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  • 1.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Kawahara, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara. Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    The rise of electrochromics through dynamic QR codes and grayscale images in screen printed passive matrix addressed displays2022Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikkel-id 10959Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic matrix addressed displays capable of presenting arbitrary grayscale images typically require complex device architectures including switching components to provide unique pixel addressability. Here, we demonstrate high-yield manufacturing of passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays on flexible substrates by solely using screen printing. The simple pixel architecture, obtained by printing only three active layers on top of each other, concurrently provides both the electrochromic functionality and the critical non-linear pixel switching response that enables presentation of arbitrary grayscale images in the resulting passive matrix addressed displays. The all-printed display technology exhibits unprecedented performance and is further verified by dynamic QR codes, to exemplify utilization within authentication, packaging, or other emerging Internet of Things applications requiring a low-cost display for data visualization. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 2.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Aulin, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Nevo, Yuval
    Melodea Ltd, Israel.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Electrochromic Displays Screen Printed on Transparent Nanocellulose-Based Substrates2023Inngår i: Advanced Photonics Research, ISSN 2699-9293, artikkel-id 2200012Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing of electronic devices via printing techniques is often considered to be an environmentally friendly approach, partially due to the efficient utilization of materials. Traditionally, printed electronic components (e.g., sensors, transistors, and displays) are relying on flexible substrates based on plastic materials; this is especially true in electronic display applications where, most of the times, a transparent carrier is required in order to enable presentation of the display content. However, plastic-based substrates are often ruled out in end user scenarios striving toward sustainability. Paper substrates based on ordinary cellulose fibers can potentially replace plastic substrates, but the opaqueness limits the range of applications where they can be used. Herein, electrochromic displays that are manufactured, via screen printing, directly on state-of-the-art fully transparent substrates based on nanocellulose are presented. Several different nanocellulose-based substrates, based on either nanofibrillated or nanocrystalline cellulose, are manufactured and evaluated as substrates for the manufacturing of electrochromic displays, and the optical and electrical switching performances of the resulting display devices are reported and compared. The reported devices do not require the use of metals and/or transparent conductive oxides, thereby providing a sustainable all-printed electrochromic display technology.

  • 3.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Isacsson, Patrik
    Linköping University, Sweden; Ahlstrom Group Innovation, France.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Paper Electronics Utilizing Screen Printing and Vapor Phase Polymerization2023Inngår i: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 7, nr 7, artikkel-id 2300058Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of paper electronics has been accelerated due to the public push for sustainability. Electronic waste can potentially be avoided if certain materials in electronic components can be substituted for greener alternatives such as paper. Within this report, it is demonstrated that conductive polymers poly(3,4-ethylenedoxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole, and polythiophene, can be synthesized by screen printing combined with vapor phase polymerization on paper substrates and further incorporated into functional electronic components. High patterning resolution (100 µm) is achieved for all conductive polymers, with PEDOT showing impressive sheet resistance values. PEDOT is incorporated as conductive circuitry and as the active material in all-printed electrochromic displays. The conductive polymer circuits allow for functional light emitting diodes, while the electrochromic displays are comparable to commercial displays utilizing PEDOT on plastic substrates. 

  • 4.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    All-Printed Electrochromic Stickers2023Inngår i: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 308, nr 9, artikkel-id 2300044Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Displays are one of the most mature technologies in the field of printed electronics. Their ability to be manufactured in large quantities and at low cost has led to their recent uptake into the consumer market. Within this article this technology is extended to electrochromic display stickers. This is achieved using a recent reverse display architecture screen printed on textile and paper sticker substrates. The electrochromic stickers are comparable to plastic control substrates and show little performance difference even when adhered to curved surfaces. The electrochromic display technology is extended to sticker labels for authentication applications by patterning either the dielectric or the graphical layer. A proof-of-concept prototype emulating a wax seal on an envelope is presented to show that other colors can be implemented in this technology. © 2023 The Authors.

