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  • 1.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Autonoma leveransfordon – vad är de för sorts fordon och har det någon betydelse?2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous delivery vehicles – what kind of vehicles are they and does it matter? The project GLAD – Goods deliveries during the last mile of self-driving vehicles explores how tomorrow's small autonomous delivery vehicles (ADV) could operate in the transport system. The goal of the GLAD project is to develop knowledge about the needs and challenges of such vehicles in Sweden before they are in real operation. In the project, there are several work packages that work with different challenges in relation to ADV. To explore these issues, the project has developed a prototype of an ADV, which is based on a vehicle which today is classified as a three-wheeled moped. But designed as an ADV it could be a different kind of vehicle. One result from one of the work packages in the project is that ADVs driving on public roads should maintain the same speed as other traffic to avoid critical traffic situations. This means that ADVs should be able to drive at a maximum speed of 70 km/h. Another requirement is that the ADVs should be able of carrying a load of 500 kg. These requirements are a conclusion from interviews with drivers of small manually driven delivery vehicles about how they experience today's traffic situations, from which type of road they use and how they use their vehicles. The purpose of this report is to identify obstacles and opportunities from a regulatory perspective to implement ADVs in Sweden in a safe way. Rules that may affect the development of ADVs are, for example, whether they are covered by the Machinery Directive or whether they should be type approved. Other rules concern license plates, motor liability insurance, where the vehicles may be driven and driving license requirements. The aim of the legislations is to create a safe vehicle to use. After a review of existing regulations, it is closest at hand that future ADVs, based on the requirements set in the project, are classified as a 4-wheel heavy motorcycle for the transport of goods. The vehicle also needs a type-approval. It can be argued that an ADV with that weight and speed will have a lot to prove from a safety perspective in a type-approval process and that a market introduction is therefore further away in time. If the speed requirements are lowered instead i.e., maximum of 30 km/h, it could be classified as a motor tool. The advantage of motor tools is that these must be CE-marked by the manufacturer, which in turn means that they have a shorter time to market because the process does not involve a type-approval agency.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Legala hinder och möjligheter för obemannade off-peak leveranser2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I projektet Hållbara & Integrerade urbana Transport System - HITS2024 har det bl.a. arbetats med att testa och demonstrera off-peak leveranser. Med off-peak leveranser avses förenklat leveranser som sker under de timmar på dygnet då det råder lågtrafik t.ex. nattetid. I projektet har HAVI levererat varor till en restaurang nattetid i Stock-holm. Detta har även demonstrerats i ett tidigare projekt kallat Eccentric. Skillnaden mellan de olika projekten är att i det äldre projektet fanns personal på plats i restau-rangen och tog emot varorna. I HITS2024 projektet fanns det inte någon personal på plats i restaurangen för att ta emot varorna. Båda projekten visar att det är praktiskt genomförbart att leverera varor off-peak och att det bidrar till en ökad transport-effektivitet. Jämfört med att leverera varor i rusningstid var tidsbesparingen ca 30 % för transpor-tören med off-peak leveranser i Eccentric projektet. Eccentric projektet visade även att effektivitetsvinsterna var ojämnt fördelade. Mottagaren (köparen) av varorna gjorde marginella effektivitetsvinster. För avsändaren (säljaren) redovisades inga effektivitets-vinster alls. I HITS2024 projektet ställde vi oss frågan - givet de stora effektivitets-vinster en transportör gör med off-peak leveranser - varför görs inte detta redan i stor skala? Kan det finnas något inom juridiken som hindrar utvecklingen av off-peak leve-ranser? Finns det rent av möjligheter inom juridiken som skulle kunna användas för att driva på utvecklingen mot fler off-peak leveranser? Syftet med den här rapporten är således att visa på legala hinder och möjligheter med (delvis) obemannade off-peak leveranser. Frågan kan bli än mer aktuell i en framtida värld med autonoma fordon som utför obemannade leveranser.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Regelverk för datadelning inom citylogistik: nulägesanalys2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all data sharing regulations have origins from the EU. At EU level, three trends can be identified for data sharing. The first trend is that data sharing more and more is regulated by legislation. Current regulations are being amended and many new regulations are underway within the EU. Data sharing legislations are thus in an expansive phase. There are also many reasons why the EU believes that a certain regulatory framework is needed, such as: • Information security: Historically, information security has generated a large amount of activity in the field of regulatory framework. This includes, for example, cyber security and preventing data breaches. • Human health: Human health is also a reason to regulate data sharing. Examples of regulations in this area are the GDPR and sharing of sensitive personal data. • Consumer protection: There are also regulations aimed at strengthening consumer protection and ensuring that, for example, digital services are safe for consumers to share data in. • A free and efficient internal market: For the EU, it is important to create an internal market for data sharing. Many regulations are aimed at ensuring that SMEs can compete with large companies. Example of legislation in this area is the Platform Regulation. • Increased innovation power: For the EU, it is also important to increase innovation capacity in the internal market. One way is to protect innovations through, for example, copyright and trade secrets rules. • Increased transparency and trust: To create an internal market, people and companies also need to feel safe sharing data. Example of legislation within this area is the proposed Data Governance Act. • Fundamental rights and freedoms: Finally, the EU is reassessing