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  • 1.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Johansson, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Leirset, Ingebjørg
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Björn, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Agrenius, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Characterization and Antibacterial Properties of Autoclaved Carboxylated Wood Nanocellulose.2021In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 2779-2789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were obtained by applying a chemical pretreatment consisting of autoclaving the pulp fibers in sodium hydroxide, combined with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl-mediated oxidation. Three levels of sodium hypochlorite were applied (2.5, 3.8, and 6.0 mmol/g) to obtain CNF qualities (CNF_2.5, CNF_3.8, and CNF_6.0) with varying content of carboxyl groups, that is, 1036, 1285, and 1593 μmol/g cellulose. The cytotoxicity and skin irritation potential (indirect tests) of the CNFs were determined according to standardized in vitro testing for medical devices. We here demonstrate that autoclaving (121 °C, 20 min), which was used to sterilize the gels, caused a modification of the CNF characteristics. This was confirmed by a reduction in the viscosity of the gels, a morphological change of the nanofibrils, by an increase of the ultraviolet-visible absorbance maxima at 250 nm, reduction of the absolute zeta potential, and by an increase in aldehyde content and reducing sugars after autoclaving. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering complemented an extensive characterization of the CNF gels, before and after autoclaving. The antibacterial properties of autoclaved carboxylated CNFs were demonstrated in vitro (bacterial survival and swimming assays) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Importantly, a mouse in vivo surgical-site infection model on S. aureus revealed that CNF_3.8 showed pronounced antibacterial effect and performed as good as the antiseptic Prontosan wound gel.

  • 2.
    Herzberg, Moshe
    et al.
    Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Eliahu, Sarai
    Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
    Bodin, Lovisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Agrenius, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Zlotkin, Amir
    DisperseBio Ltd, Israel.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Efficient prevention of marine biofilm formation employing a surface-grafted repellent marine peptide2021In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, E-ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 3360-3373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creation of surfaces resistant to the formation of microbial biofilms via biomimicry has been heralded as a promising strategy to protect a range of different materials ranging from boat hulls to medical devices and surgical instruments. In our current study, we describe the successful transfer of a highly effective natural marine biofilm inhibitor to the 2D surface format. A series of cyclic peptides inspired by the natural equinatoxin II protein produced by Beadlet anemone (Actinia equine) have been evaluated for their ability to inhibit the formation of a mixed marine microbial consortium on polyamide reverse osmosis membranes. In solution, the peptides are shown to effectively inhibit settlement and biofilm formation in a nontoxic manner down to 1 nM concentrations. In addition, our study also illustrates how the peptides can be applied to disperse already established biofilms. Attachment of a hydrophobic palmitic acid tail generates a peptide suited for strong noncovalent surface interactions and allows the generation of stable noncovalent coatings. These adsorbed peptides remain attached to the surface at significant shear stress and also remain active, effectively preventing the biofilm formation over 24 h. Finally, the covalent attachment of the peptides to an acrylate surface was also evaluated and the prepared coatings display a remarkable ability to prevent surface colonization at surface loadings of 55 ng/cm2 over 48 h. The ability to retain the nontoxic antibiofilm activity, documented in solution, in the covalent 2D-format is unprecedented, and this natural peptide motif displays high potential in several material application areas.

  • 3.
    Hui, Isabel
    et al.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland.
    Pasquier, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Solberg, Amalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Agrenius, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chinga Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Biocomposites containing poly(lactic acid) and chitosan for 3D printing: Assessment of mechanical, antibacterial and in vitro biodegradability properties2023In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 147, article id 106136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New bone repair materials are needed for treatment of trauma- and disease-related skeletal defects as they still represent a major challenge in clinical practice. Additionally, new strategies are required to combat orthopedic device-related infections (ODRI), given the rising incidence of total joint replacement and fracture fixation surgeries in increasingly elderly populations. Recently, the convergence of additive manufacturing (AM) and bone tissue engineering (BTE) has facilitated the development of bone healthcare to achieve personalized three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. This study focused on the development of a 3D printable bone repair material, based on the biopolymers poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan. Two different types of PLA and chitosan differing in their molecular weight (MW) were explored. The novel feature of this research was the successful 3D printing using biocomposite filaments composed of PLA and 10 wt% chitosan, with clear chitosan entrapment within the PLA matrix confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. Tensile testing of injection molded samples indicated an increase in stiffness, compared to pure PLA scaffolds, suggesting potential for improved load-bearing characteristics in bone scaffolds. However, the potential benefit of chitosan on the biocomposite stiffness could not be reproduced in compression testing of 3D printed cylinders. The antibacterial assays confirmed antibacterial activity of chitosan when dissolved in acetic acid. The study also verified the biodegradability of the scaffolds, with a process producing an acidic environment that could potentially be neutralized by chitosan. In conclusion, the study indicated the feasibility of the proposed PLA/chitosan biocomposite for 3D printing, demonstrating adequate mechanical strength, antibacterial properties and biodegradability, which could serve as a new material for bone repair.

