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  • 1.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Liv
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Aktörspreferenser i design av ett stödsystem för bio-CCS2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Avskiljning och geologisk lagring av biogen koldioxid, bio-CCS, har succesivt fått en mer framskriven funktion i svensk klimatpolitik. Möjligheten att skapa kolsänkor genom bio-CCS gör att tekniken kan bidra till det svenska målet om noll nettoutsläpp av växthusgaser till 2045. Regeringen har gett Energimyndigheten i uppdrag att sjösätta ett stödsystem för bio-CCS med start 2022. Kunskapen om hur nyckelaktörer vill utforma stödsystemet är dock bristfällig. Sådan kunskap är central för att möjliggöra en proaktiv systemdesign som lockar till deltagande. Denna studie undersöker därför preferenser för systemdesign bland aktörer inom näringslivet, den nationella förvaltningen och politiken. Syftet är att identifiera dilemman och potentiella målkonflikter. Energimyndighetens uppdrag är begränsat till att utreda ett stödsystem baserat på omvända auktioner eller fasta ersättningsnivåer, vilket också utgör huvudfokus i denna rapport. Baserat på intervjuer med 40 respondenter syns konvergens kring att statligt stöd bör kanaliseras genom omvända auktioner. I jämförelse med fasta ersättningsnivåer skapar ett auktionssystem bättre förutsättningar för att vara samhällsekonomiskt effektivt och för att harmonisera med EU:s statsstödsregler. Denna studie pekar dock på flera auktionsdilemman och potentiella målkonflikter. Exempelvis måste auktionsvolymerna matchas med den tekniska potentialen bland intresserade företag, vilket är lättare sagt än gjort. Denna studie presenterar också argument för att begränsa auktionerna genom budget- snarare än volymtak och pekar på att företagens egna kostnadsuppskattningar i många fall är betydligt högre än vad som påvisats i tidigare studier. Flera potentiella målkonflikter har också identifierats vilka är beroende av hur målsättningen med det statliga stödet preciseras. En trolig politisk målsättning är att stödet ska skapa minusutsläpp för att bidra till att uppfylla svenska klimatmål. En sådan målsättning skulle kunna stå i konflikt mot stödmottagande företags ambition att engagera sig i marknader för minusutsläppskrediter. Hur stödsystemets målsättning preciseras är avgörande för möjligheterna att hitta kompletterande finansieringskällor.

  • 2.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Schenuit, Felix
    German institute for international and security affairs (SWP), Germany.
    Lundberg, Liv
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Möllersten, Kenneth
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Böttcher, Miranda
    German institute for international and security affairs (SWP), Germany; Utrecht university, Germany.
    Rickels, Wilfried
    Kiel institute for the world economy, Germany.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Novel carbon dioxide removals techniques must be integrated into the European Union’s climate policies2023In: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the escalating climate crisis, the task of integrating novel carbon dioxide removals into the European Union’s climate policy is urgent and long overdue. Here, we argue that there is a window of opportunity for responding now, and put forward a solution.

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  • 3.
    James, Natasha
    et al.
    USDA Forest Service, USA.
    Lundberg, Liv
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sills, Erin
    The Implications of Learning on Bidding Behavior in a Repeated First Price Conservation Auction with Targeting2021In: Strategic Behavior and the Environment, ISSN 1944-012X, E-ISSN 1944-0138, Vol. 9, no 1-2, p. 69-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation auctions have been advocated as a way to increase the cost-effectiveness of payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs by reducing the informational rents captured by participating landowners. Most PES programs have continual or periodic (rather than one-time) enrollment. In repeated auctions, it is possible for participants to learn the winning bids from previous auctions and use this information to strategically set their bids, thereby capturing more informational rents. We develop an agent-based model, using data from Costa Rica’s Pago de Servicios Ambientales

