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  • 1.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Kawahara, Jun
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. Lintec Corporation, Japan; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fast-switching all-printed organic electrochemical transistors2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1276-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symmetric fast (ˆ¼5 ms) on-to-off off-to-on drain current switching characteristics have been obtained in screen printed organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) including PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid)) as the active transistor channel material. Improvement of the drain current switching characteristics is made possible by including a carbon conductor layer on top of PEDOT:PSS at the drain electrode that is in direct contact with both the channel the electrolyte of the OECT. This carbon conductor layer suppresses the effects from a reduction front that is generated in these PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs. In the off-state of these devices this reduction front slowly migrate laterally into the PEDOT:PSS drain electrode, which make off-to-on switching slow. The OECT including carbon electrodes was manufactured using only standard printing process steps may pave the way for fully integrated organic electronic systems that operate at low voltages for applications such as logic circuits, sensors active matrix addressed displays.

  • 2.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Westerberg, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Eveborn, Annelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Lagerlöf, Axel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Screen printed digital circuits based on vertical organicelectrochemical transistors2017In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, E-ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 2, article id 045008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have been manufactured solely using screenprinting. The OECTs are based on PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid)), which defines the active material for both the transistor channel and the gateelectrode. The resulting vertical OECT devices and circuits exhibit low-voltage operation, relativelyfast switching, small footprint and high manufacturing yield; the last three parameters are explainedby the reliance of the transistor configuration on a robust structure in which the electrolyte verticallybridges the bottom channel and the top gate electrode. Two different architectures of the verticalOECT have been manufactured, characterized and evaluated in parallel throughout this report. Inaddition to the experimental work, SPICE models enabling simulations of standalone OECTs andOECT-based circuits have been developed. Our findings may pave the way for fully integrated, lowvoltageoperating and printed signal processing systems integrated with e.g. printed batteries, solarcells, sensors and communication interfaces. Such technology can then serve a low-cost basetechnology for the internet of things, smart packaging and home diagnostics applications.

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  • 3.
    Beni, Valerio
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Arven, P.
    Electrical Engineering J2 Holding AB, Sweden.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Turnera, A. P. F.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Printed electrochemical instruments for biosensors2015In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, E-ISSN 2162-8777, Vol. 4, no 10, p. S3001-S3005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile diagnostics for healthcare, food safety and environmental monitoring, demand a new generation of inexpensive sensing systems suitable for production in high volume. Herein we report on the development of a new disposable electrochemical instrument exploiting the latest advances in printed electronics and printed biosensors. The current system is manufactured under ambient conditions with all interconnections printed; electrochemical measurements and data elaboration are realized by the integration onto the platform of two chips: a MICROCHIP-PIC24F16KA101 and a Texas Instrument's LMP91000. A PEDOT.PSS vertical electrochromic display (VECD) is also incorporated into the system to visualize the data. A printed Enfucell 3V manganese dioxide battery was used to deliver the required power. Finally, in order to demonstrate the utility of the system, screen-printed sensors for the detection of glucose were added and the performance of the overall system was evaluated.

  • 4.
    Beni, Valerio
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Arven, Patrik
    Electrical Engineering J2 Holding AB, Sweden.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Turner, Anthony Peter Francis
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Printed electrochemical instruments for biosensors2015In: ECS Transactions, 2015, Vol. 66, no 37, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile diagnostics for healthcare, food safety and environmental monitoring, demand a new generation of inexpensive sensing systems suitable for production in high volume. Herein we report on the development of a new disposable electrochemical instrument exploiting the latest advances in printed electronics and printed biosensors. The current system is manufactured under ambient conditions with all interconnections printed; electrochemical measurements and data elaboration are realized by the integration onto the platform of two chips: a MICROCHIP-PIC24F16KA101 and a Texas Instrument's LMP91000. A PEDOT.PSS vertical electrochromic display (VECD) is also incorporated into the system to visualize the data. A printed Enfucell 3V manganese dioxide battery was used to deliver the required power. Finally, in order to demonstrate the utility of the system, screen-printed sensors for the detection of glucose were added and the performance of the overall system was evaluated.