  • 5.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Hübscher, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Belaineh Yilma, Dagmawi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Combining Vapor Phase Polymerization and Screen Printing for Printed Electronics on Flexible Substrates2022Inngår i: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, nr 7, artikkel-id 2101665Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large area manufacturing of printed electronic components on ~A4-sized substrates is demonstrated by the combination of screen printing and vapor phase polymerization (VPP) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The oxidant layer required for the polymerization process is screen printed, and the resulting conductive polymer patterns are manufactured at high resolution (100 µm). Successful processing of several common oxidant species is demonstrated, and the thickness can be adjusted by altering the polymerization time. By comparing the polymer films of this work to a commercial PEDOT:PSS (PEDOT doped with poly(styrene sulfonate)) screen printing ink shows improved surface roughness (26 vs 69 nm), higher conductivity (500 vs 100 S cm–1) and better resolution (100 vs 200 µm). Organic electrochemical transistors, in which the transistor channel is polymerized into PEDOT through VPP, are also demonstrated to further emphasize on the applicability of this manufacturing approach. The resulting transistor devices are not only functional, they also show remarkable switching behavior with respect to ON current levels (–70 mA at –1 V), ON/OFF ratios (>105), switching times (tens of ms) and transconductance values (>100 mS) in standalone transistor devices, in addition to a high amplification factor (>30) upon integration into a screen printed inverter circuit. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 6.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Hübscher, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Hagel, Olle
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Large-scale paper supercapacitors on demand2022Inngår i: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 50, artikkel-id 104191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Clean, sustainable electrical energy could be the next greatest challenge and opportunity of mankind. While the creation of clean energy has been proven, the storage of such energy requires much more research and development. Battery and energy storage technology today relies heavily on rare metals which cannot support large production needs of society. Therefore, the need for energy storage technology to be created sustainably is of great importance. Recently, conductive polymers, a class of organic materials, have shown impressive results in energy storage but requires further development if this technology is to be implemented in various energy storage applications. Here, we report a new ‘on demand’ design for supercapacitors that allows for individual devices in addition to devices in parallel and in series to increase the capacitance and voltage, respectively. The individual device showed impressive capacity up to 10 F while increasing the area with the large parallel device increased the capacitance to a record 127.8 F (332.8 mF/cm2). The ‘on demand’ design also allows paper supercapacitors to be in series to increase the operating voltage with an example device showing good charging behavior up to 5 V when 4 individual paper supercapacitors were arranged in series. Finally, the paper supercapacitors were incorporated into a prototype titled: ‘Norrkoping Starry Night’ which bridges the gap between art and science. An all-printed electrochromic display showing the city of Norrkoping, Sweden, complete with a touch sensor as an on/off switch and silicon solar cells to charge the paper supercapacitors is presented to bring several printed technologies together, highlighting the possibilities of the new paper supercapacitors within this report. © 2022

  • 7.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Screen Printed Reflective Electrochromic Displays for Paper and Other Opaque Substrates2023Inngår i: ACS Applied Optical Materials, ISSN 2771-9855, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 578-586Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper electronics is a viable alternative to traditional electronics, leading to more sustainable electronics. Many challenges still require solutions before paper electronics become mainstream. Here, we present a solution to enable the manufacturing of reflective all-printed organic electrochromic displays (OECDs) on paper substrates; devices that are usually printed on transparent substrates, for example, plastics. In order to operate on opaque paper substrates, an architecture for reversely printed OECDs (rOECDs) is developed. In this architecture, the electrochromic layer is printed as the last functional layer and can therefore be viewed from the print side. Square shaped 1 cm2 rOECDs are successfully screen printed on paper, with a high manufacturing yield exceeding 99%, switching times <3 s and high color contrast (ΔE* > 27). Approximately 60% of the color is retained after 15 min in open-circuit mode. Compared to the conventional screen printed OECD architectures, the rOECDs recover approximately three times faster from storage in a dry environment, which is particularly important in systems where storage in low humidity atmosphere is required, for example, in many biosensing applications. Finally, a more complex rOECD with 9 individually addressable segments is successfully screen printed and demonstrated.

  • 8.
    Makhinia, Anatolii
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Hübscher, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    High Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors and Logic Circuits Manufactured via a Combination of Screen and Aerosol Jet Printing Techniques2022Inngår i: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, nr 10, artikkel-id 2200153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work demonstrates a novel fabrication approach based on the combination of screen and aerosol jet printing to manufacture fully printed organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and OECT-based logic circuits on PET substrates with superior performances. The use of aerosol jet printing allows for a reduction of the channel width to ≈15 µm and the estimated volume by a factor of ≈40, compared to the fully screen printed OECTs. Hence, the OECT devices and OECT-based logic circuits fabricated with the proposed approach emerge with a high ON/OFF ratio (103–104) and remarkably fast switching response, reaching an ON/OFF ratio of &gt;103 in 4–8 ms, which is further demonstrated by a propagation delay time of just above 1 ms in OECT-based logic inverter circuits operated at a frequency of 100 Hz. All-printed monolithically integrated OECT-based five-stage ring oscillator circuits further validated the concept with a resulting self-oscillation frequency of 60 Hz. © 2022 The Authors.

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