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  • 1.
    Frisk Garcia, Madeleine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Malmö University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Examining property and neighborhood effects on perceived safety in urban environments: Proximity to square and heights of buildings2024Ingår i: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 150, artikel-id 105069Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Residents’ perceived safety is key to improving livelihoods and reducing disparities between neighborhoods in Sweden. Neighborhood interventions may be more cost-effective than individual-level interventions in addressing major societal issues such as unequal levels of safety between neighborhoods. However, most studies investigating the impact of neighborhood characteristics on perceived safety suffer from either poor data quality, too few respondents per statistical unit, large units of analysis, or a lack of longitudinally collected data. This study aims to fill this gap by combining property-specific longitudinal sociodemographic data with customer satisfaction survey data (N = 147,965) collected between 2013–2014 and 2016–2021 in Gothenburg. Using two multilevel models, we examined the relationship between perceived safety and both property-level and area-level structural characteristics, testing three hypotheses. Consistent with prior research, we find that sociodemographic and urban environmental characteristics influenced perceptions of safety. The multilevel analyses reveal that proximity to the square is associated with lower levels of perceived safety, particularly among residents living within 0–100 m of the square in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Moreover, the results show that living in taller buildings of 10–16 floors is associated with lower levels of safety. 

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  • 2.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Data-driven prediction of PVC flooring in the Swedish building stock2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    PVC flooring accounts for a significant share of PVC use in the construction sector and has great potential for recycling. Nevertheless, the actual recycling rate of PVC flooring spillage in 2018 was less than 20%, according to the national system for the separate collection and recycling of material residues from the installation of PVC floorings, developed by flooring manufacturer Tarkett AB and now used by all manufacturers in the flooring industry. To improve the sorting and recycling process of old PVC flooring it is necessary to identify where the material is located and evaluate its recycling potential. Such information is crucial for demolition waste recycling companies and flooring manufacturers to improve recycling practices for PVC flooring and then use the recycled PVC materials in the new flooring production. The challenge is to find out in which buildings there is PVC flooring and when it was installed which will indicate when it is planned to be dismantled and replaced. Since the PVC flooring manufactures do not keep track on where their products are laid such information is lacking. The best source of information that was made available for the researchers appeared to be the public building owners´ maintenance plans. Therefore, it was decided to focus on the presence of PVC flooring in public preschools as an example. By combining data from maintenance plans with national building registers, the PVC flooring in the Swedish preschools have been forecasted. The project results show an example how limited data sources can be used to predict presence of materials in larger stocks and is therefore expected to contribute to a climate-neutral supply chain with recycled PVC flooring. Based on the results of this study, dialogue, recommendations and guidelines can be developed for the flooring industry, the waste and recycling industry and the Swedish real estate and construction sector.

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  • 3.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Development of an energy atlas for renovation of the multifamily building stock in Sweden2017Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 203, s. 723-736Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have highlighted the importance of retrofitting to mitigate the energy use of building stocks. An important step in the development of renovation strategy and energy conservation advising is to gather information of the energy performance of the existing buildings. However, renovation strategies must also consider the socio-economic challenges associated with the cost of energy retrofitting. This paper describes the development of an energy atlas of the multifamily building stock in Sweden for visualizing and analyzing energy use and renovation needs. The atlas has been developed using Extract Transform and Load technology (ETL) to aggregate information on the energy performance, building ownership, renovation status, and socio-economic status of inhabitants from various data sources. The atlas can visualize the energy use and renovation status of multifamily buildings in 2D maps and 3D models, displaying data for either individual buildings or aggregated data on spatial scales ranging from 250 × 250 m squares through district and municipality to county areas. A demonstration of its use on national and city scales indicates that energy retrofits of multifamily buildings reaching a service life of 50 years can reduce the energy use of the existing building stock by up to 50% relative to 1990. However, costs associated with renovation and energy retrofits of multifamily buildings can be problematic, especially in economically weak suburbs. A good understanding of past and future renovation needs and socio-economic consequences is important in the development of a sustainable national renovation strategy. © 2017