  • 5.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nordlinder, Staffan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Wikner, J. Jacob
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hederen, Jan
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Hentzell, Hans
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Browsing the Real World using Organic Electronics, Si-Chips, and a Human Touch2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1911-1916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different e-labels were developed to explore the feasibility and to identify scientifi c and engineering challenges of the Real-World-Web platform. First was a printed biosensor e-label, comprising Si-chips with an array of different printegrated devices, and second, an e-label to explore the feasibility of transferring data, through the human body, between a mobile device and different distributed e-labels, adhered onto the body or onto dedicated devices and surfaces of one's ambience. The silicon chips utilized in e-labels, include analogue and digital circuitry to receive and handle sensory input, to perform signal processing, and to transmit information to antennas and displays. When used, the e-label is turned on, and a sample is then added onto the sensor area. The display provides simple instructions and updated information to the user. All data handling, electrical probing, and analysis of the sensor is performed by the Si-chips, and the sensing data is finally shown in the printed display. The second e-label exemplifies an ID-tag for body area networks (BAN) communication applications, which, in part, is manufactured and integrated in the same way as the first e-label, but with another choice of Si-chips and capacitive antennas.

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  • 6.
    Cherian, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Armgarth, Astrid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Linderhed, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Large-area printed organic electronic ion pumps2019In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological systems use a large variety of ions and molecules of different sizes for signaling. Precise electronic regulation of biological systems therefore requires an interface which translates the electronic signals into chemically specific biological signals. One technology for this purpose that has been developed during the last decade is the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP). To date, OEIPs have been fabricated by micropatterning and labor-intensive manual techniques, hindering the potential application areas of this promising technology. Here we show, for the first time, fully screen-printed OEIPs. We demonstrate a large-area printed design with manufacturing yield >90%. Screen-printed cation- and anion-exchange membranes are both demonstrated with promising ion selectivity and performance, with transport verified for both small ions (Na+, K+, Cl) and biologically-relevant molecules (the cationic neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and the anionic anti-inflammatory salicylic acid). These advances open the 'iontronics' toolbox to the world of printed electronics, paving the way for a broader arena for applications.

  • 7.
    Cherian, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Roy, A
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bersellini Farinotti, Alex
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Camilla
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Flexible Organic Electronic Ion Pump Fabricated Using Inkjet Printing and Microfabrication for Precision In Vitro Delivery of Bupivacaine2023In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 12, no 24, p. 2300550-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) is an on-demand electrophoretic drug delivery device, that via electronic to ionic signal conversion enables drug delivery without additional pressure or volume changes. The fundamental component of OEIPs is their polyelectrolyte membranes which are shaped into ionic channels that conduct and deliver ionic drugs, with high spatiotemporal resolution. The patterning of these membranes is essential in OEIP devices and is typically achieved using laborious microprocessing techniques. Here, the development of an inkjet printable formulation of polyelectrolyte is reported, based on a custom anionically functionalized hyperbranched polyglycerol (i-AHPG). This polyelectrolyte ink greatly simplifies the fabrication process and is used in the production of free-standing OEIPs on flexible polyimide (PI) substrates. Both i-AHPG and the OEIP devices are characterized, exhibiting favorable iontronic characteristics of charge selectivity and the ability to transport aromatic compounds. Further, the applicability of these technologies is demonstrated by the transport and delivery of the pharmaceutical compound bupivacaine to dorsal root ganglion cells with high spatial precision and effective nerve blocking, highlighting the applicability of these technologies for biomedical scenarios. © 2023 The Authors. Advanced Healthcare Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