in many regulatory frameworks in terms of respect of fundamental human rights and freedoms. Examples of regulations in this area are the GDPR and the e-Privacy regulation. The EU is also working on developing a code on this theme. The code shall guide the future work on the develop of new legislation. The second trend is for the EU to encourage industry organizations to develop voluntary rules on data sharing (code of conduct) to accelerate the creation of an internal market for data sharing. An example of this is the Code of Conduct for sharing agricultural data in agreements. The Free Flow of non-personal data regulation would also like to see industry organizations develop principles for data sharing. The third trend is that the EU would like to see us all make more data publicly available or that we donate data, both from authorities and individuals (open data and altruism). Examples of this are the Open Data Directive and the forthcoming Data Governance Act. In this lies a conflict of interest between information security and open data that is not easy to solve. The challenge lies in the fact that each individual dataset itself does not have to reveal anything sensitive. However, if many datasets are added together, aggregated data can reveal too much. The EU is also interested in data sharing for certain sectors, of which vehicles and mobility is an area that is becoming more and more regulated in terms of data sharing. Here, a lot of new regulations are expected that will have a major impact on the sector, both in terms of vehicle development but also in terms of the development of new business models. The trend is towards vehicle manufacturers being increasingly forced to share data with authorities. When it comes to logistics, the pressure from new legislation about data sharing is not as clear. The existing legislation is more about the safe distribution of goods in a crisis or regarding sharing data from certain goods e.g., tobacco. What problems does the EU address in its mobility and vehicle regulations? • Human health: Compared to the general regulatory framework, there is a clear emphasis on human health and data sharing in the regulations. It is both about data sharing related to air quality but also road safety. • Consumer protection: There are also regulations aimed at strengthening consumer protection, e.g., for manufacturers to inform consumers about how much exhaust fumes a particular vehicle emits so that the consumer can make an informed choice based on this aspect between different manufacturers. • A free functioning efficient internal market: Examples of legislation in this area are the access of independent branded workshops to data from connected vehicles to increase competition. At EU level, there are several regulatory frameworks in the pipeline that will have a major impact on what we want to explore in our project. In the HITS2024 project, we want to explore and test efficient city logistics based on different vehicle concepts and logistics solutions. At EU level, a forthcoming e-Privacy Regulation is being discussed. The regulation will dictate how data from vehicles is allowed to be transfer to a cloud solution i.e., the connection as such. The e-Privacy Regulation is closely related to the GDPR, but there are also differences between these regulations. The GDPR accepts consent and balancing of interests to collect personal data while the e-Privacy Regulation only accepts consent (at the time of writing). The challenge for the automotive industry, for example, is that an autonomous vehicle can only collect personal data based on balancing interests because it is not doable to work with consent. However, if the e-Privacy Regulation in its current state is approved, the data will not be allowed to leave the vehicle because there is no consent. Another challenge is the upcoming AI Act. The AI Act distinguishes between technologies that already have an international regulatory framework for, e.g., type approval of a truck and technology where only the EU regulates the issue, e.g., machines. But a vehicle consists of many different “parts” and not all parts are type approved. How do you fit different technologies and different legislation together in an autonomous truck? In the logistics area, the upcoming Data Act can be of great importance as it will be about data sharing between companies. Until now, coordination between different data regulations has not always been optimal. The same phenomenon has been regulated in different regulations. There is a risk that different regulations in the future will find it difficult to co-exist with each other. How will, for example, GDPR, e-Privacy regulation and Data Act work together in a vehicle and logistics context? Developments in this area need to be followed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Transportdispenser: Analys av nutid och förslag på framtid2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Some transports considered too wide, too heavy, or too long to be driven on public roads must nevertheless be allowed to take place because of their societal importance. Such transports are granted a formal exception to the traffic rules. In this project, together with industry and national and local authorities we have analysed this process and submitted several proposals for improvement measures for consideration. The focus has been on increased digitalisation and improved legal processes. The analysis is based on interviews with municipal administrators, transporters and clients and representatives from Sweden's municipalities and regions, the Swedish Transport Administration, the Swedish Transport Agency, and the Swedish Police Authority. The interviews show substantial differences between how the Swedish Transport Administration and municipalities work with exemptions. Based on our analysis, we propose several individual measures as well as three design scenarios suggesting future opportunities for an improved process.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Fordonsdata till allmänhetens nytta - geofencing och affärsmodeller2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fordonsdata kan i framtiden vara till stor nytta för myndigheter på olika sätt. Än så länge samlar myndigheter in fordonsdata i begränsad omfattning. Det kan t.ex. handla om att genom offentlig upphandling pröva nya sätt för att kontrollera kvaliteten på utförd snöröjning. Trots att det finns ett intresse från både privata och offentliga aktörer att genomföra affärer kring fordonsdata är det ändå svårt för marknaden att ta fart. 

