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  • 1.
    Allsopp, Ben
    et al.
    Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson, Simon R.
    Baistow, Ian
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Baquedano-Peralvarez, Estela
    CSIC Spanish National Research Council, Spain.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Postigo, Pablo Aitor
    CSIC Spanish National Research Council, Spain.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Bingham, Paul A.
    Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Towards ultra-thin glasses for solar energy applications2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Eder, Gabriele
    et al.
    OFI, Austria.
    Peharz, Gerhard
    Joanneum Research, Austria.
    Trattnig, Roman
    Joanneum Research, Austria.
    Bonomo, Pierluigi
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Saretta, Erika
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Frontini, Francesco
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Polo López, Cristina S.
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Wilson, Helen Rose
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany.
    Eisenlohr, Johannes
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany.
    Chivelet, Nuria Martin
    CIEMAT, Spain.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Jakica, Nebojsa
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Zanelli, Alessandra
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Coloured BIPV : Market, Research and Development2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the building sector, net-zero energy performance targets and reduction of CO2 emissions are the main drivers for building integrated photovoltaics. Recent market studies [10,18,19] show the history and perspective of the global market in the BIPV sector and calculate a global compound annual growth rate of ~ 40 % from 2009 up to 2020.

    In Europe, the BIPV market is in a transition. The past decades of a slowly emerging BIPV market have been characterized by the original dominant value of BIPV: a building that communicates an image of sustainability and innovation. Payback time or "return on investment" have not been the major parameters in the decision process for applying BIPV. This is changing now. In most European countries, the new regulations on energy performance in buildings (derived from the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and the Directive on energy efficiency) have been translated in national regulations/laws, stating that all new (and freshly refurbished) buildings of the EU member states should be nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs) by 2020. Thus, the time for the regulations to become mandatory is very near. It is expected that the energy performance regulations are now taking over as the main driving factor for the BIPV market and that should have huge consequences in removing the difference between a conventional building component and a BIPV component both in aesthetical and construction terms. This has led to intensified research and development aiming to create BIPV products that come in a variety of colours and sizes, while at the same time being as close as possible to existing building components, to its requirements and how it is considered by the construction industry.

    The given market overview of state-of-the-art coloured BIPV products clearly reveals that for all parts of a BIPV module (glass, polymers, PV-active layers), there are technical solutions available for colouring. Pilot projects utilizing coloured BIPV products have been built in numerous (mainly European) cities clearly demonstrating the maturity of these solutions.

    The key aspect that has been slowing down the progress of implementation of these aesthetically appealing and technically sophisticated new products into a wider market are the costs. In this respect, a lot of effort has been made to improve and optimize the relationship between colour and efficiency/power generation of BIPV elements. The results of the past and on-going innovative research and intensified fundamental considerations are also summarized in this report.

    Besides the colour perception of the coloured BIPV elements under solar irradiation which is essential for the acceptance of the exterior appearance of a building, also transparency and inside visual comfort of BIPV – windows and façade elements are essential for the users and inhabitants.

  • 3.
    Ekström, E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tenö, J.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Valyukh, I.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tiwari, A.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Eklund, P.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Development of “Self-Cleaning” and Anti-Reflective Coating on Flat Glass Based on Zinc Oxide2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Physical properties and Raman Spectroscopy of mixed alkali/alkaline earth silicate glassesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Möncke, Doris
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Kamitsos, Efstratios I.
    National Hellenic Research Foundation, Greece.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mixed alkali/alkaline earth-silicate glasses: Physical properties and structure by vibrational spectroscopy2019Ingår i: International Journal of Applied Glass Science, ISSN 2041-1286, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 349-362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate the correlation of selected physical properties with structural changes in quaternary mixed modifier alkali/alkaline earth oxide silicate glass  systems,  focusing  either  on  the  mixed  alkali  effect  [(20−x)Na2O–xK2O– 10CaO–70SiO2 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20)] or on the mixed alkaline earth effect [20Na2O– (10−y)CaO–yBaO–70SiO2 (y = 0, 5, 10)]. A maximum microhardness and packing density, as well as a minimum glass transition temperature were observed for mixed alkali glasses. The mixed alkaline earth glasses do not exhibit any clear extrema in any  of  the  properties  studied.  The  hardness  and  glass  transition  temperature  de-creases, while the density and molar volume increases with increasing BaO content. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the Q3 group compared to the Q2 and Q4 groups as the high field strength ions Na+ or Ca2+ are substituted by their low field strength analogs K+  or Ba2+. In the mixed alkali series, the high field strength ion Na+, seems to push the low field strength ion K+ into lower energy sites when present simultaneously, while such an effect is not apparent for the mixed alkaline earth glasses, where the far IR spectra of mixed glasses are equivalent to the weighted averages of the pure glasses.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-06-04 14:58
  • 6.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik. Linneaus Univerrsity, Sweden.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik. University of Jena, Germany.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    X-ray and UV–Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy studies of the Cu (I) and Cu (II) coordination environments in mixed alkali-lime-silicate glasses2019Ingår i: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X, ISSN 2590-1591, Vol. 3, artikel-id 100029Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The local structures of Cu(I) and Cu(II) in (20-x)Na2O-xK2O-10CaO-70SiO2 glasses with a copper content of 0.4 mol% have been investigated by Cu K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Complementary data for Cu(II) was derived using UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Indication for mainly linear two-fold coordination of the Cu+ ion was found by both EXAFS and XANES, but other coordination between Cu+ and O2– cannot be excluded. The Cu(I)-O bond lengths were found to be 1.79–1.83 ± 0.02 Å. EXAFS results showed that Cu(II) was mostly present in a Jahn-Teller distorted environment with oxygen, an octahedron with four shorter Cu(II)-O bonds and two longer in axial position. The equatorial bond lengths were found to be 1.89–1.91 ± 0.02 Å and the axial 2.20–2.24 ± 0.02 Å with no effect of the Jahn-Teller distortion of the octahedron when the glass composition was altered.