  • 8.
    Jonsson, A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Song, Z.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Meyerson, B. A.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Simon, D. T.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Linderoth, B.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Berggren, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Therapy using implanted organic bioelectronics2015In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, no 4, article id 1500039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many drugs provide their therapeutic action only at specific sites in the body, but are administered in ways that cause the drug’s spread throughout the organism. This can lead to serious side effects. Local delivery from an implanted device may avoid these issues, especially if the delivery rate can be tuned according to the need of the patient. We turned to electronically and ionically conducting polymers to design a device that could be implanted and used for local electrically controlled delivery of therapeutics. The conducting polymers in our device allow electronic pulses to be transduced into biological signals, in the form of ionic and molecular fluxes, which provide a way of interfacing biology with electronics. Devices based on conducting polymers and polyelectrolytes have been demonstrated in controlled substance delivery to neural tissue, biosensing, and neural recording and stimulation. While providing proof of principle of bioelectronic integration, such demonstrations have been performed in vitro or in anesthetized animals. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of an implantable organic electronic delivery device for the treatment of neuropathic pain in an animal model. Devices were implanted onto the spinal cord of rats, and 2 days after implantation, local delivery of the inhibitory neurotransmitter g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was initiated. Highly localized delivery resulted in a significant decrease in pain response with low dosage and no observable side effects. This demonstration of organic bioelectronics-based therapy in awake animals illustrates a viable alternative to existing pain treatments, paving the way for future implantable bioelectronic therapeutics. 2015 © The Authors.

  • 9.
    Kawahara, Jun
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. Lintec Corporation, Japan; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Katoh, Kazuya
    Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Nakata, Yasukazu
    Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Flexible active matrix addressed displays manufactured by printing coating techniques2013In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 265-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A flexible electrochromic active matrix addressed display, including 8 × 8 pixels, is demonstrated by using solution processing based on standard printing coating manufacturing techniques. Each organic electrochromic display (OECD) pixel its corresponding organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) are located on different sides of the flexible PET substrate. Electronic vias generated through the plastic substrate connects each OECD pixel with one addressing OECT. When comparing this display with actively addressed OECDs with all its components located on the same side, the present approach based on this electronic via substrate provides an enhanced pixel resolution a relatively more simplified manufacturing process.

  • 10.
    Majee, Subimal
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Idaho National Laboratory, USA.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Mulla, Mohammad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Ul Hassan Alvi, Naveed
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Low temperature chemical sintering of inkjet-printed Zn nanoparticles for highly conductive flexible electronic components2021In: npj Flexible Electronics, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illustrates an innovative way to fabricate inkjet-printed tracks by sequential printing of Zn nanoparticle ink and curing ink for low temperature in situ chemical sintering. Employing chemical curing in place of standard sintering methods leads to the advantages of using flexible substrates that may not withstand the high thermal budgets of the standard methods. A general formulation engineering method is adopted to produce highly concentrated Zn ink which is cured by inkjet printing an over-layer of aqueous acetic acid which is the curing agent. The experimental results reveal that a narrow window of acid concentration of curing ink plays a crucial role in determining the electrical properties of the printed Zn nanoparticles. Highly conductive (~105 S m−1) and mechanically flexible printed Zn features are achieved. In addition, from systematic material characterization, we obtain an understanding of the curing mechanism. Finally, a touch sensor circuit is demonstrated involving all-Zn printed conductive tracks. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 11.
    Majee, Subimal
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Zhao, Wei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Gillgren, .T
    BillerudKorsnäs AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, J. A.
    BillerudKorsnäs AB, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Zhang, Z. -B
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Zhang, S. -L
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Highly Conductive Films by Rapid Photonic Annealing of Inkjet Printable Starch–Graphene Ink2021In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 2101884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A general formulation engineering method is adopted in this study to produce a highly concentrated (≈3 mg mL−1) inkjet printable starch–graphene ink in aqueous media. Photonic annealing of the starch–graphene ink is validated for rapid post-processing of printed films. The experimental results demonstrate the role of starch as dispersing agent for graphene in water and photonic pulse energy in enhancing the electrical properties of the printed graphene patterns, thus leading to an electrical conductivity of ≈2.4 × 104 S m−1. The curing mechanism is discussed based on systematic material studies. The eco-friendly and cost-efficient approach presented in this work is of technical potential for the scalable production and integration of conductive graphene inks for widespread applications in printed and flexible electronics. 

