sanding, causes accumulation of road dust over winter and spring, resulting in high PM10 concentrations during springtime dusting events. To quantify the dust at the road surface, a method—the wet dust sampler (WDS)—was developed allowing repeatable sampling also under wet and snowy conditions. The principle of operation is flushing high-pressurised water over a defined surface area and transferring the dust laden water into a container for further analyses. The WDS has been used for some time and is presented in detail to the international scientific community as reported by Jonsson et al. (2008) and Gustafsson et al. (2019), and in this paper, the latest version is presented together with an evaluation of its performance. To evaluate the WDS, the ejected water amount was measured, as well as water losses in different parts of the sampling system, together with indicative dust measurement using turbidity as a proxy for dust concentration. The results show that the WDS, when accounting for all losses, have a predictable and repeatable water performance, with no impact on performance based on the variety of asphalt surface types included in this study, given undamaged surfaces. The largest loss was found to be water retained on the surface, and the dust measurements imply that this might not have as large impact on the sampled dust as could be expected. A theoretical particle mass balance shows small particle losses, while field measurements show higher losses. Several tests are suggested to validate and improve on the mass balances. Finally, the WDS is found to perform well and is able to contribute to further knowledge regarding road dust implications for air pollution.

  • 13.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Mats E.R.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Eriksson, Olle
    VTI, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    VTI, Sweden.
    Erlingsson, Sigurður
    VTI, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Temporal Variation of Road Dust Load and Its Size Distribution—a Comparative Study of a Porous and a Dense Pavement2020In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 231, no 12, article id 561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resuspension of road dust contributes to air quality issues with resulting health impacts. Limited studies imply that porous pavements can initially mitigate PM10 emissions by acting as a dust trap, but the abrasion wear generates road dust and thus accelerates the clogging processes. In addition, knowledge regarding the impact of pavement types on road dust load dynamics is limited. Road traffic noise can be mitigated using porous pavements, but the use of studded tyres increases the abrasion wear of the pavement as well as increasing the noise emission. Due to this durability problem, porous pavements are rarely used in the Nordic countries where, instead, dense pavements which are abrasion resistant are more common. Linköping municipality, in Sweden, constructed a porous pavement to mitigate road traffic noise. This led to the opportunity to investigate the temporal variation of the dust load dynamics and inherent size distributions over the winter and spring in comparison to those of an adjacent dense pavement. Results, when using the wet dust sampler (WDS) method, showed similar dust load dynamics for the dense and porous pavements. The results were also compared to previous studies using the same method on different dense pavements in Stockholm, Sweden. All locations showed a seasonal variation with higher dust loads during winter and early spring and declining loads towards summer. The size distributions were more complex for the wheel tracks at the porous pavement, having primarily properties of a mixture model compared to the simple size distributions for the dense pavement. On the other hand, the dust load and size distribution were more similar between the porous and dense pavements regarding loads and shapes, indicating a less pronounced but similar behaviour between the surfaces outside of the wheel tracks.

  • 14.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden; KTH Royal Instiute of Technology, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    VTI, Sweden.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    VTI, Sweden; KTH Royal Instiute of Technology, Sweden; University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Calibration of the Swedish studded tyre abrasion wear prediction model with implication for the NORTRIP road dust emission model2021In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 432-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimentally based prediction model of road abrasion wear due to studded tyres is available in Sweden and has been found to work well. However, it has not been validated since 2007, and since then road surfaces and tyre design have developed, and the question has arisen regarding the model’s current validity. The abrasion wear model is used in the NORTRIP emission model (NOn-exhaust Road Traffic Induced Particle emission modelling), and the effect of a recalibrated abrasion wear model on the emission model is shown. In this paper, the abrasion wear model is compared to full-scale field measurements at several recently constructed roads in Sweden to investigate its validity, while also proposing changes to allow for continued use. It is concluded that the model overestimates the wear and an update is suggested. In addition, the impact on NORTRIP emission predictions is briefly investigated. There were also indications that NORTRIP is affected by the abrasion model overestimating the contribution of pavement wear to the particle emissions.

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    fulltext
  • 15.
    Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Costa, Nicole
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Ekholm, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Besker, Terese
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Linders, Torsten
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Patrick
    E-sea, Sweden.
    SeaCharging - Investigating the Need for Standardised Charging Infrastructure for Maritime Electrified Vessels2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector, including maritime transport, is facing accelerating electrification, where it is important that charging infrastructure is developed in parallel with electrified vessels. In today's few examples, charging technology is adapted to specific vessels and conditions. The possibility of using standards and standardisation to increase the efficiency of introducing electrified vessels has been the focus of the SeaCharging project. The middle segment of ships, such as waterborne public transport, is facing a rapid increase in electrification.