  • 7.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Improved mechanical properties and chemical durability by modifying the float glass composition and thermo-chemical strengthening for photovoltaic cover glass2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy is promising renewable energy where glass is an important material and have a significant impact on the efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) module. The cover glass of PV-modules constitutes a large part of the total weight of the unit. In a recent Solar-ERA.NET project, LIMES (www.limes.nu), have we been aiming towards developing 1 mm thin glass for PV modules by improving the indentation mechanical properties and by investigating a novel thermo-chemical strengthening method.

    Starting from traditional soda-lime-silicate float composition different components was studied in a DoE fashion. The mechanical properties were studied using nano- and microindentation, the chemical durability by P98 analysis and weathering experiments. The findings resulted in a suggested composition for improving the properties of float glass by adding small amounts of zinc and titanium oxide as well as increasing the amount of aluminum and magnesium oxide. The components found to improve the chemical resistance were alumina, zirconia, zinc, lanthanum and titanium oxide. The surface hardness, crack- and scratch resistance were improved when magnesia was replaced with zinc oxide. When magnesia was replaced with titania, the hardness was increased.

    Some results from the thermo-chemical strengthening experiments will be presented. Heating and quenching in a reactive gas atmosphere using aluminum precursors have resulted in chemically modified surface in addition to the thermal strengthening.

  • 8.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Sharafat, Ali
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet. Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    X-ray and UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy studies of the Cu(I) and Cu(II) coordination spheere in (mixed) alkali-lime-silicate glassesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Jansson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Svennberg, Kaisa
    Kvalitet hos byggnadsmaterial i cirkulära flöden2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en del av ett projekt med det övergripande målet att bygg- och rivningsavfall i högre utsträckning skall återvinnas eller återanvändas. Detta utan att kvaliteten på materialet, och därmed framtida byggnader, försämras.

    Syftet med projektet har varit att kartlägga och sammanställa de kunskaper och erfarenheter som finns kring de tekniska aspekterna vid cirkulära flöden av byggmaterial, med fokus på kvalitetsfrågor, att identifiera nya projekt som kan minska mängden bygg- och rivningsavfall som deponeras eller förbränns samt att skapa nya nätverk. Det finns spridd kunskap i byggbranschen om dessa frågor och dessutom finns en mängd forskningsresultat inom olika områden. I projektet har kunskaper och erfarenheter inom området samlats in genom litteraturstudier, workshops och seminarier, studiebesök och intervjuer.

    I första delen av rapporten diskuteras generella tekniska erfarenheter och utmaningar i olika delar av byggkedjan, medan utmaningar för specifika materialgrupper diskuteras i den andra delen av rapporten. Dessa materialgrupper är polymera material, planglas, stenull, glasull, gipsskivor, krossad betong samt trä och träbaserade material. I rapporten redovisas en enkätundersökning som genomförts av Optimera hos deras proffskunder, i syfte att samla in dessas erfarenheter och synpunkter kring hållbart byggande.

    Generellt kan vi konstatera att det finns stora utmaningar med att öka återvinningsgraden för rivnings- och ombyggnadsavfall. För installationsspill och byggavfall är de tekniska utmaningarna inte lika stora. Utmaningar och förutsättningar för ökad återvinning med bibehållen god kvalitet varierar mellan olika materialslag/produkter, typ av byggprojekt samt avsedd användning.

    I rapporten föreslås ett antal konkreta förslag på områden där arbetet kan drivas vidare. Dessa inkluderar bland annat förbättrad/utökad inventering inför rivning och ombyggnad, rutiner och metoder för provtagning, korrekt sortering, hantering och lagring för att få rätt och jämn kvalitet, ge möjlighet för separering av sammansatta material, logistikfrågor, produktionstekniska lösningar samt kvalitetssäkring. Resultaten visar också på vikten av utbildning, nätverk och mötesplatser samt att forskningsprojekt genomförs tvärvetenskapligt. Det finns goda möjligheter för ökad återvinning genom samarbete genom hela byggkedjan.

  • 10.
    Järn, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Mesoporous sol-gel based SiO2 thin films with ordered pore orientation as antireflective coatings on glass2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antireflective coatings on glass have increasing applications, on e.g. cover glass of PV modules, display glass, spectacle lenses or window glazing’s. Sol-gel derived mesoporous coatings can be tuned both in terms of porosity and thickness, thus allowing tuning of the refractive index. Additionally, the sol-gel approach is bottom-up, which facilitates easy upscaling. In the current work we present dip-coated mesoporous silica coatings of different pore orientation and film thickness prepared on microscope glass slides and silicon wafers. The silica coatings were derived from TEOS (tetraorthosilicates) mixed with ethanol and diluted HCl. Hexagonal and cubic pore ordering of the thin films with a pore size in the range of 5-10 nm were obtained. The thin films were characterized in terms of non-contact profilometry, stylus profilometry,  nanohardness, scratch resistance, UV-Vis-NIR transmittance and UV-Vis-NIR reflectance. The thicknesses of the studied films varied from 100 nm up to several hundreds of nm without jeopardizing the film homogeneity. All the mesoporous films exhibited higher transmittance than the uncoated glass substrate. The film with hexagonal pore orientation has a somewhat higher nanohardness than the cubic one, however,  no difference was found in the scratch resistance for the films with different pore orientations.

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Kartläggning av svenska aktörer relevanta för utvecklandet av funktionaliteter hos smarta fönster: Appendix till förstudie för Smart Windows Technology Center (SWTC)2017Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 12.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Möjligheter och begränsningar med färgade solceller2019Ingår i: GLAS, nr 2, s. 30-32Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Solceller har länge varit ett lovande alternativ förelproduktion men har hittills begränsats av kostnad och effektivitet. Förstörre installationer har man för några år sedan kunnat nå samma pris som fördet rörliga elpriset och sedan 2002 har solcellsinstallationerna fördubblats för varje år som gått.