  • 4.
    Kjellin, Per
    et al.
    Promimic AB, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Karin
    Promimic AB, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Agrenius, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Andersson, Therese
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Biomechanical and histomorphometric evaluation of skin integration on titanium and PEEK implants with different surface treatments2022In: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 33, no 10, article id 68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Percutaneous implants are frequently affected by bacterial growth at the skin-implant interface. Integration between implant and surrounding skin is important to prevent bacteria from spreading to the underlying tissue. The standard method to evaluate skin-implant integration is by histomorphometry on samples which have been placed in tissue grown in vivo or ex vivo. In this study, a biomechanical method was developed and evaluated. The integration of implants into porcine skin was studied in an ex vivo model, where pig skin samples were cultivated in a nutrient solution. Cylindrical shaped implants, consisting of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and titanium (Ti) with different surface treatments, were implanted in the skin tissue and the skin was grown in nutrient solution for 2 weeks. The implants were then extracted from the implantation site and the mechanical force during extraction was measured as a quantitative assessment of skin-implant integration. Implants from each group were also processed for histomorphometry and the degree of epidermal downgrowth (ED) and tissue to implant contact (TIC) was measured. A higher mean pullout force was observed for the PEEK implants compared to the Ti implants. Applying nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) on Ti and PEEK increased the pullout force compared to uncoated controls, 24% for machined and 70% for blasted Ti, and 51% for machined PEEK. Treatment of Ti and PEEK with nanosized zirconium phosphate (ZrP) did not increase the pullout force. The histomorphometry analysis showed correlation between ED and pullout force, where the pullout force was inversely proportional to ED. For TIC, no significant differences were observed between the groups of same material (i.e. Ti, Ti+HA, Ti+ZrP, and PEEK, PEEK + HA, PEEK + ZrP), but it was significantly higher for PEEK compared to Ti. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was done on samples before and after the pullout tests, showing that the ZrP coating was unaffected by the 2 week ex vivo implantation and pullout procedure, no dissolution or detachment of the coating was observed. For the HA coating, a loss of coating was seen on approximately 5% of the total surface area of the implant. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 5.
    Knutsen, Maja
    et al.
    Oxy Solutions, Norway.
    Agrenius, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Ugland, Hege
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Haglerod, Camilla
    Oxy Solutions, Norway.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Oxygenated Nanocellulose - A Material Platform for Antibacterial Wound Dressing Devices2021In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, E-ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 7554-7562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and dissolved oxygen (DO) have been reported to possess antibacterial properties. However, the combination for use as wound dressings against biofilm infections in chronic wounds is less known. The present study reports the development of oxygenated CNF dispersions that exhibit strong antibacterial effect. Carboxylated CNF dispersions with different oxidation levels were oxygenated by the OXY BIO System and tested for antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The results reveal that the higher oxidation level of the CNFs, the better antibacterial effect. Scanning electron microscopy of bacterial biofilms revealed that a potential mechanism of action of the CNFs is the formation of a network surrounding and entrapping the bacteria. This effect is further potentiated by the oxygenation process. A CNF sample (concentration 0.6 wt %) that was oxygenated to a DO level of 46.4 mg/L demonstrated a strong antibacterial effect against S. aureus in vivo using a mouse model of surgical site infection. The oxygenated CNF dispersion reduced the bacterial survival by 71%, after 24 h treatment. The potent antibacterial effect indicates that oxygenated nanocellulose is a promising material for antibacterial wound dressings. © 2021 The Authors.

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