    Frågan om hur fordonsdata kan kommersialiseras med offentliga aktörer som köpare har därför undersökts inom Drive Sweden Policy Lab i samarbete med CeViss-projektet (Cloud enhanced cooperative traffic safety using vehicle sensor data). CeViss-projektet har undersökt smarta kameror och hur de bl.a. kan användas för att varna andra förare för vilda djur vid vägen eller informera SOS Alarm om hur det ser ut vid en olycksplats. 

    Förutsättningarna för lyckad kommersialisering kan sammanfattas under tre rubriker - affären, tekniken och juridiken. Vi ser att affären ligger i förmåga att erbjuda aggregerade data där olika datamängder korsbefruktas och därmed skapar ett större värde än de ingående datamängderna besitter var för sig. Kommersiella aktörer pekar på att rollen att aggregera data, eller förädla den, är mest intressant, eftersom det innebär en möjlighet att utveckla tjänster. En sådan tjänst förutsätter tillgång till en säker uppkoppling och överföring. Det är också resurskrävande att förädla data och styra rätt överföring, liksom att se över, anpassa och ta fram avtal som gör korsbefruktning av data och överföring av rätt data juridiskt möjlig. Här spelar individens integritet kontra samhällets behov av data en stor roll. Det är inte heller klart vilket behov aktörer inom olika samhällssektorer har av fordonsdata, samt hur dessa kommer att få tag i fordonsdata. 

    Utmaningen för industrin ligger i att våga lita på att det finns en hållbar affär med myndigheten i längden, dvs. att det finns en tillräckligt stor betalningsvilja från samhällets sida även när data anses samhällskritisk viktigt. För att främja kommersialisering är det bra att börja med ett specifikt utvalt område för att utarbeta processer, avtal, tekniklösningar, affärs-modeller och så vidare. 

    Geofencing hade kunnat vara en möjlighet att skapa de avgränsningar som behövs för en första affär, samtidigt som det skulle skapa tydlighet om var och när data samlas in från fordon. En sådan avgränsning hade också kunnat tjäna som en regulatorisk sandlåda för att utvärdera möjligheten till avtal som är hållbara över tid, det vill säga där det är rimligt att inom vissa gränser använda data på nya sätt eller för nya syften. 

    Rapporten avslutas med en sammanställning av geofencing och datadelning ur ett juridiskt perspektiv samt en beskrivning av Drive Sweden Policy Lab. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    RISE Policylabb – de första fem åren2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we have compiled our learnings and experiences of working with Policy Lab. Policy Labs have come about as an answer to the question "Can you work with policy and regulatory development in a better way than today?". Our answer to the question is a yes. Our hope with the report is that others will become interested and start their own Policy Lab. Abroad, there are many Policy Labs, but in Sweden there are only a few, which is why we believe there is room for more. There is not a given way to work with Policy Labs once and for all, but each Policy Lab is unique based on its context. Sweden's innovation agency Vinnova defines Policy Labs as follows: "Policy Labs can be explained as a group of actors with different competencies who want to develop a regulatory framework. In the Policy Lab, they use a set of user-centric methods and competencies to test, experiment, and learn in policy development."1 In our Policy Lab, we have worked in various research projects to: 1. analyse challenges/problems that arise between innovations, technology, market, and regulations, 2. develop one or more workable solutions and 3. interact with relevant actors to determine the next steps. What distinguishes our Policy Lab is that we never “own” the issue or solution. We must therefore always work with other actors who can take the results further. Our goal is to enable and skill people. This means that for us it is important to work concretely with real problems and needs owners and preferably test different solutions. We focus on the here and now perspective and not on what the future will look like in 10 years. It is about taking the next step forward towards the future, not creating the best rule, but instead creating the next rule. We also work consistently agile and use design as a method for problem solving. This means that the way we organize our work in the Policy Lab is circular and not linear. When it comes to using design as a method for problem solving, we use the concepts of "design thinking" and "double diamond". For us, it is also important that the members of the Policy Lab have different backgrounds and skills depending on what is needed in the individual project....

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Self-certification of Autonomous Buses2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It will still be a few years before we will have autonomous buses driving city streets and squares without drivers. On the other hand, it should be possible to have autonomous buses in a depot at an early stage in order to ensure more efficient maintenance of the vehicles when they are not in service, while at the same time learning how to be part of future operations. Such buses would be type-approved for manual traffic (SAE level 0-2), but not approved for autonomous road operation (SAE level 4-5). During the span of a single day, the bus will therefore alternate between the regulations for enclosed (fenced depot) and non-enclosed (road) areas, between being autonomous and not autonomous.

    The bus, which was previously a legal “static whole”, will now instead be tested based on two regulations depending on the environment it is in at any given time and level of autonomy. This is a completely new situation: that a bus is “dynamically divisible” from a regulatory perspective, which has significance in terms of who shall decide whether the vehicle is safe to use in a certain environment.

    After analysing the challenges based on existing regulations, interviewing relevant authorities, arranging workshops with various stakeholders and meetings with experts in certification, our conclusion is that, in order to be considered safe in autonomous mode within the depot, the bus should be self-certified by means of CE marking according to the Machinery Directive1. This is the authors’ conclusion and not necessarily representative of the other parties involved in the project.

    We predict that we will see more self-certification of autonomous vehicles in the future. Partly because there are such large international markets working in this way, such as in North America, and partly because it enables faster market introduction of dynamic vehicle concepts. With “dynamic vehicle concept” we mean vehicles that gain new areas of application by replacing the chassis or changing software settings and are thus converted from a bus to a truck or from a car to quadricycle. Maybe even several times a day.

    Self-certification, however, will also increase the need for standardisation, both for processes and products. Processes may involve how a vehicle can be certified, particularly how the risk analysis should be carried out. In terms of products, standardised descriptions of the technology’s function will facilitate proprietary self-certification since operators know how to describe their own products, including how their certification should be structured based on the constituent certified components. Current regulations will also need to be updated if more vehicles are to be self-certified, such as the Machinery Directive.