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Nya innovationer bäddar för tunnare och starkare glas i solceller, fönster och fasader2017Ingår i: Glas, nr 3, s. 26-30Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Spontaneous Fracture in Thermally Strengthened Glass - A Review and Outlook2017Ingår i: Ceramics-Silikáty, ISSN 0862-5468, E-ISSN 1804-5847, Vol. 61, nr 3, s. 188-201Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal strengthening of glass is common for many different purposes including architecture, automotive, glasses for solar energy, tableware and occasionally also containers. It is an easy and relatively cheap method to make glasses stronger, however, with an Achilles heel that it can spontaneously fracture without the slightest applied external force. Though, fracture due to applied external force is the most common case, spontaneous fracture is rare. The current paper reviews the literature of spontaneous fracture and NiS inclusions and what kind of mitigation measures that have been done in order to reduce the frequency of spontaneous fracture. Finally is also an outlook for the alternative mitigation measures and their advantages as well as disadvantages. A personal perspective is given in discussions and gives an outlook to the most promising alternative methods to reduce and hopefully eliminate the NiS inclusions. These include multi-functional methods where not only the NiS inclusion issue is solved. 

  • 15.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Spontangranulering: Akilleshälen för termiskt härdat glas2017Ingår i: Glas, nr 4, s. 54-56Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla somhar läst Homeros epos Iliaden känner till Akilles, den grekiska mytologinsstörste hjälte som dessvärre hade en sårbar punkt, akilleshälen. Termiskthärdat glas är nästintill en perfekt produkt där man får både ett starkare glasoch ett betydligt säkrare glas genom den karaktäristiska sprickbildningen somger kantiga glasbitar som inte är så vassa och som ofta kallas granuler

  • 16.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    The future development of cover glass for efficient harvesting of solar energy (INVITED)2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass as a cover material for solar energy harvesting constitutes a significant part of the cost. Furthermore, is glass an important component for efficient light capture and protection to the environment. Research and development of cover glass is needed to increase the service lifetime and to reduce the cost per watt peak. Recent research efforts have provided knowledge of which properties that needs to be optimized balancing efficiency, service lifetime and cost. Challenges with the development of cover glass for efficient harvesting of solar energy will be discussed. Some recent results related to optimization of the glass composition for enhancing properties for the purpose and the deposition of functional thin films will be presented. The failure modes for PV modules and how glass can improve the resistance to failure will be discussed. Developments of transparent and robust multifunctional coatings that provide anti-reflective and anti-soiling properties on the outer glass surface are desired. On the interior surface are anti-reflective and chemical barrier multifunctional coatings desirable to increase transmission and reducing potential induced degradation (PID). Replacing the conventional silver strings in PV modules with transparent conductive materials and back-reflecting backsheet materials are among the promising techniques for further maximizing the efficiency.

  • 17.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    The viscosity effect of TiO2 on soda-lime-silicate bearing glass2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of TiO2 on the high-temperature viscosity of soda-lime-silicate glass have been investigated. The silica-rich part of quaternary can be taken as a template for a wide variety of technical glasses. The measurements were performed using a rotational viscometer. The viscosities were recorded from 1550 °C downwards to 930 °C. The entire viscosity-temperature curves were fitted to the Angell-Rao viscosity equation and thermodynamic data were calculated using the method of Ojovan and the liquid fragility according to Angell. As TiO2 is replacing SiO2 it has a slight suppressing effect on the viscosity until the limit when Na2O/TiO2 ratio is less than 2, indicating a transformation of the structure of TiO2, a remarkable increase in the fragility and viscosity is observed for the calculated low temperature region. The change is not as evident for the high-temperature region. CaO replaced by TiO2 gives almost no effect on the viscosity, however, as it approaches Na2O/TiO2≈2 it tends to crystallize at temperatures of 1000-1050 °C.

  • 18.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Chemical strengthening of flat glass by vapour deposition and in-line alkali metal ion exchange2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is a common material in the everyday life. It is widely used in a variety ofapplications e.g. architectural, automotive, containers, drinking vessels, displays,insulation and optical fibers due to its universal forming ability, transparency, chemicaldurability, form stability, hardness and relatively low price. Flat glass is a wide market ofthe glass industry and generally ninety percent of all flat glass produced worldwide ismanufactured using the float forming process. There is a large market strive for thinnerand stronger glass in order to reduce costs, save energy, reduce environmental footprint,find new applications and to improve the working environment for labour working withmounting flat glass.

    This study comprises the modification of flat/float glass surface by a novel route;exchange of ionic species originating from in-line vapour deposition of salt compared tothe conventional route of immersing the glass in molten salt baths. The aim of this workis to develop a novel process in order to improve the mechanical strength of flat/floatglass by introducing external material to the surface in a process with the obviouspotential to be automatic in industrial processes. Chemical strengthening has beenperformed by applying potassium chloride to the glass surface by vapour deposition andthermally activated ion exchange. The method presented here is anticipated to be used inproduction in the future and would make it possible to produce larger quantities ofchemically strengthened flat glass to a considerably lower cost.

  • 19.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Bingham, Paul A.
    Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
    Advances and Challenges of Cover Glasses for Efficient Harvesting of Solar Electricity2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Harvesting of solar energy through photovoltaic (PV) modules is an essential technology for increasing the share of renewable energy sources, both immediately and in the future. The glass cover material constitutes a significant part of the cost. Research and development of the cover glass is needed to increase the service lifetime and to reduce the cost per watt peak [1]. Recent research efforts in the LIMES project show that the addition of optically active components absorb harmful UV light and simultaneously convert those UV photons into visible light [2]. Thus, the profit is two-fold, increasing both service lifetime and efficiency by up to 4%. Further, the cover glass composition can be optimized to enhance the mechanical and chemical durability. It has been shown that it is possible to increase the indentation crack resistance [2] and the hydrolytic durability by three and four times respectively by modifying the glass composition. Thermal strengthening of glass for PV modules are required for mechanical durability. However, there is an increasing demand of light-weight PV modules, therefor is thermal strengthening of thin cover glass needed to meet the increasing demand. In-situ chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of Al2O3 and thermal strengthening of the cover glass provides an additionally crack resistant and chemically durable glass surface. Developments of transparent and robust multifunctional coatings that provide anti-reflective and self-cleaning properties on the outer glass surface are desired [4]. Thereby is maximal transmission and reduced soiling achieved. On the interior surface are anti-reflective and chemical barrier multifunctional coatings desirable to increase transmission and reducing potential induced degradation (PID) [5]. The LIMES concept has been demonstrated by quantitative measurements and as Si solar cells. The scale-up of the LIMES concept and additional material challenges to increase the efficiency and service lifetime will be discussed. Replacing the conventional silver strings in PV modules with transparent conductive tape and back-reflecting backsheet materials are among the promising techniques for further maximizing the efficiency.