    The project begins with an exploratory analysis of the current situation with charging stations in Sweden. This analysis covers the obstacles, needs and opportunities in different shipping segments and geographical areas. This results in an informative review providing input to standardisation committees, but also ports and shipping companies. Dissemination of the project’s results was achieved via a workshop, a number of seminars and this final report directed at the maritime, energy, technology, and standardisation communities. Together with Lighthouse, we will in early 2023, do a broad workshop for the whole sector, presenting the final project results and putting them into a wider context.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Svenson, Pontus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Resilience in systems of systems: electrified transport systems2021In: 2021 16th International Conference of System of Systems Engineering (SoSE), 2021, p. 162-167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport system is a large system of systems which currently faces challenges because of the climate-change-induced need to decrease the use of fossil fuels. The aim of mitigating climate change is realized in many parts of the transport system, concurrently and at high pace, which brings with it many challenges for the resilience of the system. By resilience, we mean the ability of a system to adapt due to disruptions and surprises. There are numerous links between the different systems that form the transport system and the actors responsible for available choices in the system of systems need to be identified. The aim of this paper is to identify requirements for developing a method for increasing resilience in the transport system. In this study a description of the electrified goods transport system as a system of systems is developed through a combination of researchers from different areas and discussions with experts mainly in the field of transport and governance. The resulting system of systems is presented in the paper together with a list of measures that will aid the development of a resilient electrified goods transport system. The measures are divided into technology, organisation and behaviour.

  • 17.
    Svensson, Nina
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Kulovuori, Sami
    Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Effects of a porous asphalt pavement on dust suspension and PM10 concentration2023In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 123, article id 103921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-exhaust emissions from road transport are an important PM10 source, causing negative health effects. Measures to reduce particulate pollution from roads include dust suppression using hygroscopic solutions and road sweeping. This study investigates if porous pavements, generally used for their better noise reduction and water drainage capacity, can also improve air quality. Atmospheric measurements of NOx and PM10 were performed for 7 months along a road stretch containing two different surfaces, one porous and one dense. The PM10 concentration was significantly lower at the porous pavement during all meteorological conditions. Particle emissions measured behind the wheel of a moving car were also lower at the porous pavement. The reasons for the improved air quality are suggested to be the removal of road dust from the surface into the pores of the pavement, the reduction of the air-pumping suspension forces of the tyres, and the prolonged drying of the surface.

  • 18.
    Vieira, T.
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundberg, J.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Genell, A.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Sandberg, U.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, G.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, M.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Erlingsson, S.
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Porous pavement for reduced tyre/road noise and improved air quality - Initial results from a case study2019In: Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019, Canadian Acoustical Association , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One possible solution to reduce noise resulting from tyre-pavement interaction is to use a porous pavement surface. A porous surface will reduce noise by decreasing air pressure gradients in the tyre-pavement contact as well as by decreasing the acoustical impedance of the road surface and reducing the horn effect. While reducing noise, other functional aspects of a pavement such as abrasion wear which impacts on air pollution through generation and suspension of particles, friction and rolling resistance need to be addressed. This paper analyses the acoustical behaviour of a Double Layered Porous Asphalt (DLPA), applied in the city of Linköping, Sweden, as a solution to mitigate noise, compared to a non-porous Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) pavement used as reference. The analysis is based on Close Proximity noise measurements, both in absolute value and as frequency spectra, acoustical homogeneity over the surface length and sound absorption measurements. The acoustic analysis is combined with analyses of air quality measurements of PM10 (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm) from two Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) measurement stations placed near each different pavement section. The initial results indicate that the porous pavement results in a noise reduction of up to 5 dB for light vehicles, and up to 4 dB for heavy vehicles. So far, the DPLA shows approximately 52 % lower PM10 concentrations than the SMA. It should be noted that PM10 is influenced also by meteorological conditions, like humidity, background sources as well as vehicle properties, e.g. use of studded tyres, and that some of the observed decrease can be due to other aspects than porosity e.g. road surface moisture and wind direction. In conclusion, the use of a porous pavement shows promising results from both acoustical and air quality aspects, given the initial, short term results

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