    Lastly, we would like to communicate the method used to reach our conclusions. The project has been carried out as a Policy Lab where we have brought together various stakeholders around a common challenge. This has enabled us to concretise both the challenge of autonomous vehicles within the enclosed area and our conclusions. The  method selected has also given relevant authorities the opportunity to familiarise themselves with how they should relate to tomorrow’s technology without having to present a view on how they will relate to a specific test or vehicle. In this way, Swedish authorities will be ready to adopt technical innovations once they are introduced to the market.

    This report is structured so that Section 2 describes the current regulatory framework, particularly in terms of the distinction between the Machinery Directive and vehicle type-approval. Section 3 uses specific examples to describe business operations pertaining to autonomous buses in a depot. Section 4 presents the authors’ conclusions based on how the regulations relate to the specific details obtained from the depot pilot. Section 5 presents the full picture by relating our conclusions to what is happening internationally and how the national ordinance on autonomous vehicle trials on roads corresponds to international trends. Lastly, in Section 6, we provide a summary of what we consider to be the most important issues for which further work should be carried out.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Självcertifiering av autonoma bussar2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det kommer att dröja några år innan vi har autonoma bussar som utan förare kör runt på stadens gator och torg. Däremot borde det tidigt gå att ha autonoma bussar i en depå för att få ett effektivare underhåll av fordonen när de inte är i tjänst, samtidigt som man lär sig hur de ska ingå i den framtida verksamheten. Sådana bussar skulle vara typgodkända för vägtrafik med manuell förare (SAE-nivå 0-2), men inte godkända för autonom drift på väg (SAE-nivå 4 eller 5). Under ett och samma dygn kommer bussen därför att ”hoppa” mellan regelverken för inhägnat område (depå) respektive inte inhägnat område (väg), mellan att vara autonom och inte autonom.Bussen, som tidigare var en juridisk ”statisk helhet”, kommer nu istället att prövas utifrån två regelverk beroende på vilken miljö den befinner sig i och på graden av automation. Detta är en helt ny situation, att en buss blir ”dynamiskt delbar” ur ett regelverksperspektiv, vilket i sin tur får konsekvenser för vem som ska bestämma att fordonet är säkert att använda i en viss miljö.Efter att ha analyserat utmaningen utifrån existerande regelverk, intervjuat berörda myndigheter, anordnat workshops med olika intressenter och arbetsmöten med experter inom certifiering är vår slutsats att bussen ska självcertifieras genom CE-märkning utifrån maskindirektivet för att anses säker i autonomt läge inom depån. Detta är författarnas slutsats och den är inte nödvändigtvis representativ för de andra parter som varit med i arbetet.Vi förutspår att vi kommer att få se mer självcertifiering av autonoma fordon i framtiden. Dels för att det är så den nordamerikanska marknaden arbetar, dels för att det möjliggör en snabbare marknadsintroduktion av dynamiska fordonskoncept. Med dynamiska fordonskoncept syftar vi på fordon som får ett nytt användningsområde genom att byta chassit eller ändra mjukvaruinställningar och därmed går från att vara buss till lastbil eller från personbil till mopedbil. Kanske till och med flera gånger om dagen.Med mer självcertifiering kommer också behovet av standardisering öka, både för processer och produkter. När det gäller processer kan det röra sig om hur man certifierar ett fordon, framförallt hur man gör riskanalysen. För produkter kommer standardiserade beskrivningar av teknikens funktionalitet underlätta den egna självcertifieringen då man vet hur man ska beskriva sin produkt, men också hur man kan bygga sin certifiering utifrån de ingående certifierade komponenterna. Även dagens regelverk kommer behöva uppdateras om fler fordon kan självcertifieras.Avslutningsvis vill vi lyfta den använda metoden bakom slutsatserna. Projektet har genomförts som ett Policy Lab där vi samlat olika aktörer runt en gemensam utmaning. På så sätt har vi förankrat både utmaningen kring autonoma fordon inom inhägnat område och våra slutsatser i konkreta detaljer. Valet av metod har också gett relevanta myndigheter möjlighet att sätta sig in i hur de bör förhålla sig till morgondagens teknik utan att behöva ge ett förhandsbesked om hur de kommer att förhålla sig till ett specifikt fordon eller försök. På så sätt är svenska myndigheter redo att ta sig an tekniska innovationer när de väl introduceras på marknaden.Den här rapporten är strukturerad så att avsnitt 2 redogör för de aktuella regelverken, framförallt gällande distinktionen mellan maskindirektivet och typgodkännande av fordon. I avsnitt 3 redogör vi för affären för autonoma bussar i en depå med konkreta exempel. Avsnitt 4 innehåller författarnas slutsatser utifrån hur regelverken förhåller sig till de konkreta detaljerna som fås från depå-piloten. Den större bilden ges i avsnitt 5 genom att relatera våra slutsatser till vad som händer internationellt och hur den nationella försöksförordningen för autonoma fordon på väg motsvarar de internationella trenderna. Slutligen sammanfattar vi i avsnitt 6 med en resumé och de viktigaste frågorna enligt vår syn att arbeta vidare med.  