  • 20.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Sehati, Parisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Lätta Innovativa Material för Effektiva Solcellsmoduler (LIMES)2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvinning av solenergi genom solceller är en lovande teknik för att öka andelen förnyelsebara energikällor både nu och i framtiden. Glas till solceller är en betydande del av kostnaden och en nödvändighet att utveckla för att öka livslängden och minska priset per utvunnen watt. I LIMES har man studerat dels att tillsätta optiskt aktiva komponenter som absorberar skadligt UV ljus och samtidigt konverterar det till synligt ljus som i sin tur kan konverteras till energi i solcellerna. Därmed är vinsten tvåfaldig, ökar både livslängden och effektiviteten med upp till 4%. Vidare har det studerats hur man kan optimera de mekaniska och kemiska egenskaperna av glas för att kunna öka den mekaniska och kemiska livslängden, detta genom att optimera glassammansättningen. Man har inom projektet visat att motstånd mot sprickbildning av en ny sammansättning ökar med en faktor 3 och att den kemiska resistensen ökar med en faktor 4. Termo-kemisk härdning av glas har demonstrerats i labskala som ger upphov till minst lika stor härdningsgrad samt ökar motstånd mot sprickbildning med en faktor 2. Det möjliggör användning av tunnare glas och därmed betydligt lättare solceller. Glasytans sammansättning modifieras signifikant genom att öka halten aluminiumoxid och det ger upphov till de förbättrade egenskaperna. Den termo-kemiska behandlingen ökar vattens kontaktvinkel mot glasytan vilket bidrar till ett självrengörande glas. Multifunktionella ytor på glas som är både antireflektiva och självrengörande har studerats genom två olika angreppssätt, nanostrukturerad ytmodifiering och porösa antireflektiva beläggningar med fotokatalytisk nedbrytningsförmåga. Nanostrukturerade glasytor ger upphov till en ökad ljusspridning och kan på så vis effektivt guida ner diffust ljus till solceller och samtidigt ändra vattens kontaktvinkel mot glaset. LIMES-koncepten har demonstrerats genom kvantitativa mätningar och tillverkande av små kiselsolcellsmoduler. Projektet har stått för att öka potentialen för kommersialisering ifrån TRL (Technology Readiness Level) nivå 2-4 till 4-6. Man undersöker i det närmaste hur man kan skala upp planglastillverkning för att kunna ta nästa steg mot kommersialisering.

  • 21.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet. University of Jena, Germany.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Kidkhunthod, Pinit
    Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Thailand.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Effect of TiO2 on optical properties of glasses in the soda-lime-silicate system2016Ingår i: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 1198-1216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Titania is widely considered as an alternative constituent for replacing heavy metal oxides in optical glasses. Its effect on optical properties, however, is complex. This is due to the dielectric properties of the prevalent ionic species, Ti4+, the potential co-existence of trivalent titanium, Ti3+, giving rise to intrinsic and extrinsic charge transfer reactions, and the existence of different coordination polyhedra, depending on matrix composition. Here, we present a systematic study of the optical properties of the soda-lime-silicate glass system as a function of TiO2 addition. We consider the silica-rich region of the SiO2-Na2O-CaO-TiO2 quaternary, which may be taken as model for a variety of technical glasses. Trends are described in the refractive index, the Abbe number, the optical bandgap and the Urbach energy. The addition of TiO2 increases the refractive index and the optical dispersion while it lowers the optical bandgap and the Urbach Energy. Results are discussed in relation to relevant literature data towards using titania silicate glasses as high-index replacements for heavy metal – containing oxide glasses.

  • 22.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jonson, Bo
    Johansson, Marie
    Enquist, Bertil
    The effect of single-side ion exchange on the flexural strength of plain float glass and float glass containing a drilled hole2013Ingår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 54, nr 2, s. 66-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of single-side ion exchange (using a KNO3:KCl mixture) on the ring-on-ring flexural strength of float glass has been studied. Two ion exchanged series, treated at 450 and 515°C, were investigated. The ion exchanged samples showed approximately 160 respectively 100% increases in their arithmetic mean strength compared to as-received float glass. Furthermore, a series of samples containing drilled holes were studied in order to investigate the effect of singleside ion exchange on such common construction elements. The samples that contained drilled holes were ion exchanged at 450°C and showed around 140% increase of the fracture load compared to the untreated samples containing drilled holes. As a general observation, the ion exchange treatment induced ∼110 MPa compressive stresses (515°C) and ∼180 MPa compressive stresses (450°C). The ion exchanged samples showed no significant increase in stiffness.

  • 23.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jonson, Bo
    Reibstein, Sindy
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Surface ruby colouring of float glass by sodium-copper ion exchange2013Ingår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 100-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, colouration of the tin side of commercial soda-lime-silica float glass by copper ion exchange is described and characterised. Data on the resulting concentration versus depth profiles, absorbance versus depth profiles, UV-Vis spectra and CIE-Lab colour coordinates are reported. Fundamental aspects of the process of colouration are described and discussed. Optimum saturation of the colour is achieved after ion exchange at 520°C for 10 h or at 500°C for 20 h. The depth of the coloured layer increases with increasing treatment time. At the same time, a linear dependency is found between the values of a and b in the CIE-Lab colour space for variations of treatment time and temperature. The later indicates broad tunability of colouration between different shades of ruby and varying colour saturation. It is shown that colour arises from a redox reaction between copper species and residual tin ions, and that the depth of the coloured layer is governed by the position of the tin hump. The critical concentration of tin and copper to achieve colour formation was found to be ∼0·25 mol% and >1 mol%, respectively.

