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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bigum, Lucas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Norefjäll, Fredric
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Stenbeck, Sten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Barquet, Karina
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    BONUS RETUR NReducing Emissions by Turning Nutrients and Carbon into Benefits: Deliverable No: D.5.2 – Decision support toolbox Ref: WP (5) Task (5.2) Lead participant: RISE Research Institutes of Sweden Date: 31/03/20202020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Järnberg, Linn
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Ochola, Brenda
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Do, Thao
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Stenbeck, Sten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Johannesdottir, Solveig
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    BONUS RETURN Reducing Emissions by Turning Nutrients and Carbon into Benefits: Deliverable No: D.6.4 – Regional exchange and learning event 2 Ref: WP (6) Task (6.6) Lead participant: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) Date: 2019-06-302019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Pettersson Skog, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Johansen, Ann
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Farquharson, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Stenbeck, Sten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Kvalitetskriterier för regnbäddssubstrat2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality criteria for rainbed substrates

    Rainbeds are an increasingly common feature of the urban environment, managing stormwater while greening the cityscape and reducing impervious surfaces. The function of rainbeds can be both to retain and purify stormwater before the water is further infiltrated or led to a recipient. However, rainbeds can also leach nutrients, as shown by previous projects that have looked at the quality of outgoing water from rainbeds. Today, there are no quality criteria to ensure the functionality of rainbeds and rainbed substrates. In an interview study, and in a questionnaire study, different professional groups (designers, clients, stormwater experts and researchers, etc.) who work with rainbeds were asked how they see the need for quality criteria, which criteria are most important, how guideline values and reduction factors can be developed and desirable channels for communicating quality criteria. It has been clear that guidance is in demand by the industry and that it is desirable to have some form of industry standard that can be published in AMA or as a publication by Svenskt Vatten, or similar. The criteria that were considered most important varied with different professional groups, but they agreed that different requirements should be set for different purposes of the rain garden. In an international analysis, international representatives were also interviewed about how possible quality criteria are applied in each country. Four Swedish substrate producers also contributed a total of 10 different samples of their rainbed substrates. These were sent for analysis together with a substrate developed according to recommendations from research on rainbed substrates, which was used as a reference. One purpose of the analyses was to characterize the rainbed substrates. Another aim was to see how the different methods correlate - whether more complicated and timeconsuming analyses can be replaced by simpler ones. The analytical methods to be performed were decided after discussions with routine labs about suitable and available methods. The methods chosen were two different nutrient analyses: AL analysis and Spurway analysis, and two different leaching tests, namely shake tests and column tests. The shake tests were done at L/S 2 and L/S 10 and repeated twice with the leachate. The column tests were performed on three substrates at L/S 0.1; 0.2; 0.5; 1, 2, 5 and 10. The focus of the evaluation was on nutrient content and leaching. The nutrient content was evaluated based on guideline values for nutrient content according to AMA and Hässelby-Skälby garden laboratory. The leaching was evaluated based on guideline values for the city of Gothenburg and guideline values according to the guideline group, level 3VU. The elements that exceeded the guideline values were mainly cadmium, copper, phosphorus and nitrogen. The phosphorus leaching exceeded the guideline values in all substrates at L/S 2 and only the reference substrate was below the guideline values at L/S 10. In the repeated leaching, the phosphorus content gradually decreased but did not fall below the detection limit in any of the substrates except in the reference substrate at the last leaching. It should be emphasized that although the leached content was above the guideline limits, the leached amounts were in the order of mg/kg DM, which corresponds to g/ton DM substrate. One conclusion is that the substrates available on the market today have been developed mostly to contribute to the retention of stormwater and to get the vegetation to grow. The substrates have a completely different character than what is recommended by research. Another conclusion is that it has not yet been established which analysis method is best suited to form the basis of quality criteria.

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  • 4.
    Stenbeck, Sten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Kusoffsky, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Johansen, Ann
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Sörelius, Helene
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Sylwan, Ida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Hillforth, Caroline
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Svensson, Gilbert
    GS Vattenforum AB, Sweden.
    Blecken, Godecke
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vidareutveckling av standard för utvärdering av prefabricerade dagvattenåtgärder2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of a standard for purifying storm water Many of the technical solutions for stormwater treatment available on the market are often marketed with reference to high purification potential and low maintenance needs. However, there have rarely been independent tests or evaluations that prove the actual performance of the technics. It is a complex decision for the end user to choose the right technology and/or manufacturer for a particular application and purpose, while ensuring long-term functionality. At present, there is no Swedish standard, but many clients of stormwater technology refer instead to the Swedish Water and Wastewater Association's publications or to their own example collections for stormwater measures and design criteria that should apply to construction. Other countries, like The United States, Germany and the United Kingdom national standards for testing and evaluating the degree of purification of prefabricated stormwater solutions exists since a number of years. Since 2018, RISE has worked for the development of a Swedish standard together with a number of actors in the industry and with financial support from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Stenvall & Sörelius (2021), Klingberg & Kusoffsky (2021) and Dahlberg, etc. (2022)). In this project (November 2023), RISE, with the support of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, together with Luleå University of Technology and GS Water Forum, has further developed the Swedish proposal for a National standard. The plan is to further test the standard in a German test facility by spring 2024. In order to provide the greatest possible market advantage for manufacturers who test their products according to the standard, the Swedish proposal has taken the German original into account. This is to ensure, as far as possible, that a supplier/manufacturer who has tested its product according to the standard will be able to gain access to both the German and the Swedish market. The work has also been carried out with the support of the Swedish Institute for Standards (SIS) to pave the way for the establishment of a Swedish Standard (SS) in 2024. This process will be initiated after the proposed test method has been evaluated in Germany.

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