  • 12.
    Persson, K. M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lönnqvist, S.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, K.
    Linköping University, Sweden; ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Gabrielsson, R.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Kratz, G.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Matrix Addressing of an Electronic Surface Switch Based on a Conjugated Polyelectrolyte for Cell Sorting2015In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 25, no 45, p. 7056-7063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial control of cell detachment is potentially of great interest when selecting cells for clonal expansion and in order to obtain a homogeneous starting population of cells aimed for tissue engineering purposes. Here, selective detachment and cell sorting of human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts is achieved using thin films of a conjugated polymer. Upon electrochemical oxidation, the polymer film swells, cracks, and finally detaches taking cells cultured on top along with it. The polymer can be patterned using standard photolithography to fabricate a cross-point matrix with polymer pixels that can be individually addressed and thus detached. Detachment occurs above a well-defined threshold of +0.7 V versus Ag/AgCl, allowing the use of a relatively simple and easily manufactured passive matrix-addressing configuration, based on a resistor network, to control the cell-sorting device. Selective and electronically controlled cell detachment is achieved using a conjugated polymer that detaches when electrochemically oxidized. The polymer is patterned to create a matrix with individually addressable pixels. The addressing is based on passive matrix addressing and is controlled by a resistance network. Human skin cells are cultured on the matrix, show good viability, and can be selectively detached.

  • 13.
    Persson, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Electronic control over detachment of a self-doped water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolyte2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 21, p. 6257-6266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water-soluble conducting polymers are of interest to enable more versatile processing in aqueous media as well as to facilitate interactions with biomolecules. Here, we report a substituted poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) derivative (PEDOT-S:H) that is fully water-soluble and self-doped. When electrochemically oxidizing a PEDOT-S:H thin film, the film detaches from the underlying electrode. The oxidation of PEDOT-S:H starts with an initial phase of swelling followed by cracking before it finally disrupts into small flakes and detaches from the electrode. We investigated the detachment mechanism and found that parameters such as the size, charge, and concentration of ions in the electrolyte, the temperature, and also the pH influence the characteristics of detachment. When oxidizing PEDOT-S:H, the positively charged polymer backbone is balanced by anions from the electrolyte solution and also by the sulfonate groups on the side chains (more self-doping). From our experiments, we conclude that detachment of the PEDOT-S:H film upon oxidation occurs in part due to swelling caused by an inflow of solvated anions and associated water and in part due to chain rearrangements within the film, caused by more self-doping. We believe that PEDOT-S:H detachment can be of interest in a number of different applications, including addressed and active control of the release of materials such as biomolecules and cell cultures. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  • 14.
    Rattfält, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Wang, Xin
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Ask, Per N.A.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Properties of screen printed electrocardiography smartware electrodes investigated in an electro-chemical cell2013In: Biomedical engineering online, E-ISSN 1475-925X, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: ECG (Electrocardiogram) measurements in home health care demands new sensor solutions. In this study, six different configurations of screen printed conductive ink electrodes have been evaluated with respect to electrode potential variations and electrode impedance.Methods: The electrode surfaces consisted of a Ag/AgCl-based ink with a conduction line of carbon or Ag-based ink underneath. On top, a lacquer layer was used to define the electrode area and to cover the conduction lines. Measurements were performed under well-defined electro-chemical conditions in a physiologic saline solution.Results: The results showed that all printed electrodes were stable and have a very small potential drift (less than 3 mV/30 min). The contribution to the total impedance was 2% of the set maximal allowed impedance (maximally 1 kΩ at 50 Hz), assuming common values of input impedance and common mode rejection ratio of a regular amplifier.Conclusion: Our conclusions are that the tested electrodes show satisfying properties to be used as elements in a skin electrode design that could be suitable for further investigations by applying the electrodes on the skin.