  • 24.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jonson, Bo
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    The technology of chemical glass strengthening: A review2010Ingår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 41-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The methods of chemical strengthening for improving the mechanical properties of oxide glasses are reviewed. Chemical strengthening is compared with thermal strengthening and different methods of measuring strength are discussed. Different ions, salts and other related methods for improving the ion exchange process and mechanical properties are described as well as applications of strengthening.

  • 25.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jonson, Bo
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Surface analysis of float glass using surface ablation cell (SAC).: Part 2. Determination of the diffusion characteristics of K+-Na+ ion exchange2010Ingår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 55-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface ablation cell (SAC), a laboratory equipment for determining surface concentration profiles, has been utilised to characterise surface ion exchange processes in float glass. In this paper, single-side ion exchange is reported. Data on the ion concentration profiles were used to calculate diffusion coefficients as well as the activation energy for K +-Na+ ion exchange. The air-sides of float glass samples were treated with two different salt mixtures, (I) 2:1 KNO3:KCI, and (II) 1:2 KNO3:KCl, (both by weight), and heated to different temperatures below Tg, 460-520°C. The diffusion coefficients calculated using a Green's function approach were in the ranges (I) 1.4×10-11 to 6.8×10-11 and (II) 1.8×10-11 to 6.0×10-11 cm2/s while those calculated using Boltzmann-Matano were in the ranges (I) 5.7×10 -11 to 14×10-12 and (II) 3.4×10-12 to 6.0×10-12 cm2/s. Average values of the activation energies obtained through the Green's function were (I) 111.0 kJ/mol and (II) 99.8 kJ/mol for the different salt mixtures.

  • 26.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Liinanki, Matilda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Transparent intelligens för en bättre värld - en sammanfattning av fyra år med TIME2017Ingår i: GLAS, nr 2, s. 58-59Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 27.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Kalinowski, Mariusz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Lang, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Sehati, Parisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Järphag, Thomas
    NCC Building, Sweden.
    Storm, Oskar
    Saint-Gobain Building Glass Polska, Poland.
    Axelsson Thun, Anders
    Skanska Sverige, Sweden.
    Häll, Jörgen
    Glascentrum, Sweden.
    Korrosion av planglas inom byggbranschen kopplat till betong2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett förekommande problem under byggprocessen är betongrinning. Innebörden av betongrinning är att vatten varit i kontakt med färsk betong och därefter påverkat glasytor till fasader/balkonger/fönster. Påverkan på glaset kan vara fysisk och ibland även kemisk. Resultatet blir droppfläckar, rinnmärken och utfällningar som försämrar glasets ljusgenomsläpplighet och estetiska intryck. Så länge påverkan enbart är fysisk är denna skada relativt lätt att ta bort antingen med hjälp av mekanisk polering eller genom att torka glaset med utspädd syra. Ofta fortskrider dock processen till ett kemiskt angrepp på glaset, vilket är permanent och inte går att avlägsna helt med ovan nämnda metoder. Kemiska reaktioner har då skapat etsningar i glasytan som på sikt blir i storleksordningen mikrometer djupa.

    I denna förstudie har vi försökt simulera betongrinningsangrepp dels under kontrollerade förhållanden i laboratoriemiljö och dels i utomhusmiljö. Försöksvariablerna var två olika betongvarianter samt glas med respektive utan ett på marknaden befintligt glasskyddande medel. Resultatet av försöken har analyserats genom okulär bedömning, mikroanalys med svepelektronmikroskop och energidispersiv röntgenspektroskopi samt yttopografimätningar med optisk profilometer. Testerna resulterade i utfällningar på glasytan innehållande ämnena svavel, kalium och kalcium, vilka bedöms härstamma från betongen. Efter inomhusförsöken, som pågick i fyra månader, gick utfällningarna att tvätta bort med saltsyralösning, och inga djupgående, permanenta korrosionsskador syntes på glaset. Utomhusförsöken utsträcktes till elva månader, varpå bestående skador kunde konstateras på glasytorna efter att utfällningarna tvättats bort. Djupet på skadorna uppmättes som mest till cirka en halv mikrometer. Varken sänkning av pH i betongen eller skyddsbehandling av glaset bidrog till att hindra uppkomst av fläckighet eller etsningar på glaset. I diskussioner med industrirepresentanter konstaterades att betongrinning är ett ganska vanligt problem, som är oberoende av geografi. Tidigare försök med behandling av både betong och glas varit verkningslösa. I majoriteten av fall handlar problemen om inglasade balkonger alternativt glasräcken i kombination med balkongplatta i betong. Det man vet fungerar är att använda en korrekt konstruktion som hindrar vattnet från att droppa ned på glaset. Regelbunden rengöring av glasen hjälper också och kommer förmodligen hamna som ett underhållskrav mot kunder.