  • 4.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Bohman, Helena
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    von Platten, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Increased rent misspent?: How ownership matters for renovation and rent increases in rental housing in Sweden2023Ingår i: International journal of housing policy, ISSN 1949-1247, E-ISSN 1949-1255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Renovations of the housing rental stock have become a political concern since they have been claimed to drive gentrification and affect tenants’ everyday lives as well as long-term housing conditions. Furthermore, new actors have entered the market, partly as a result of high supply on the international capital markets creating a flow of capital into market segments. This has led to a critique of private equity in the housing sector, and raised the question of the extent to which ownership of the rental stock matters for housing affordability. Yet there seems to be little systematic research on this topic. This study uses a unique dataset covering the entire rental housing stock in Sweden to address whether there are differences in renovation investments between different ownership groups. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of how ownership affects renovation processes, and specifically to analyse to what extent, and how, private and public actors differ in renovation and rent setting decisions. Our results demonstrate that public housing companies raised rents less and renovated more, particularly in the lower-income segments of the multi-family building stock between 2014 and 2020. © 2023 The Author(s). 

  • 5.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Durgun, Özüm
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fastighetsägares förutsättningar för renovering av sina byggnadsbestånd från miljonprogramstiden2018Ingår i: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, Vol. 2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn står inför ett stort renoveringsbehov. Byggnader från miljonprogramstiden har nått en ålder då många olika byggnadsdelar når sin förväntade livslängd. Detta renoveringsbehov är inte jämnt fördelat bland Sveriges fastighetsägare. Det stora flertalet av de ännu ej renoverade byggnaderna från miljonprogramstiden ägs av fastighetsbolag knutna till SABO, men det finns även många privata fastighetsägare och bostadsrättsföreningar som har ett eftersläpande renoveringsbehov eller som har renoverat men fortfarande har en hög energianvändning och alltså troligtvis inte genomfört nödvändiga energieffektiviseringsåtgärder. Det finns också olika förutsättningar för att göra de investeringar som krävs, vilket beror på företagens soliditet, fastigheternas värde och möjligheten att få lån, utrymme för hyresökning etc. Detta gör att renoveringstakten inte kommer att täcka renoveringsbehovet och att vissa delar av fastighetsbeståndet kommer att vara mer eftersatt.

  • 6.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nya digitala verktyg ger bättre bild av renoveringsbehovet2017Ingår i: Bygg & Teknik, nr 5, s. 4Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn är inne i en period av mycket hög aktivitet. Över 700 000 nya bostäder efterfrågas, samtidigt som miljonprogrammets byggnader börjar nå sin förväntade livslängd. Detta är en enorm utmaning, men det är också en möjlighet, där vi kan nå energi- och klimatmål och skapagoda boendemiljöer till rimlig kostnad.

  • 7.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Österbring, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Overland, Conny
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallbaum, Holger
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Building Ownership, Renovation Investments, and Energy Performance - A Study of Multi-Family Dwellings in Gothenburg2018Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikel-id 1684Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European building stock was renewed at a rapid pace during the period 1950–1975.In many European countries, the building stock from this time needs to be renovated, and thereare opportunities to introduce energy efficiency measures in the renovation process. Informationavailability and increasingly available analysis tools make it possible to assess the impact of policyand regulation. This article describes methods developed for analyzing investments in renovationand energy performance based on building ownership and inhabitant socio-economic informationdeveloped for Swedish authorities, to be used for the Swedish national renovations strategy in2019. This was done by analyzing measured energy usage and renovation investments made duringthe last 30 years, coupled with building specific official information of buildings and resident areacharacteristics, for multi-family dwellings in Gothenburg (N = 6319). The statistical analyses showthat more costly renovations lead to decreasing energy usage for heating, but buildings that havebeen renovated during the last decades have a higher energy usage when accounting for currentheating system, ownership, and resident socio-economic background. It is appropriate to includean affordability aspect in larger renovation projects since economically disadvantaged groups areover-represented in buildings with poorer energy performance.