  • 15.
    Roy, Arghyamalya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bersellini Farinotti, Alex
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Cherian, Dennis
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Karaday, Michal
    Palacký University, Czech Republic.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Camilla
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Electrophoretic Delivery of Clinically Approved Anesthetic Drug for Chronic Pain Therapy2023In: Advanced Therapeutics, E-ISSN 2366-3987, Vol. 6, no 7, article id 2300083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a range of available pain therapies, most patients report so-called “breakthrough pain.” Coupled with global issues like opioid abuse, there is a clear need for advanced therapies and technologies for safe and effective pain management. Here the authors demonstrate a candidate for such an advanced therapy: precise and fluid-flow-free electrophoretic delivery via organic electronic ion pumps (OEIPs) of the commonly used anesthetic drug bupivacaine. Bupivacaine is delivered to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro. DRG neurons are a good proxy for pain studies as they are responsible for relaying ascending sensory signals from nociceptors (pain receptors) in the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system. Capillary based OEIPs are used due to their probe-like and free-standing form factor, ideal for interfacing with cells. By delivering bupivacaine with the OEIP and recording dose versus response (Ca2+ imaging), it is observed that only cells close to the OEIP outlet (≤75 µm) are affected (“anaesthetized”) and at concentrations up to 10s of thousands of times lower than with bulk/bolus delivery. These results demonstrate the first effective OEIP deliveryof a clinically approved and widely used analgesic pharmaceutical, and thus are a major translational milestone for this technology. © 2023 The Authors.

  • 16.
    Sani, Negar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Robertsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Cooper, Philip
    De La Rue, United Kingdom.
    Wang, Xin
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Svensson, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hesselbom, Hjalmar
    Hesselbom Innovation and Development, Sweden.
    Akesso, Laurent
    De La Rue, United Kingdom.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    All-printed diode operating at 1.6 GHz2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, p. 11343-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics are considered for wireless electronic tags sensors within the future Internet-of-things (IoT) concept. As a consequence of the low charge carrier mobility of present printable organic inorganic semiconductors, the operational frequency of printed rectifiers is not high enough to enable direct communication powering between mobile phones printed e-tags. Here, we report an all-printed diode operating up to 1.6 GHz. The device, based on two stacked layers of Si NbSi2 particles, is manufactured on a flexible substrate at low temperature in ambient atmosphere. The high charge carrier mobility of the Si microparticles allows device operation to occur in the charge injection-limited regime. The asymmetry of the oxide layers in the resulting device stack leads to rectification of tunneling current. Printed diodes were combined with antennas electrochromic displays to form an all-printed e-tag. The harvested signal from a Global System for Mobile Communications mobile phone was used to update the display. Our findings demonstrate a new communication pathway for printed electronics within IoT applications._x000D_

  • 17.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden; Karolinska University hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lu, Ke
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Textile-Friendly Interconnection between Wearable Measurement Instrumentation and Sensorized Garments-Initial Performance Evaluation for Electrocardiogram Recordings.2019In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 20, article id E4426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interconnection between hard electronics and soft textiles remains a noteworthy challenge in regard to the mass production of textile-electronic integrated products such as sensorized garments. The current solutions for this challenge usually have problems with size, flexibility, cost, or complexity of assembly. In this paper, we present a solution with a stretchable and conductive carbon nanotube (CNT)-based paste for screen printing on a textile substrate to produce interconnectors between electronic instrumentation and a sensorized garment. The prototype connectors were evaluated via electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings using a sensorized textile with integrated textile electrodes. The ECG recordings obtained using the connectors were evaluated for signal quality and heart rate detection performance in comparison to ECG recordings obtained with standard pre-gelled Ag/AgCl electrodes and direct cable connection to the ECG amplifier. The results suggest that the ECG recordings obtained with the CNT paste connector are of equivalent quality to those recorded using a silver paste connector or a direct cable and are suitable for the purpose of heart rate detection.

  • 18.
    Simon, Daniel T.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Karin C.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Burström, Gustav
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Galter, Dagmar
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    An organic electronic biomimetic neuron enable sauto-regulated neuro modulation2015In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 71, p. 359-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current therapies for neurological disorders are based on traditional medication and electric stimulation. Here, we present an organic electronicbiomimetic neuron, with the capacity to precisely intervene with the underlying malfunctioning signalling pathway using endogenous substances. The fundamental function of neurons, defined as chemical-to-electrical-to-chemical signal transduction, is achieved by connecting enzyme-based amperometric biosensors and organic electronic ion pumps. Selective biosensors transduce chemical signals into an electric current, which regulates electrophoretic delivery of chemical substances without necessitating liquid flow. Biosensors detected neurotransmitters in physiologically relevant ranges of 5–80 µM, showing linear response above 20 µm with approx. 0.1 nA/µM slope. When exceeding defined threshold concentrations, biosensor output signals, connected via custom hardware/software, activated local or distant neurotransmitter delivery from the organic electronic ion pump. Changes of 20 µM glutamate or acetylcholinetriggered diffusive delivery of acetylcholine, which activated cells via receptor-mediated signalling. This was observed in real-time by single-cell ratiometric Ca2+ imaging. The results demonstrate the potential of the organic electronic biomimetic neuron in therapies involving long-range neuronal signalling by mimicking the function of projection neurons. Alternatively, conversion of glutamate-induced descending neuromuscular signals into acetylcholine-mediated muscular activation signals may be obtained, applicable for bridging injured sites and active prosthetics.

