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  • 1.
    Gerhardt, Frederik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Werner, Sofia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Lundbäck, Olov
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Nisbet, J
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Olsson, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    HORSES FOR COURSES: HOW TO SELECT THE “RIGHT” WIND PROPULSION SYSTEM AND HOW TO MAKE THE BUSINESS CASE2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind propulsion systems (WPS) are major investments and the decision to install them requires careful consideration of many complex questions. In this paper we present a systematic, scientific methodology to assess the benefits and drawbacks of such systems at the early concept stage of a vessel. The purpose is to provide guidance for shipowners and operators and help them make informed decisions. The proposed method was developed into a Software tool called ‘SEAMAN Winds’ and has been correlated to full scale results. The program draws on our large database of model tests, and CFD of hulls and wind propulsion technologies. It uses the intended trading routes of the vessel as an important input, typical output data are: a) performance values (ship speed, power requirements etc.) b) environmental parameters (CO2 avoided, EEDI and EEXI reduction, carbon intensity indicator) c) financial metrics (bunker savings, payback time for installation of WPS) Potential applications of the method include making the business case for one particular WPS or investigating in how far certain systems are more suited for a specific route than others.

  • 2.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Allision modelling in IWRAP Mk II - A verification and sensitivity study2024In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures, ICCGS 2023, CRC Press/Balkema , 2024, p. 51-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is important both while planning to build new infrastructure and for maintenance of existing structures. The probability of ship-structure allisions could be estimated with IWRAP Mk II, which is a commonly used software for estimating maritime risks. However, the research coverage of the software is limited with regards to groundings and allisions. The aim of this study is to verify how IWRAP Mk II estimates the accident probability. To perform this verification a separate tool is constructed, OMRAT, based on the same theory as IWRAP Mk II. The aim is also to highlight the sensitivity of different parameters in these types of models. It is concluded that IWRAP Mk II estimates the probability of allisions and groundings with the same equations. Another conclusion is that some parameters have a linear effect on the accident probabilities and other parameters are also influenced by the model layout.

  • 3.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Allision modelling in IWRAP Mk II – A verification and sensitivity study: Chapter 82023In: Advances in the Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 9th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COLLISION AND GROUNDING OF SHIPS AND OFFSHORE STRUCTURES (ICCGS 2023), NANTES, FRANCE, 11-13 SEPTEMBER 2023, CRC Press, 2023, Vol. 12, p. 51-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is important both while planning to build new infrastructure and for maintenance of existing structures. The probability of ship-structure allisions could be estimated with IWRAP Mk II, which is a commonly used software for estimating maritime risks. However, the research coverage of the software is limited with regards to groundings and allisions. The aim of this study is to verify how IWRAP Mk II estimates the accident probability. To perform this verification a separate tool is constructed, OMRAT, based on the same theory as IWRAP Mk II. The aim is also to highlight the sensitivity of different parameters in these types of models. It is concluded that IWRAP Mk II estimates the probability of allisions and groundings with the same equations. Another conclusion is that some parameters have a linear effect on the accident probabilities and other parameters are also influenced by the model layout.

  • 4.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Economic incentives and technological limitations govern environmental impact of LNG feeder vessels2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 429, article id 139461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the transition to sustainable shipping, Liquified Natural Gas (LNG), is proposed to play a role, reducing emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter. However, LNG is a fossil fuel and there is an ongoing discussion regarding the extent of methane slip from ships operating on LNG, challenging the assumptions of LNG as a sustainable solution. Here we show another aspect to consider in the environmental assessment of shipping; LNG feeder vessels may spend as much as 25% of their time at sea just running the ship to ensure the pressure in the tanks are not exceeded, i.e., run time not directly attributed to the shipment of gas from one port or ship, to another. In other words, the economic incentives are currently allowing for roughly 32% increase of the ships’ operational emissions and discharges and increased navigational risks. Most coastal areas are heavily affected by anthropogenic activities and e.g., in the Baltic Sea there is consensus among the HELCOM member states that the input of nutrient and hazardous substances must be reduced. Even if the LNG feeder vessels are currently few, the possibility to reduce their environmental impact by 32% should be an attractive opportunity for future policy measures and investigation of technological solutions of the problem. 

  • 5.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A method for risk analysis of ship collisions with stationary infrastructure using AIS data and a ship manoeuvring simulator2021In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 235, article id 109396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents a methodology that uses AIS data and a ship manoeuvring simulator to simulate and analyse marine traffic schemes with regard to risks for accidents. An event identification method is presented, which is needed for the accident scenario part of the methodology. This is based on AIS data, where the Great Belt VTS area was used to verify the methodology. Three events that could result in ship-bridge allisions were modelled and simulated in the simulator: drifting ship, sharp turning ship and miss of turning point. The Monte Carlo method was used to perform large number of simulator runs, including a parameter sensitivity analysis. The probability of a ship allision against the Great Belt Bridge was calculated to be 0.007. Analysis of the ship-bridge allision cases was shown to be dominated by the event drifting ship. This event has a relatively low kinetic energy at the impact, and the expected allision energy for a 1,000-year allision corresponds to a 178 m tanker with 57,870 DWT and ship speed 14.6 knots. Finally, this study presents a mitigation analysis, which shows how the probability of allisions can be reduced by reducing the ship speed or altering the traffic separation scheme. © 2021 The Authors