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  • 8.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, D.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Femenias, P.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Eriksson, P.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Donarelli, A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Energy use patterns and renovations of Swedish second homes2023Ingår i: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, nr 1, artikel-id 012011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During and post pandemic more people spent time in their second homes, which is expected to have led to higher energy use for heating. The knowledge of energy performance, heating systems, energy renovation and use patterns of second homes is still poor. The aim of the research is therefore to compile available information from building registers but also to empirically investigate user patterns, heating source and the renovation and energy efficiency measures carried out in second homes. A first step is to synthesize existing knowledge and develop a method for a broad mapping in a next step. The methods used are analysing statistics from national building registers and collecting information from owners/users through a pre-survey that is developed and tested. In this paper statistics on Swedish second homes and results from a pre-survey responded by 92 second homes owners/users are reported. From statistics, the energy performance and the main heating source for second homes with an EPC are identified. Despite the limited sample, the results from the pre-survey give an indication of user patterns, energy renovation measures carried out, and also whether the owners care about cultural values. Based on the experience from the pre-survey, a national survey has been initiated in Sweden.

  • 9.
    von Platten, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Lund University, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Carolina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Gitter Consult AB, weden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad.
    The renewing of Energy Performance Certificates—Reaching comparability between decade-apart energy records2019Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 255, artikel-id 113902Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy Performance Certificates are currently one of the most extensive data sources about the energy performance of the EUs building stock and consequently provide support for researchers and policy makers in energy regulation. As Energy Performance Certificates are being renewed, there are new possibilities to study energy performance development over time and to evaluate the building-specific effect of energy policies and measures. This paper aims to explore this possibility. In Sweden, owners of multifamily buildings had to obtain their first Energy Performance Certificate no later than the end of 2008, and with a period of validity of 10 years many owners have now obtained a second Energy Performance Certificate for their building(s). This enables unprecedented quantitative, building-specific evaluations of the change in energy performance over time. However, comparability between old and new Energy Performance Certificates must be assured. This study develops a novel three-step method to attain comparability between old and renewed Energy Performance Certificates. Results show that while many pairs of Energy Performance Certificates were considered comparable, procedural changes in methods for determining heated floor area in Swedish Energy Performance Certificates caused an overestimation of energy performance improvement of approximately 7 kWh/m2 per building which had to be corrected for. The results of this paper indicate that old and renewed Energy Performance Certificates can be utilised to successfully map development of energy performance and enable evaluation of the impact on energy performance from policies and measures that have been carried out between the two points of audit. © 2019 The Authors