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    AutonomBussCE
  • 9.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Hellström, Anna-Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Challenges and opportunities with the EU Taxonomy Regulation– with focus on chemical safety and usage in complex products2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Policy Lab processes has been growing in Sweden and other countries to accelerate the adaptation of regulations to emerging technologies. Policy Lab facilitates active collaboration between relevant authorities, companies, and stakeholders through interactive and iterative methods based on Design Thinking principles. This approach bridges the gap between the legislative domain responsible for developing regulatory frameworks and the innovative companies that create solutions for emerging markets using new technologies and opportunities. In our study, we applied Policy Lab processes to the EU Taxonomy Regulation to identify challenges and opportunities related to chemical safety and usage for manufacturers of complex products. The EU Taxonomy Regulation, along with its delegated acts, represent a serious effort to establish standardized sustainability reporting within EU. However, it is still in its early stages and lacks maturity. Moreover, certain ambiguities within the regulation currently prevent a comprehensive comparison of companies due to the development of other legislations. Addressing these gaps depends on the future development of, for example, REACH. Our conclusion is that the EU Taxonomy Regulation is part of a larger “movement” that reflects the policymakers’ intentions. This intention also includes increased data sharing at a significantly different level compared to current practices. In the long run, the shift will enable authorities to access the data and develop new legislations. Our specific focus was on the objective of pollution prevention and control regarding the use and presence of hazardous substances listed in Appendix C of the EU Taxonomy Regulation. According to Appendix C, activities must not lead to the manufacture, placing on the market or use of listed substances, whether on their own, in mixture or in articles. Regarding listed substances, reference is made to existing EU legislation that regulates hazardous substances within the EU. The most challenging aspect in Appendix C is point (g), which aims to identify substances, whether alone, in mixtures, or in articles, that meet the criteria set out in Article 57 of REACH but are not yet included in the Candidate list. Our workshops, interviews, and literature review confirmed that the main challenge in meeting the criteria of Appendix C, specifically point (g) is the need to enhance transparency and traceability throughout supply chains. Overcoming these challenges requires addressing barriers, such as the lack of a harmonized regulatory framework across the value chain, the need for faster identification and restriction of hazardous substances, and the reinforcement of stronger enforcement measures. The enabling of full declaration of the hazardous properties and functions of the substances, while considering the balance between information disclosure and protecting trade secrets, would reduce the need for extensive tracking of substance of very high concern along the value chain. To improve communication along the value chain and identify data gaps while protecting trade secrets, workshop participants have proposed the use of a user-friendly interface based on traffic light scenario. This interface would serve as a filter mechanism, allowing product manufacturers to establish specific criteria for material suppliers to respond to. The objective is to enhance communication, establish criteria, and effectively identify data gaps. While the SCIP database ensures accessibility of information on articles containing substances from the Candidate List above 0.1 w/w%, it is limited to hazardous substances on that list. This means that hazardous substances not listed in the Candidate List may not be covered by the database. The EU Commission has proposed the implementation of a digital product passport to enhance information sharing about products and their supply chain, including substances of concern. Our study is conducted under the Mistra SafeChem program, where screening tools for hazard and exposure assessment of substances are currently being developed. These tools aim to provide screening data for direct decision-making based on the Defined Approach (DA). These screening tools have the potential to contribute to filling data gaps during the early design phases of complex products, particularly when screening for multiple material alternatives.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Moback, Daniel
    Closer, Sweden.
    Ranäng, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Public Procurement and Geofencing – lessons learned from a pilot with geofencing of service trips2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The city of Gothenburg public procured geofencing technology and did a pilot during fall 2022 with geofenced service trips vehicles (retrofitted). This report investigates the challenges and opportunities associated with procuring geofencing technology, addressing aspects such as needs, market analysis, risk, alternative solutions, legislative framework, and much more based on lessons learned from the pilot. Geofencing, defined as the creation of virtual boundaries to monitor, inform, and control traffic using electronic communication technologies or predefined boundaries within vehicles, lacks standardization and comprises various technical solutions. Its functionality depends on digital mapping, vehicle tracking methods like GNSS, onboard equipment, real-time connectivity, and additional databases for traffic rules. Geofencing offers degrees of control, from informing and alerting drivers about speed limits to actively restricting vehicle speed, with possibilities for static, dynamic, and smart adaptations. Applications range from enhancing traffic safety by alerting drivers and controlling vehicle speed to improving transport efficiency through optimized route selection and environmental benefits by reducing emissions and noise pollution. However, regulatory challenges persist, such as the absence of type-approved geofencing equipment and the need to define functional requirements rather than specific technologies in legal frameworks, presenting both opportunities and obstacles for its implementation in road traffic management and procurement processes. The first step in public procurement involves laying the groundwork by comprehensively understanding the buying organization's needs and market capabilities to meet them. The city identified key goals such as safe travel and driver assistance. The city explored existing agreements and engaged