  • 6.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    et al.
    SSPA Swedden AB, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanberg, Martin
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Holm, Henrik
    Svenska Beräkningsbyrån, Sweden.
    A Revisit of the Definition of the Ship Domain based on AIS Analysis2018In: Journal of navigation (Print), ISSN 0373-4633, E-ISSN 1469-7785, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 777-794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    When ships approach each other, they should keep a minimum area around them clear of other vessels in order to remain safe. The geometrical shape of this area has been studied since the early 1970s and is defined as the ship domain. The progress in computer capacity since then and the introduction of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) provides the potential to further investigate the size and the governing factors of the domain. This investigation revisits and proposes a method using data based on 600,000 ship encounters at 36 locations. It is concluded that the ship domain has the shape of an ellipse with half axis radii of 0.9 and 0.45 nautical miles. However, there are two factors that greatly affect the ship domain: how large the area is that is used to gather vessel intersections and whether they are constrained by water depth. In contradiction to some previous research, it is found that the ship domain is unrelated to the length of the ship.

  • 7.
    Svanberg, Martin
    et al.
    SSPA SWEDEN AB, Sweden.
    Santén, Vendela
    SSPA SWEDEN AB, Sweden.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    SSPA SWEDEN AB, Sweden.
    Holm, H.
    Svenska beräkningsbyrån AB, Sweden.
    Finnsgård, Christian
    SSPA SWEDEN AB, Sweden.
    AIS in maritime research2019In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 106, article id 103520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although not originally developed for research use, the Automatic Identification System (AIS) enables its data to be used in research. The present paper provides a structured overview of how AIS data is used for various research applications. Ten areas have been identified, spread across maritime, marine and other journals. Many stakeholders beyond the most frequently mentioned – authorities and maritime administrations – can benefit from the research in which AIS data is used. AIS data can be incorporated in various types of modelling approaches and play a small or large role as a source of data. AIS data can also be validated or used to validate research from other data sources. Although a large amount of AIS-based research adds to the literature, there is still a large potential for using AIS data for research by making greater use of the variety in AIS messages, combining AIS with other sources of data, and extending both spatial and temporal perspectives.

  • 8.
    Werner, Sofia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. SSPA, Sweden.
    Kuttenkeuler, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    SSPA, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Olov
    SSPA, Sweden.
    Razola, M.
    Wallenius Marine, Sweden.
    Dhome, U.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Performance predictions of long-distance sailing vessels2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing sailing vessels for world-wide cargo transportation requires that the trade route and weather conditions are taken into consideration in the design process. This work studies various strategies for representing the weather distribution related to the expected operational profile. The balance between accuracy and design work efficiency for the different methods is discussed and demonstrated for a wind powered car carrier concept. © HPYD 2021.All right reserved.

  • 9.
    Werner, Sofia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Kuttenkeuler, Jakob
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Olov
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Razola, Mikael
    Wallenius Marine, Sweden.
    Dhome, U
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    ROUTE EVALUATION METHODS FOR LONG-DISTANCE SAILING VESSEL PERFORMANCE PREDICTIONS2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing sailing vessels for world-wide cargo transportation requires that the trade route and weather conditions are taken into consideration in the design process when design candidates are ranked. This work studies various strategies for representing the weather distribution related to the expected operational profile. The simplest approach is to decide on a single wind speed and direction as the design point. A slightly more complex method is to derive a statical distribution of expected weather and weigh the performance at each weather condition with its expected probability. The most demanding methods are route analysis using weather optimisation. The balance between accuracy and design work efficiency for the different methods is discussed and demonstrated for a wind powered car carrier concept. As an example, two design candidates are compared, and it is shown that the ranking differs considerably depending on which route representation strategy is used. To weigh the performance using the probability of the expected weather turns out to be an efficient method that gives similar results as the time demanding complete route optimisation. However, if the EEDI Global weather matrix defined by IMO is used for the weather probability distribution instead of statistics of the actual route, the ranking of the design candidates is rather different.

  • 10.
    Werner, Sofia
    et al.
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Nisbet, J
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Nielsen, R
    Scandlines, Denmark.
    PEED TRIAL VERIFICATION FOR A WIND ASSISTED SHIP2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the number of wind assistance installations in commercial shipping grows and the industry matures, the need for fullscale verification of the performance increases. Standard procedures or guidelines for conducting such full-scale trials of are still lacking. One strategy is proposed and discussed here. The method is demonstrated using a speed trial conducted with Scandlines’ hybrid ferry Copenhagen equipped with a rotor sail. The trial result is extrapolated to yearly power saving using a statistical route analysis. With this approach, the result can be derived at a feasible cost, within a limited time frame and using commercially available tools and established procedures.

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