  • 10.
    von Platten, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad. Lund University, Sweden.
    Energy efficiency at what cost?: Unjust burden-sharing of rent increases in extensive energy retrofitting projects in Sweden2022Ingår i: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 92, artikel-id 102791Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although renovation costs can lead to rent increases in energy retrofitting, it is often assumed that reductions in energy costs will counterbalance the rent increase. In Swedish multifamily housing, energy costs for heating are however generally included as a fixed component in the monthly rent, meaning that the rent increase after energy retrofitting corresponds to the net change in rent level as well as energy costs for heating. This makes Sweden a methodologically advantageous setting for studying tenants' cost burden of energy retrofitting. The aim of this study was thus to investigate how energy performance improvement has affected rent increases in Swedish renovation projects between 2013 and 2019. Utilising a national database of multifamily housing, it was found that energy retrofitting entailed a cost relief for tenants in renovation projects with smaller investments. However, in renovation projects with larger investments, energy retrofitting entailed a cost burden for tenants. Moreover, public housing companies had conducted a high share of the extensive energy retrofits, leading to low-income tenant groups being disproportionately subjected to cost burdens of energy retrofitting. On the contrary, light energy retrofits with a cost relief for energy efficiency had been rather evenly distributed across income groups. These results indicate ongoing conflicts with the ability-to-pay principle in the energy transition of Swedish multifamily housing, and suggest that if low-investment energy retrofits are not sufficient for upcoming objectives and requirements, subsidies could be needed to compensate low-income tenants for the cost burden of extensive energy retrofitting. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 11.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik. Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad. Lund University, Sweden.
    Estimating the probability distributions of radioactive concrete in the building stock using Bayesian networks2023Ingår i: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 222, artikel-id 119812Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The undesirable legacy of radioactive concrete (blue concrete) in post-war dwellings contributes to increased indoor radon levels and health threats to occupants. Despite continuous decontamination efforts, blue concrete still remains in the Swedish building stock due to low traceability as the consequence of lacking systematic documentation in technical descriptions and drawings and resource-demanding large-scaled radiation screening. The paper aims to explore the predictive inference potential of learning Bayesian networks for evaluating the presence probability of blue concrete. By integrating blue concrete records from indoor radon measurements, pre-demolition audit inventories, and building registers, it is possible to estimate buildings with high probabilities of containing blue concrete and encode the dependent relationships between variables. The findings show that blue concrete is estimated to be present in more than 30% of existing buildings, more than the current expert assumptions of 18–20%. The probability of detecting blue concrete depends on the distance to historical blue concrete manufacturing plants, building class, and construction year, but it is independent of floor area and basements. Multifamily houses and buildings built between 1960 and 1968 or nearby manufacturing plants are more likely to contain blue concrete. Despite heuristic, the data-driven approach offers an overview of the extent and the probability distribution of blue concrete-prone buildings in the regional building stock. The paper contributes to method development for pattern identification for hazardous building materials, i.e., blue concrete, and the trained models can be used for risk-based inspection planning before renovation and selective demolition. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 12.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik. Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Indoor radon interval prediction in the Swedish building stock using machine learning2023Ingår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 245, artikel-id 110879Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor radon represents a health hazard for occupants. However, the indoor radon measurement rate is low in Sweden because of no mandatory requirements. Measuring indoor radon on an urban scale is complicated, machine learning exploiting existing data for pattern identification provides a cost-efficient approach to estimate indoor radon exposure in the building stock. Extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) models and deep neural network (DNN) models were developed based on indoor radon measurement records, property registers, and geogenic information. The XGBoost models showed promising results in predicting indoor radon intervals for different types of buildings with macro-F1 between 0.93 and 0.96, whereas the DNN models attained macro-F1 between 0.64 and 0.74. After that, the XGBoost models trained on the national indoor radon dataset were transferred to fit building registers in metropolitan regions to estimate the indoor radon intervals in non-measured and measured buildings by regions and building classes. By comparing the prediction results and the statistical summary of indoor radon intervals in measured buildings, the model uncertainty and validity were determined. The study ascertains the prediction performance of machine learning models in classifying indoor radon intervals and discusses the benefits and limitations of the data-driven approach. The research outcomes can assist preliminary large-scale indoor radon distribution estimation for relevant authorities and guide onsite measurements for prioritized building stock prone to indoor radon exposure. 

  • 13.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Modeling Artificial Neural Networks to Predict Asbestos-containing Materials in Residential Buildings2022Ingår i: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 1122, artikel-id 012050Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of hazardous materials inhibits material circularity. The existing residential buildings are exposed to the risk of the unforeseen presence of asbestos-containing materials during the demolition or renovation process. Estimating the potential occurrence of contaminated building components can therefore facilitate semi-selective demolition and decontamination planning. The study aims to investigate the prediction possibility of seven frequently detected asbestos-containing materials by using artificial neural networks based on a hazardous material dataset from pre-demolition audit inventories and national building registers. Through iterative model evaluation and careful hyperparameter tuning, the prediction performance for each asbestos-containing material was benchmarked. A high level of accuracy was obtained for asbestos pipe insulation and ventilation channel, yet barely any patterns were found for asbestos floor mats. Artificial neural networks show potential for classifying specific asbestos components and can enhance the knowledge of their detection patterns. However, more quality data are needed to bring the models into practice for risk assessment for not yet inventoried residential buildings. The proposed screening approach for in situ asbestos-containing materials has high applicability for the quality assurance of recycled materials in circular value chains.