operators for a geofencing pilot to address speed compliance and traffic safety concerns, alongside researching market options and risks associated with third-party equipment installation and data privacy. Alternatives like ISA and ADAS were considered but deemed insufficient. In the second step the procurement is carried out, which includes tasks such as producing procurement documents, advertising, evaluating tenders, and ultimately selecting a supplier. The city procured the geofencing technology by direct public procurement and used a traditional public procurement to get hold of vehicles and drivers. In the third step of the public procurement implementation is in focus on, executing the pilot and evaluating its outcomes, particularly concerning geofencing technology. Challenges arose during implementation, including difficulties in accurately mapping zones to individual vehicles due to problems with the speed box installed. The city of Gothenburg learned valuable lessons, highlighting the importance of direct communication with drivers, verifying technology before widespread adoption, and close collaboration between all stakeholders. Despite challenges, the pilot provided valuable data and insights, with recommendations offered for future geofencing initiatives, emphasizing early supplier dialogue, thorough testing, user experience understanding, and involving relevant stakeholders from the outset. In this report insights, advice and lessons learned are also shared. Technical hurdles include the lack of standardized geofencing, difficulty in retrofitting diverse vehicle fleets, and limited market availability. Organizational challenges encompass the need for a needs-driven approach, internal and external collaboration, and balancing technology with user acceptance. Concerns about data privacy and driver behaviour emerge, requiring careful navigation of GDPR regulations. Strategically deciding the city's role in IT-solutions, data collection, and responsibility for vehicle behaviour poses business-related challenges. The report concludes that while geofencing technology isn't yet ready for full-scale implementation, further pilots are necessary for development. Future work involves exploring alternative solutions, enhancing internal processes, and conducting larger pilots to advance understanding and implementation of geofencing technology.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Eriksson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Geostängslade BK4-transporter vid bropassager och på tjälade vägar2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Geofenced heavy trucks to protect bridges at crossings allowing higher weight on frozen roads Winter is our friend. When the road body is deep frozen it can handle more weight than during the rest of the year. However, the bridges are not affected by the cold weather, and they are therefore still vulnerable to increased loads. How can we allow increased loads on frozen roads while ensuring protection of the bridges? In this report, we share our insights from a project with the idea of using geofencing to protect the bridges. The geofencing technology ensures that the truck drives at a lower speed over the bridge and the bridge can withstand loads up to 74 tons since decreased speed reduces dynamic loads. If the road keeper can get guarantees that all heavy trucks drive at a low speed over the bridge, heavier traffic can be accommodated. This technology would of course also be beneficial to use across bridges in Europe regardless of the climate. ' The project “Frozen roads and 74 tons”, paid by the Swedish Transport Administration, consisted of three parts. One part was a pilot study during winter 22/23 demonstrating trucks from AB Volvo and Scania loaded with 74 tons using geofencing when the trucks passed over weak bridges. A speed limit, i.e. 50 km/h, was imposed in a zone around each bridge, whose coordinates were stored in the digital map accessible through the trucks’ Fleet Management System. Two different geofencing technologies were tested: on the one hand Scania’s system with “active” geofencing, where the truck was programmed to maintain the allowed speed over the bridge and calculated and implemented this itself (the driver could, however, override this by pushing the gas pedal to the floor); on the other hand AB Volvo’s system with “passive” geofencing, where the driver received a warning message when approaching the zone and would then slow down if necessary. The drivers were interviewed before and after the pilot about their experience. The results from the pilot showed that if the technology is verified, the truck will do the right thing and is on the right road network when the technology is activated. The drivers also liked geofencing. Geofences thus work in practice. The second part of the project was about quantifying the societal benefits of using geofencing. More efficient planning, control and follow-up can lower costs, reduce environmental impact, and increase traffic safety. Calculations in the project show that about 12 percent of timber transports in Norrland use frozen roads. They can benefit from the technology and if the technology is introduced, the industry would make savings of the equivalent of SEK 15 million / year and reduced energy use equivalent to 280 cubic meter diesel. At national level, this corresponds to an energy efficiency potential of 0.12 percent. The third part of the project was about policy and regulation. Can we use the current legislation, or do we need new legislation to scale the use of geofencing across bridges? How can we ensure compliance? How can we share data? How can we handle EU trade barriers? In the report, we have suggestions for policy and legislation to implement the geofencing technology to protect sensitive bridges. Our analysis shows that it is possible with today's regulations for an authority to introduce regulations on geofences. Such rules should preferably be based on functional requirements and a system of self-monitoring.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Rad, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Legal utredning för datadelning varor och transporter2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, the Swedish Transport Administration wanted to have two different tracks investigated from a legal perspective. We have chosen to call the first track a “matchmaking service for freight” to optimize the utilization of available cargo space. There is an assignment from the government to the Swedish Transport Administration to work with this issue based on horizontal collaborations and open data. The second track is about the development of new technology enabling new ways of collecting railway data based on RFID and the possibility of filming passing trains, which in turn raises legal questions about how the Swedish Transport Administration can use collected data.