  • 4.
    Lundberg, Liv
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Cintas Sanchez, Olivia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Selvakkumaran, Sujeetha
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Biodrivmedel och styrmedel i EU2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inblandning av biodrivmedel är en viktig faktor för att Sverige ska klara målet om 70 % utsläppsminskningar i transportsektorn till 2030. Sverige är redan idag en av de största konsumenterna av biodrivmedel för transporter i EU, och 85% av de biodrivmedel som används kommer från import. Sverige påverkas direkt av EU-lagstiftning för biodrivmedel, men eftersom biodrivmedel handlas internationellt påverkas vår möjlighet att importera och exportera biodrivmedel även av tillgång och efterfrågan i andra länder. För att kunna utforma effektiva svenska styrmedel är det därför viktigt att förstå hur produktion, konsumtion och styrmedel för biodrivmedel ser ut i andra länder i EU. Precis som i Sverige så drivs konsumtion av biodrivmedel i andra EU-länder framför allt av styrmedel som påverkar konsumtion. Det vanligaste styrmedlet är inblandningskvoter liknande den svenska reduktionsplikten. I det nya förnybartdirektivet från EU (RED II) som kom 2018 läggs ett större fokus på avancerade biodrivmedel och målet är att de ska utgöra minst 0,2 % 2022, 1 % 2025 och 3,5 % 2030. 2020 hade 20 EU-länder (inklusive Storbritannien) egna nationella kvoter med krav på inblandning av avancerade biodrivmedel. Sverige har än så länge inte en speciell kvot för avancerade biodrivmedel. Det finns dock ett flertal planerade anläggningar i Sverige som kan komma att bli stora producenter av avancerade biodrivmedel.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Lundberg, Liv
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Cintas Sanchez, Olivia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    The impact of blending mandates on biofuel consumption, production, emission reductions and fuel prices2023In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 183, article id 113835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector accounts for about 20% of EU’s GHG-emissions. Progress in emission reductions has been slow and primarily driven by biofuels promoted through national blending mandates. The mandates differ in whether they are measured in volume, energy, or emission reduction and in how gasoline and diesel are targeted. Due to this, national mandates and their effects have not previously been quantitatively compared on an EU level. In this article we convert the mandates for all EU member states between 2009 and 2020 to a common unit and study their impact on biofuel consumption, production, emission reductions and fuel prices. We find that mandates are driving biofuel consumption in the EU and correlates with emission reductions. Increased mandates have however often been fulfilled by blending biofuels eligible for double counting. We also find that reduction mandates have been effective in encouraging high-performance biofuels. For historical fuel prices, we do not see a clear correlation between countries’ shares of biofuel and consumer fuel prices while the global oil price has a considerable impact. For biofuel production, increased demand drive investments in the EU, but when it comes to localisation of new plants factors such as local infrastructure are more important than national mandates. 

  • 6.
    Lundberg, Liv
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    The missing piece in policy for carbon dioxide removal: reverse auctions as an interim solution2022In: Discover Energy, ISSN 2730-7719, Vol. 2, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expectation that carbon dioxide removal (CDR) will play a crucial role in the climate transition is starting to gain traction in policy. An increasing number of countries are expanding their CDR policies, from specification of objectives (via elimination of regulatory obstacles) to market development. Among the many CDR options, sustainably sourced bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is often cited as having the greatest theoretical potential. Unlocking this potential will necessitate new and robust economic incentives. However, at present, there is a serious gap between actual policy and the required incentive structures, and developing these policies in a responsible way will likely take many years. To get BECCS started sooner than it otherwise might, we argue that an interim policy for allowing BECCS to mature would help identify potential trade-offs or pitfalls, and would help test how firms react to incentives for CDR before rolling our large scale international incentive structures. In this Perspectives article, we provide an insight into the current status of BECCS and CDR policy based on interviews with key policy makers and experts. We also provide a special insight into Sweden’s development of interim policy that takes the form of a reverse auction.

  • 7.
    Mattsson, Moa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Liv
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Korda, Olga
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    An Exploratory Study on Swedish Stakeholders’ Experiences with Positive Energy Districts2023In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 12, article id 4790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive energy district (PED) is a novel idea aimed to have an annual surplus of renewable energy and net zero greenhouse gas emissions within an area. However, it is still an ambiguous concept, which might be due to the complexity of city district projects with interconnected infrastructures and numerous stakeholders involved. This study discusses various aspects of PED implementation and presents practitioners’ experiences with the PED concept, challenges, and facilitators they have faced with real projects. The study is based on interviews with ten Swedish professionals. The major challenges reported for PED implementation were local energy production and energy flexibility, sub-optimization, legislation, suitable system boundaries, and involvement of stakeholders. Most of the interviewees mentioned improved collaboration, integrated innovative technology, political support, and climate change mitigation goals as important facilitators. The interviewees highlighted the importance of a local perspective and considered each city’s preconditions when developing a PED project. The study emphasizes that to facilitate PED implementation and replication in cities, more knowledge and clarity is required about PED such as on the definition and system boundaries. © 2023 by the authors.

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