  • 28.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Kozlowski, Marcin
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Kinsella, David
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Haller, Kristian
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sara
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Osby Glas AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Kent
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Kvalitetshöjning av planglas: Icke-förstörande provning av glasets hållfasthet2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållfastheten och därmed kvaliteten på planglas varierar kraftigt beroende på förekomsten sprickor i glasets yta. Sprickorna fungerar som brottanvisningar vilket medför att man måste räkna med stora säkerhetsfaktorer då glas belastas i olika byggnadskonstruktioner. Trä som konstruktionsmaterial har en liknande problematik där man utvecklat virkessortering för att kvalitetsklassning. I den här förstudien har vi undersökt om det går att kvalitetsklassa planglas med hjälp av en oförstörande provningsmetod baserad på icke-linjärt ultraljud. Tre olika kantbearbetningar (A) dragen, (B) obehandlad och (C) polerad kant undersöktes i 4-punktsböjprovning med tre olika belastningshastigheter (0.6, 2 och 5mm/min) och kontinuerlig mätning av skadevärde med icke-linjärt ultraljud. Hållfastheten för de olika kantbearbetningar följer trenden (C) polerad > (A) dragen > (B) obehandlad  med avtagande hållfasthet. Som förväntat gav provningarna ett ökande skadevärde med en ökande last. Provningarna visade även att hållfastheten var lägre för lägre belastningshastigheter. Skadevärdet ökade mest för obehandlad kant vilket tyder på att det fanns en stor spricktillväxt medan lägst ökning gav polerad kant. Vi har även undersökt obehandlade brutna kanter med optiskt profilometri och i ljusmikroskop. Med ljusmikroskopi kunde vi linjärt korrelera kantskadans tjocklek till tjockleken på glaset. Luftsidan på planglas undersöktes med optisk profilometri och man fann tydliga skillnader i ytornas karakteristik. Skillnaderna är inte synliga för blotta ögat men de skulle kunna ge upphov till andra skillnader såsom t ex fuktkänslighet, mekanisk skärbarhet och hållfasthet. Sammanfattningsvis så finns det god potential för kvalitetsklassning av planglas men det kommer att behövas fler tester i ett större forskningsprojekt för att ta detta till marknaden. Marknadspotentialen är enorm med 80 miljoner ton planglas i marknadsbehov.

  • 29.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Lang, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Fransson, Anna-Lena
    GFAB Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Tomas
    GFAB Lindberg & Co AB, Sweden.
    Spontangranulering av härdade glas: En litteraturstudie och en genomlysning av problemet inom glasbranschen2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Härdat glas har många fördelar i flera avseenden bl a sprickmönstret, hållfastheten och ett överkomligt pris. Akilleshälen för termiskt härdat glas är spontangranulering som är ovanligt men som trots allt förekommer. Syftet med den här förstudien var att genomlysa hur vanligt förekommande det är genom enkäter till företag inom duschväggsbranschen samt göra en litteraturstudie med syftet att undersöka vilka metoder det finns att råda bot på problemet. Enkäterna visade att branschen inte direkt ser det som ett problem men endast en relativt liten andel för statistik på hur vanligt förekommande spontangranulering är. Litteraturstudien visade på en splittrad bransch varav en del förespråkar den standardiserade HST-metoden (heat soak test) medan andra kritiserar den. Oavsett har man lagt ner mest arbete på HST-metoden och det är den som fått störst genomslag, men den används inte i hela branschen. Metoden har sina brister men just nu pågår arbete med att uppdatera den befintliga standarden vilket kommer att göra den mer tillförlitlig. HST-metoden har dock fortfarande nackdelarna att den är relativt dyr och minskar härdningsgraden något. För alternativa metoder krävs tydliga satsningar som dock är osannolika eftersom problemet anses vara litet. De alternativ som identifierats som mest intressanta är metoder som ger ytterligare fördelar såsom t ex hållfasthetssortering av planglas eller att man utvecklar en glassammansättning som lämpar sig för termisk härdning av glas.

  • 30.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Limbach, René
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Mechanical Properties of TiO2 doped Soda-Lime-Silicate Glasses2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet. Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Sharafat, Ali
    Linnæus University, Sweden.
    Limbach, Rene
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnæus University, Sweden.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Alkali salt vapour deposition and in-line ion exchange on flat glass surfaces2015Ingår i: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 203-213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study suggests a different route for the modification of flat/float glass surfaces; i.e. exchange of ionic species originating from in-line vapour deposition of salt as compared to the conventional route of immersing the glass in a molten salt bath. The aim of this work is to develop a more flexible and, eventually, more rapid process for improving the mechanical strength of flat glass by introducing external material into the surface. We discuss how chemical strengthening can be performed through the application of potassium chloride on the glass surface by vapour deposition, and in-line thermally activated ion exchange. The method presented here has the potential to be up-scaled and to be used in in-line production in the future, which would make it possible to produce large quantities of chemically strengthened flat glass at a considerably lower cost.

  • 32. Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Möller Nielsen, Jonas
    Nästa generations täckmaterial för växthus2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Kinetics of chemical strengthening and trends in effective diffusion coefficients2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkali cation exchange has received significant attention with respect to introducing compressive stress in the glass surface, a process frequently called chemical strengthening. Besides mechanical properties may also other properties such as optical, electrical and chemical properties be modified using ion exchange of various monovalent ions. The mobility of monovalent ions varies and the relations of structural and effective diffusion coefficients may help to understand how to improve the ion exchange kinetics of soda lime silicates. We discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) by their correlations to physico-chemical properties. The most significant correlations were found to be the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that electron localization and the rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion exchange rate.

  • 34.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Ion-exchange Strengthening of Soda Lime Silicate Glasses2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 4, nr 13Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Monovalent cations enable efficient ion exchange processes due to their high mobility in silicate glasses. Numerous properties can be modified in this way, e.g., mechanical, optical, electrical or chemical performance. In particular, alkali cation exchange has received significant attention, primarily with respect to introducing compressive stress into the surface region of a glass, which increases mechanical durability. However, most of the present applications rely on specifically tailored matrix compositions in which the cation mobility is enhanced. This largely excludes the major area of soda lime silicates (SLS) such as are commodity in almost all large-scale applications of glasses. Basic understanding of the relations between structural parameters and the effective diffusion coefficients may help to improve ion-exchanged SLS glass products, on the one hand in terms of obtainable strength and on the other in terms of cost. In the present paper, we discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) by drawing relations to physico-chemical properties. Correlations of effective diffusion coefficients were found for the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that localization and rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion exchange rate.

