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  • 1.
    Moya Nunez, Alice
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Börjesson, Eric
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Kinnunen, Hanna
    Valmet Technologies Oy, Finland.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Influence of PbCl2 and KCl salt mixture on high temperature corrosion of alloy 6252024In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 358, article id 130196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aggressive corrosion can occur when firing waste or bio-based fuels, due to the presence of high concentrations of heavy metals, alkali metals, and chlorides. These deleterious compounds deposit on furnace walls and can form mixtures that can rapidly accelerate corrosion. The effect of salts containing lead had not been studied extensively at temperatures lower than 400 °C in nickel-based materials. This study investigates the effect of the individual salts PbCl2 and KCl and their mixture on the high temperature corrosion of alloy 625 at 340 °C and 380 °C. Samples of alloy 625 were covered with individual salts or a salt mixture and exposed to high temperatures in an atmosphere of synthetic air, 20-vol% H2O, and 100 ppm HCl. The results show that the presence of individual salts does not induce observable corrosion attack on alloy 625 after 168 h at any tested temperature. The salt mixture did cause a severe corrosion attack at 380 °C, observed after 24 h of exposure. It is suggested that the salt mixture induces the formation of lead chromates that may prevent or disrupt the formation of a protective chromia scale. It is believed that a key part of the mechanism is the formation of eutectic melts by the interaction of the scale with the salt mixture. Thermodynamic equilibria calculations show that the first melting temperature of PbCl2 and KCl salt mixture after reaction with oxygen can be as low as about 382 °C, and even lower (357 °C) if chromates are present. 

  • 2.
    Taxén, Claes
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Moya Nunez, Alice
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Lilja, Christina
    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Stress corrosion of copper in sulfide solutions: Variations in pH-buffer, strain rate, and temperature2023In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper is the intended canister material for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. At repository depth the groundwater may contain dissolved sulfide. The main goal for this work is to study the tendency for stress corrosion of copper in sulfide solutions and examine the influence of various experimental parameters on stress corrosion. Slow strain rate testing was performed on copper test rods in solutions with 1.0 mM sulfide. The pH was kept near neutral with phosphate or borate buffer. The test matrix included variations in temperature, strain rate, and duration of the tests as well as salt and buffer concentrations. Cross-sections of the specimens after testing were investigated using scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy detector. Stress–strain curves do not reveal any signs of stress corrosion. However, intergranular corrosion in the shape of crack and pit-like features developed in all tests with 1.0 mM sulfide. The length of the deepest features in all these tests was of the same order of magnitude (10–20 µm). The suggested mechanism proposes that crack-like features originate at the surface of the copper metal from the oxidation of grain boundaries that behave as slightly less noble. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 3.
    Valiente Bermejo, Maria Asuncion
    et al.
    University West, Sweden.
    Moya Nunez, Alice
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Metal loss and corrosion attack of FeCrAl overlay welds on evaporator tube shields of a waste-fired power plant2024In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three FeCrAl alloys (APMT, EF100 and EF101) from Kanthal® and the reference Ni-Cr Alloy 625 were used as weld cladding materials on tube shields in the evaporator tube bank of a waste-fired combined heat and power plant. For each alloy type, the overlay welded tube shields were placed in both roof and floor positions within the evaporator for 6 months. The metal-loss rate, the microstructure and hardness of the overlay welds before and after exposure and the corrosion products were analysed. The results showed higher metal-loss rates in the welds placed in the roof position, confirming heterogeneities in the evaporator bank environment. Alloys were ranked from higher to lower erosion–corrosion resistance as follows: APMT ≈ Alloy 625 > EF101 > EF100. The analysis of the corrosion attacks showed a significant variation among the alloys, from a primarily homogeneous corrosion attack on APMT to intergranular corrosion in EF100 and pit formation in EF101. 

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