    After analysing the two tracks based on current regulations, interviewing different actors, arranging workshops with different stakeholders, and meetings with experts in the fields, our conclusions are as follows:

    So far, it is unclear who will be appointed to be matchmaker and how the matchmaking service is intended to work as the Swedish Transport Administration´s assignment will last for another ten years. Our assessments at this early stage of the Swedish Transport Administration´s assignment aims more to provide advice on how the matchmaking service can be designed in the future. Above all, we foresee that competition law will be a challenge as it regulates horizontal collaborations. In the future, it needs to be investigated more what benefit consumers get from the matchmaking service and how such service can be designed without distorting competition on the market. The matchmaking service is aimed for product owners. The interviews show that they are prepared to share data provided that they get a benefit from this. The interviews also show that they are not used to sharing data in such a way that is required for a matchmaking service to function properly. We therefore believe that work will have to be put on making the product owners understand the benefit of data sharing to facilitate the introduction of a matchmaking service, e.g. by showing good examples to get product owners to think in new ways and dare to take the step. It is also unclear what is meant by open data and how it is compatible with copyright/trade secrets. That part of the assignment needs to be further elucidated.

    In our opinion, the Swedish Transport Administration has the copyright to RFID data, and it is also from a copyright perspective that the Swedish Transport Administration has so far shared RFID data (through contracts) with others. One hope with RFID is that the technology will make an impact on the entire European railway network, which in turn raises the question of how RFID data can legally be shared. Our assessments are that it would be possible to turn RFID data into open data to enable data sharing within the EU, but this is something that needs to be discussed further with all the actors involved.

    Data collection by filming passing trains is still at an early trial stage. Above all, we see that more work needs to be done to make data collection compatible with the GDPR and the Swedish Camera Surveillance Act. When trains are filmed, information is also collected about the load on the wagons. We see that this can lead to safety risk, which need to be addressed in the future work.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Digitalt förarstöd vid dispenstransporter2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital driver support for abnormal transports This report describes how the management of permits for abnormal transports could be improved through the development of a mobile digital support system. Insights have been gathered from several existing solutions in other countries as well as technology providers active in Sweden. Together with interviews and workshops with local and national government officials and industry representatives they form the basis of an analysis of digitalization and policy requirements for consideration in an ongoing mission to make abnormal transport permits more efficient led by the Swedish Transport Administration. The project was funded by the Swedish Transport Administration.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Skoglund, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektrifiering och pålitlighet.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    The role of policy labs for introducing autonomous vehicles2021Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explains the methodological approach of policy labs as used in applied research projects on autonomous vehicles in Sweden. While introducing new technologies we need to ensure that regulations and policies keep up with the fast-paced technological development.  Policy labs is one way of managing the perceived conflict between technological innovation and existing regulations. Within a policy lab, a wide range of stakeholders gather to solve the bottlenecks for innovations together. We show through three different R&D projects how the policy lab approach can be applied and which results, improvements and challenges it revealed for introducing autonomous vehicles.  