  • 35.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Jena University, Germany.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Ion-exchange in Soda-Lime-Silicate Float Glass: Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkali cation exchange have received significant attention throughout the years, primarily with respect to introducing compressive stresses into the surface layer and for tailoring the refractive index surface profile. In the present paper, we discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) in the surface of soda-lime-silicate float glass. The discussion is based on structural glass chemistry data.

  • 36.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Yta, process och formulering.
    Eriksson, Jerry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    “Transparent Intelligence” for Sustainable Development2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparent materials are essential in everyone’s life. They enable daylight to reach the interior of buildings, thereby contributing to both our physical and mental well-being; they are the primary component for communication via optical fibers and a key component in electronic devices such as protective cover and/or dielectric material; and they enable clean energy production through solar panels or algae reactors by acting as protective and light transmitting barriers. Adding functions to transparent materials in an intelligent way creates further opportunities to use and enhance the beneficial impacts of transparency. The concept Transparent Intelligence covers transparent materials and products with integral intelligent functions – passive, active or interactive. By using Transparent Intelligence it is possible to embrace many of the societal challenges that we are facing today. The concept can be divided into five broad industrial sectors: Built Environment, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Solar Energy, Mobility, and Materials. A perspective on how Transparent Intelligence can improve the sustainable development of our world will be presented, using examples of electrochromic windows for energy-efficient buildings, photocatalytic coatings for improved indoor air quality, transparent conductive coatings for antennas, bandpass filters for mobile phone indoor coverage, UV down-converting components for efficient solar energy, hygienic surfaces for infection mitigation on electronic devices, printed electronics for sustainable glass packaging, and IR-reflecting coatings for fire safety.

  • 37.
    Limbach, René
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Scannell, Garth
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Mathew, Renny
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    The effect of TiO2 on the structure of Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glasses and its implications for thermal and mechanical properties2017Ingår i: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 471, nr C, s. 6-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Titania represents an important compound for property modifications in the widespread family of soda lime silicate glasses. In particular, such titania-containing glasses offer interesting optical and mechanical properties, for example, for substituting lead-bearing consumer glasses. Here, we provide a systematic study of the effect of TiO2 on the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties for three series of quaternary Na2O–CaO–TiO2–SiO2 glasses with TiO2 concentrations up to 12 mol% and variable Na2O, CaO, and SiO2 contents. Structural analyses by Raman and magic-angle spinning 29Si NMR spectroscopy reveal the presence of predominantly four-fold coordinated Ti[4] atoms in glasses of low and moderate TiO2 concentrations, where Si–O–Si bonds are replaced by Si–O–Ti[4] bonds that form a network of interconnected TiO4 and SiO4 tetrahedra, with a majority of the non-bridging oxygen ions likely being located at the SiO4 tetrahedra. At higher TiO2 contents, TiO5 polyhedra are also formed. Incorporation of TiO2 strongly affects the titanosilicate network connectivity, especially when its addition is accompanied by a decrease of the CaO content. However, except for the thermal expansion coefficient, these silicate-network modifications seem to have no impact on the thermal and mechanical stability. Instead, the compositional dependence of the thermal and mechanical properties on the TiO2 content stems from its effect on the network energy and packing efficiency.

  • 38. Möller Nielsen, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Löfkvist, Klara
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    Täckmaterial som gör att pengar kan sparas vid nybyggnation av växthus2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Nielsen, Karsten H.
    et al.
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet. University of Jena, Germany.
    Limbach, Rene
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Quantitative image analysis for evaluating the abrasion resistance of nanoporous silica films on glass2015Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, artikel-id 17708Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The abrasion resistance of coated glass surfaces is an important parameter for judging lifetime performance, but practical testing procedures remain overly simplistic and do often not allow for direct conclusions on real-world degradation. Here, we combine quantitative two-dimensional image analysis and mechanical abrasion into a facile tool for probing the abrasion resistance of anti-reflective (AR) coatings. We determine variations in the average coated area, during and after controlled abrasion. Through comparison with other experimental techniques, we show that this method provides a practical, rapid and versatile tool for the evaluation of the abrasion resistance of sol-gel-derived thin films on glass. The method yields informative data, which correlates with measurements of diffuse reflectance and is further supported by qualitative investigations through scanning electron microscopy. In particular, the method directly addresses degradation of coating performance, i.e., the gradual areal loss of antireflective functionality. As an exemplary subject, we studied the abrasion resistance of state-of-the-art nanoporous SiO2 thin films which were derived from 5–6 wt% aqueous solutions of potassium silicates, or from colloidal suspensions of SiO2 nanoparticles. It is shown how abrasion resistance is governed by coating density and film adhesion, defining the trade-off between optimal AR performance and acceptable mechanical performance.

  • 40.
    Sehati, Parisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Malmros, Ingemar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Aesthetically pleasing PV modules for the Built Environment2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development of the built environment is in the vicinity with circular economy, green building technology and the integration of renewable energy harvesting devices. Solar energy is an enormous resource, in 90 minutes the sun irradiates energy in an amount that is equal to our entire planet’s annual energy need. PV modules is an increasing alternative to generate electricity which has reached grid parity with fossil energy in larger installations. However, fields of PV modules require space and in the built environment the space is scarce, therefore, building applied and building integrated PV has become increasingly interesting. As PV becomes an integrated part in the built environment the aesthetics becomes important, also for it to become accepted among architects. Today, there are many alternatives to make PV modules aesthetically pleasing and many companies develop this further in collaboration with building contractors and architects. In the current report we introduce color, light and PV modules and present a survey of how to make PV modules aesthetically pleasing with a special focus on modification of its color. We present some examples of aesthetically pleasing PV modules and Nordic companies that have been working with developing this. We also list companies that supply roof- as well as façade systems. Finally, we discuss the challenges and the cost implications for aesthetically pleasing PV modules in the built environment.