  • 14.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A Data-Driven Approach to Assess the Risk of Encountering Hazardous Materials in the Building Stock Based on Environmental Inventories2021Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 14, artikel-id 7836Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of hazardous materials hinders the circular economy in construction and demolition waste management. However, traditional environmental investigations are costly and time-consuming, and thus lead to limited adoption. To deal with these challenges, the study investigated the possibility of employing registered records as input data to achieve in situ hazardous building materials management at a large scale. Through characterizing the eligible building groups in question, the risk of unexpected cost and delay due to acute abatement could be mitigated. Merging the national building registers and the environmental inventory from renovated and demolished buildings in the City of Gothenburg, a training dataset was created for data validation and statistical operations. Four types of inventories were evaluated to identify the building groups with adequate data size and data quality. The observations’ representativeness was described by plotting the distribution of building features between the Gothenburg dataset and the training dataset. Evaluating the missing data and the positive detection rates affirmed that reports and protocols could locate hazardous materials in the building stock. The asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing materials with high positive detection rates were highlighted and discussed. Moreover, the potential inventory types and building groups for future machine learning prediction were delineated through the cross-validation matrix. The novel study contributes to the method development for assessing the risk of residual hazardous materials in buildings.

  • 15.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Machine learning models for the prediction of polychlorinated biphenyls and asbestos materials in buildings2023Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 199, artikel-id 107253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazardous materials in buildings cause project uncertainty concerning schedule and cost estimation, and hinder material recovery in renovation and demolition. The study aims to identify patterns and extent of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and asbestos materials in the Swedish building stock to assess their potential presence in pre-demolition audits. Statistics and machine learning pipelines were generated for four PCB and twelve asbestos components based on environmental inventories. The models succeeded in predicting most hazardous materials in residential buildings with a minimum average performance of 0.79, and 0.78 for some hazardous components in non-residential buildings. By employing the leader models to regional building registers, the probability of hazardous materials was estimated for non-inspected building stocks. The geospatial distribution of buildings prone to contamination was further predicted for Stockholm public housing to demonstrate the models’ application. The research outcomes contribute to a cost-efficient data-driven approach to evaluating comprehensive hazardous materials in existing buildings.

  • 16.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Predicting the presence of hazardous materials in buildings using machine learning2022Ingår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 213, artikel-id 108894Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying in situ hazardous materials can improve demolition waste recyclability and reduce project uncertainties concerning cost overrun and delay. With the attempt to characterize their detection patterns in buildings, the study investigates the prediction potential of machine learning techniques with hazardous waste inventories and building registers as input data. By matching, validating, and assuring the quality of empirical data, a hazardous material dataset for training, testing, and validation was created. The objectives of the explorative study are to highlight the challenges in machine learning pipeline development and verify two prediction hypotheses. Our findings show an average of 74% and 83% accuracy rates in predicting asbestos pipe insulation in multifamily houses and PCB joints or sealants in school buildings in two major Swedish cities Gothenburg and Stockholm. Similarly, 78% and 83% of recall rates were obtained for imbalanced classification. By correlating the training sample size and cross-validation accuracy, the bias and variance issues were assessed in learning curves. In general, the models perform well on the limited dataset, yet collecting more training data can improve the model's generalizability to other building stocks, meanwhile decreasing the chance of overfitting. Furthermore, the average impact on the model output magnitude of each feature was illustrated. The proposed applied machine learning approach is promising for in situ hazardous material management and could support decision-making regarding risk evaluation in selective demolition work. © 2022 The Author(s)

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