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Müller, Jan-Hendrik
    et al.
    City of Munich, Germany.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Fjällström, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Navigating the Future: Enhancing E-Scooter Traffic Management through Governance and Regulation2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The GeoSence project, which is part of the Joint Programme Initiative (JPI) Urban Europe, aims to provide an overview of the current state of the art and showcase practical applications of geofencing. The project partners come from Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the UK and is funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 programme under the ERA-NET Cofound Urban Accessibility and Connectivity. Geofencing is defined as a virtual boundary in a specific geographical location, either fixed or dynamic. The GeoSence project focuses on improving urban transport by using geofencing methods for traffic planning and management. In this report, we examine the policies that support these solutions, while also identifying barriers and opportunities for smarter regulation. Our research focuses primarily on Munich, looking at issues such as parking, restricted areas, and data collection from e-scooter operators. Many European cities are struggling with problems associated with e-scooters, such as dangerous driving and inappropriate parking. In Munich, geofencing technology has been tested as a solution to address these issues and improve road safety, particularly for pedestrians. The city's main objective was to improve road safety for all road users, especially pedestrians. By reducing inappropriate parking, the city also expected to increase public acceptance of e-scooters. As a first step in dealing with this new form of mobility, the city's initial response included the creation of 30 dedicated parking zones in 2020 and 2021 and a voluntary commitment with mobility service providers to regulate this new form of mobility. By joining the GeoSence project, the city wanted to explore geofencing as a solution to the persistent road safety problems caused mainly by poorly parked e-scooters. With GeoSence, Munich was able to monitor and optimise the use of parking zones, improve parking and road safety, and prevent drunk driving. To define the case studies, the city collected data from e-scooter operators, including parking start and end times, vehicle types and GPS coordinates. This data was used to identify parking hotspots and plan further parking infrastructure, as well as to evaluate the use of existing parking infrastructure. Three different case studies were conducted to evaluate new parking policies based on geofencing. The first case study focused on parking e-scooters in 43 dedicated zones in Munich's old town. The second focused on the optimisation of parking in 30 existing zones outside the historic centre of the old town of Munich. Finally, the third case study introduced a new parking concept for the Oktoberfest events in 2022 and 2023. This temporary concept included designated zones and time-based usage restrictions. The results showed an increased concentration of e-scooters in the designated zones, improving the parking situation. Since GeoSence has demonstrated the success of the measures to improve the parking of e-scooters across the city, in November 2023 the City Council also mandated the Department of Mobility and the Department of Construction to create a citywide network of parking zones for shared micro-mobility services by 2026. This will build on the experience of the pilot concept for such parking facilities in the old town. In cooperation with mobility providers, no-parking zones of 100 metres will be set up around each parking space. The municipality is also working on a concept to manage the use of electric scooters during major events. To monitor compliance, geofencing tools will continue to collect data, while the results of GeoSence will be used to develop smart policies. The city's own MDAS project will provide dedicated monitoring data and analysis to make the implementation of the new parking zones and policies more effective. In the GeoSence project, the city of Munich combined contracts, public procurement, and regulation. The city entered into voluntary data-sharing agreements with operators, procured a data-sharing platform, and then used the data for better and smarter regulation. Better and smarter regulation is about moving away from a linear sequence of independent steps to a cycle of interlinked, mutually reinforcing steps. The idea is that regulation will be more effective and that citizens will have a better understanding of the rules and be more involved in creating new rules. We live in an ever-changing world, and with better and smarter regulation, our society will adapt more easily to new technologies. Rules also need to be future-proof and resilient, so that our society can adapt if necessary. Rules must also not hamper technological development and innovation. Better and smarter regulation also means making rules easier to understand and reducing administrative burdens for citizens and businesses. To achieve regulatory coherence and coordination, it's important for countries and cities to share their experiences. E-scooter regulations vary across the EU, with Swedish cities having the ability to regulate speed while German cities do not. Munich is leading the way in improving regulatory practices through geofencing, which helps build capacity and competence. In the case study regarding the use of e-scooters during the Oktoberfest, Munich demonstrated its dynamic and responsive regulation by adapting rules to human behaviour and using a risk-based approach. Geofencing is proving to be essential in the development of adaptive and informed regulation. Effective regulation also requires collaboration with stakeholders and the collection of robust, high-quality data. Munich's transition to evidence-based and smart regulation involved building trust with e-scooter operators and investing in a data platform. The city recognises the importance of training staff and involving stakeholders in transparent regulatory processes. Future challenges include ensuring public participation in data-driven decision-making and continuously evaluating and improving the regulatory framework. Geofencing is therefore proving to be essential in developing adaptive and informed regulation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    On the viability of autonomous follower truck convoys2023Inngår i: 15th ITS European Congress, Lisbon, Portugal, 22-24 May-2023, 2023, artikkel-id Paper ID 51Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous follower truck convoy (AFTC) is a concept that addresses the major shortage of truck drivers and increasing transport costs. The AFTC concept can be described as a vehicle convoy concept consisting of two or more vehicles where the first, lead vehicle has a human driver and where the following vehicles in the convoy are driverless. The argument is made that this technology is less technically complex than single autonomous vehicles and targets higher economic values compared to driver-assisted platooning functions. The contribution of this paper is a viability study of the AFTC concept. The conclusions from the study are that the concept viability depends on the continuous evolvement of three main factors. The emergence of autonomous capabilities, legal frameworks, and logistics actors’ interest in adapting current processes and infrastructure to meet the operational limitations of the concept.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Polgren, Lars ()
    Thorn, Johanna ()
    Möjligheter och hinder för användning av kameror i busstrafik2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Possibilities and obstacles for the use of cameras in bus traffic The purpose of this part of the Drive Sweden Policy Lab (DSPL) 2021/22 is to explore opportunities and challenges regarding camera surveillance to increase traffic safety and usage of data for a more sustainable, efficient and connected society. Overall aim of DSPL is to explore how technology and service development relate to the existing policies for future mobility services, to show the need for changes in regulations as well as to propose solutions. The project is partly financed by Sweden´s innovation agency Vinnova, through its strategic innovation program Drive Sweden, and partly by the project parties. Key questions in this part of the project are how to use data from cameras and other sensors collected by public transport, in particular which use cases can be applied and demonstrated already now and which areas have further potential? How do we manage risks to personal integrity and which partners need to be involved as well as how need policies and regulations be adapted to continue the technological development so that the use cases can become reality in the future? Within the framework of the subproject, use cases for outward-facing front cameras in buses and a permanently mounted traffic camera in Barkarby/Järfälla municipality are identified and demonstrated. Information from cameras and other sensors could be used for monitoring the traffic environment to support traffic management in increasing accessibility of public transport and safety today and for future autonomous operations. In workshops and interviews with the project we map opportunities and obstacles that exist for the use of cameras and other sensors in bus traffic. In summary, our subproject shows that existing legislation allows cameras within a narrow area of use for public transport, namely the situation when a private actor uses a camera where only aggregated anonymised data leaves the camera. To apply this on a larger scale, technology is not an obstacle to progress. Yet, what we need is to improve public acceptance for the technology, in particular a better understanding of the possibilities of new cameras and its ability to keep personal integrity intact, to establish business models and actor collaborations for usage of the data, as well as a legislation that opens up for more use cases and is faster when it comes to permission processes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Enqvist, Björn
    Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Independent assessment in trials with automated vehicles – Drive Sweden Policy Lab Case 62024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     The purpose of case 6 of the Drive Sweden Policy Lab 2023-25 is to examine the scope of an independent assessment in trials with automated road vehicles. The Swedish Transport Agency's regulations and general advice on permission to conduct trials with automated vehicles have recently been amended by adding a general advice that the applicant´s risk assessment should in certain cases be supplemented with a statement from an independent assessor regarding traffic safety (TSFS 2021:4, last amended by TSFS 2022:82). The regulation enables trials with automated vehicles in Sweden since 2017 and clarifies the circumstances under which it is reasonable safe to conduct trials with such vehicles. In the beginning of 2023, a policy lab was initiated with Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, and Austrian actors, which acts as a platform for collaborative policy development by relevant actors facing a common policy related challenge. Vehicle manufacturers, transport providers and operators, authorities, potential assessors, and applied research examine together the scope of independent assessments for trials with automated vehicles. The policy lab generates guidelines for independent assessments by clarifying and exemplifying the application and scope of such assessments in trials with automated vehicles. The policy lab considers knowledge and previous experiences from other transport sectors, from various countries with independent assessment already in place and from relevant EU and UNECE regulations, such as the requirements of independent assessment for the international market e.g., for a type-approval in the EU (ADS compliance assessment) or the proposed process for audits from the working group Validation Methods for Automated Driving as part of WP29. Drive Sweden Policy Lab case 6 is partly financed by Sweden´s innovation agency Vinnova, through its strategic innovation program Drive Sweden, and partly by the project parties.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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