  • 19.
    Staaf, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Rusu, Cristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Schäffner, Philipp
    Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Austria.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    High magnetoelectric coupling of Metglas and P(VDF-TrFE) laminates2022In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 5233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetoelectric (magnetic/piezoelectric) heterostructures bring new functionalities to develop novel transducer devices such as (wireless) sensors or energy harvesters and thus have been attracting research interest in the last years. We have studied the magnetoelectric coupling between Metglas films (2826 MB) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) in a laminate structure. The metallic Metglas film itself served as bottom electrode and as top electrode we used an electrically conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Besides a direct electrical wiring via a graphite ink, a novel contactless readout method is presented using a capacitive coupling between the PEDOT:PSS layer and an electrode not in contact with the PEDOT:PSS layer. From the experimental result we determined a magnetoelectric coupling of 1445 V/(cm·Oe) at the magnetoelastic resonance of the structure, which is among the highest reported values for laminate structures of a magnetostrictive and a piezoelectric polymer layer. With the noncontact readout method, a magnetoelectric coupling of about 950 V/(cm·Oe) could be achieved, which surpasses previously reported values for the case of direct sample contacting. 2D laser Doppler vibrometer measurements in combination with FE simulations were applied to reveal the complex vibration pattern resulting in the strong resonant response.

  • 20.
    Toss, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lönnqvist, Susanna
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Nissa, Josefin
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ferroelectric surfaces for cell release2017In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 228, p. 99-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adherent cells cultured in vitro must usually, at some point, be detached from the culture substrate. Presently, the most common method of achieving detachment is through enzymatic treatment which breaks the adhesion points of the cells to the surface. This comes with the drawback of deteriorating the function and viability of the cells. Other methods that have previously been proposed include detachment of the cell substrate itself, which risks contaminating the cell sample, and changing the surface energy of the substrate through thermal changes, which yields low spatial resolution and risks damaging the cells if they are sensitive to temperature changes. Here cell culture substrates, based on thin films of the ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) co-polymer, are developed for electroactive control of cell adhesion and enzyme-free detachment of cells. Fibroblasts cultured on the substrates are detached through changing the direction of polarization of the ferroelectric substrate. The method does not affect subsequent adhesion and viability of reseeded cells.

  • 21.
    Tu, Deyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Electrochromic electrochemical transistors gated with polyelectrolyte- decorated amyloid fibrils2013In: IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology, ISSN 1551-319X, E-ISSN 1558-9323, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 755-759, article id 6578552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the use of polyelectrolyte-decorated amyloid fibrils as gate electrolyte in electrochromic electrochemical transistors. Conducting polymer alkoxysulfonate poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-S) and luminescent conjugate polymer poly(thiophene acetic acid) (PTAA) are utilized to decorate insulin amyloid fibrils for gating lateral poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrochemical transistors. In this comparative work, four gate electrolytes are explored, including the polyelectrolytes and their amyloid-fibril complexes. The discrimination of transistor behaviors with different gate electrolytes is understood in terms of an electrochemical mechanism. The combination of luminescent polymers, biomolecules and electrochromic transistors enables multi functions in a single device, for example, the color modulation in monochrome electrochromic display, as well as biological sensing/labeling.

  • 22.
    Wang, Xin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Grimoldi, Andrea
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Mengistie, Desalegn
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Anisotropic conductivity of Cellulose-PEDOT:PSS composite materials studied with a generic 3D four-point probe tool2019In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 66, p. 258-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is widely used in organic electronics and printed electronics due to its excellent electronic and ionic conductivity. PEDOT:PSS films exhibit anisotropic conductivities originating from the interplay of film deposition processes and chemical structure. The previous studies found that high boiling point solvent treated PEDOT:PSS exhibits an anisotropy of 3–4 orders magnitude. Even though both the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities are important for the device performance, the out-of-plane conductivity is rarely studied due to the complexity with the experiment procedure. Cellulose-based paper or films can also exhibit anisotropic behavior due to the combination of their intrinsic fibric structure and film formation process. We have previously developed a conductive paper based on PEDOT:PSS and cellulose which could be used as the electrodes in energy storage devices. In this work we developed a novel measurement set-up for studying the anisotropy of the charge transport in such composite materials. A tool with two parallel plates mounted with spring loaded probes was constructed enabling probing both lateral and vertical directions and resistances from in-plane and out-of-plane directions to be obtained. The measurement results were then input and analyzed with a model based on a transformation method developed by Montgomery, and thus the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities could be detangled and derived. We also investigated how the conductivity anisotropy depends on the microstructure of the cellulose template onto which the conductive polymer self-organizes. We show that there is a relatively small difference between the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities which is attributed to the unique 3D-structure of the composites. This new knowledge gives a better understanding of the possibilities and limitations for using the material in electronic and electrochemical devices.

  • 23.
    Wang, Xin
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Printable microfluidic systems using pressure sensitive adhesive material for biosensing devices2013In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, ISSN 0006-3002, E-ISSN 1878-2434, Vol. 1830, no 9, p. 4398-4401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In biosensors with a fluid analyte, the integration of a microfluidic system, which guides the analyte into the sensing area, is critical. Quicker and economical ways to build up microfluidic systems will make point of care diagnostics viable. Printing is a low-cost technology that is increasingly used in emerging organic and flexible electronics and biosensors. In this paper, we present printed fluidic systems on flexible substrates made with pressure sensitive adhesive materials. Methods Printable pressure sensitive adhesive materials have been used for making microfluidic systems. Flexible substrates have been used, and two types of adhesive materials, one thermally dried and another UV curable, have been tested. Top sealing layer was laminated directly on top of the printed microfluidic structure. Flow tests were done with deionized water. Results Flow tests with deionized water show that both adhesive materials are suitable for capillary flow driven fluidic devices. Flow test using water as dielectric material was also done successfully on a printed electrolyte gated organic field effect transistor with an integrated microfluidic system. General significance Due to its ease of process and low cost, printed microfluidic system is believed to find more applications in biosensing devices. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organic Bioelectronics - Novel Applications in Biomedicine.

  • 24.
    Wang, Xin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Say, M. G.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Lassnig, Roman
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Berggren, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Engquist, Isak
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Upscalable ultra thick rayon carbon felt based hybrid organic-inorganic electrodes for high energy density supercapacitors2022In: Energy Storage, ISSN 2578-4862, Vol. 4, no 5, article id e348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low weight, small footprint, and high performances are essential requisites for the implementation of energy storage devices within consumer electronics. One way to achieve these goals is to increase the thickness of the active material layer. In this work, carbonized and graphitized rayon felt, a cellulose-derived material, is used as a three-dimensional current collector scaffold to enable the incorporation of large amount of active energy storage materials and ionic liquid-based gel electrolyte in the supercapacitor devices. PEDOT:PSS, alone or in combination with active carbon, has been used as the active material. Three-dimensional supercapacitors with high per unit area capacitance (more than 1.1 F/cm2) have been achieved owing to the loading of large amount of active material in the felt matrix. Areal energy density of more than 101 μWh/cm2 and areal power density of more than 5.9 mW/cm2 have been achieved for 0.8 V operating voltage at a current density of 1 mA/cm2. A nanographite material was found to be beneficial in reducing the internal serial resistance of the supercapacitor to lower than 1.7 Ω. Furthermore, it was shown that even after 2000 times cycling test, the devices could still retain its performance with at least 88% coulombic efficiency for all the devices. All the materials are readily available commercially, environmentally sustainable and the process can potentially be upscaled with industrial process. © 2022 The Authors.

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