  • 41.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Increasing chemical resistance and improving mechanical properties of cover glass to PV modules2016Ingår i: Society of Glass Technology Centenary Conference, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Sundberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Simultaneous chemical vapor deposition and thermal strengthening of glass2019Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 669, s. 487-493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current paper we present a concept combining metal organic chemical vapor deposition with thermal strengthening process of flat glass. As the flat glass is heated to be thermally strengthened, which takes up to 20 minutes, there is an opportunity for performing a surface modification. We describe the application of transparent and amorphous Al2O3 thin films during the thermal strengthening process. Al2O3 was chosen due to the following desirable properties: increased surface mechanical properties and increased chemical durability, the latter has not been investigated in the current paper. The residual surface compressive stresses after performed strengthening of the coated glasses were quantified to be in the range of 80-110 MPa. The Al2O3 content in the surface was measured using the Surface Ablation Cell employed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and found to be at least doubled at the surface and having an increased Al2O3 content at least 0.5 mu m underneath the glass surface. During the surface reaction, sodium is migrating to the surface giving a hazy salt layer on the glass which can easily be washed off with water. The applied coatings are transparent and provide increased surface hardness and crack resistance at low indentation loads. At higher indentation loads the interaction volume is larger and displays the same effect on the surface mechanical properties as for thermally strengthened glass. The contact angle with water compared to annealed float glass is significantly increased from 5 degrees to 45 degrees due to the different surface chemistry and surface topography.

  • 43.
    Sundberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Eriksson, Jerry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Use of reactive gases in the tempering process towards ultra-thin glasses for solar energy applications2016Ingår i: Society of Glass Technology Centenary Conference, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Sundberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Simultaneous chemical vapor deposition and thermal strengthening of glass2018Ingår i: 12th International Conference on Coatings on Glass and Plastics (ICCG 12), 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The LIMES project (Light Innovative Materials for Enhanced Solar Efficiency), a Solar-ERA.NET project, was a fruitful collaboration to optimize many different properties in state-of-the-art solar glasses for photovoltaic (PV) modules. Here, we present results related to the effectiveness of combining chemical vapor deposition and thermal strengthening of glass in a simultaneous process. The treated glass surfaces gets a markedly increase of Al2O3, which in previous studies has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties. Successful thermal strengthening and in-situ Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) have repeatedly been performed on 4 and 2 mm flat glasses. The strengthening level has been quantified using SCALP (Scattered Light Polariscope). The samples were found to have a surface compressive stress in the range of 85-110 MPa which is comparable to the level of conventional thermally strengthened safety glass. The surface mechanical properties of the samples have been investigated by means of nano/microindentation and the strength of glasses has been quantified by ring-on-ring method. The transparency of the samples after washing was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy.

    The in-situ CVD thermally strengthened glasses gets an Al2O3 coated surface which exhibits increased crack resistance and increased scratch resistance as compared to traditionally thermally strengthened glass. The nanohardness for low loads, ≤ 1 mN, follow the order thermo-chemically strengthened glass > thermally strengthened glass > annealed float glass. The results of the strength tests show that the 2 mm thin glass were positively affected by the Al2O3 coating while the 4 mm did not show any significant change. The light transmittance of the treated glasses was not markedly reduced. In summary, this novel process show possibilities to increase specific properties, in this case surface mechanical properties, by simultaneous CVD and thermal strengthening.

  • 45.
    Sundberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Simultaneous chemical vapor deposition and thermal strengthening of glass2018Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 669, nr 1, s. 487-493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current paper we present a concept combining metal organic chemical vapor deposition with thermal strengthening process of flat glass. As the flat glass is heated to be thermally strengthened, which takes up to 20 minutes, there is an opportunity for performing a surface modification. We describe the application of transparent and amorphous Al2O3 thin films during the thermal strengthening process. Al2O3 was chosen due to the following desirable properties: increased surface mechanical properties and increased chemical durability, the latter has not been investigated in the current paper. The residual surface compressive stresses after performed strengthening of the coated glasses were quantified to be in the range of 80–110 MPa. The Al2O3 content in the surface was measured using the Surface Ablation Cell employed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and found to be at least doubled at the surface and having an increased Al2O3 content at least 0.5 μm underneath the glass surface. During the surface reaction, sodium is migrating to the surface giving a hazy salt layer on the glass which can easily be washed off with water. The applied coatings are transparent and provide increased surface hardness and crack resistance at low indentation loads. At higher indentation loads the interaction volume is larger and displays the same effect on the surface mechanical properties as for thermally strengthened glass. The contact angle with water compared to annealed float glass is significantly increased from 5° to 45° due to the different surface chemistry and surface topography.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-11-28 08:05
  • 46.
    Sundberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Johnson, Simon R.
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Novel thermo-chemical strengthening of glass for solar energy applications and its impact on the physical properties2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The LIMES project (Light Innovative Materials for Enhanced Solar Efficiency), a Solar-ERA.NET project, have been a fruitful collaboration project to optimize many different properties in state-of-the-art solar glasses for photovoltaic (PV) modules. Here, we present results related to the effectiveness of reactive gas strengthening and its improvement of the physical properties of thin glasses. Novel thermo-chemical strengthening has been created using reactive chemicals that react with the glass surface during the thermal strengthening process. The glass surface gets a markedly increase of Al2O3, which in previous studies has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties. Successful thermo-chemical strengthening of 4 and 2 mm glasses to a similar strengthening level have repeatedly been performed, polariscope images in Figure 1. The strengthening level has been quantified using SCALP (Scattered Light Polariscope) and were found to be in the range of 85-110 MPa of compressive stresses in the surface which are comparable to values for conventional thermally strengthened glass.

    The strength of the glasses was quantified using the ring-on-ring method and the surface mechanical properties were evaluated by means of nano/microindentation. UV-Vis spectroscopy measurements have also been performed.

    Results for the ring-on-ring tests show that the 2 mm thin glass were positively affected by the while 4 mm did not show any significant change as compared to thermally strengthened. The thermo-chemically strengthened glasses have a significantly higher crack resistance than both the reference float glass and the traditionally thermally strengthened glass. The hardness results show that for low loads, ≥1 mN, the hardness follow the order thermo-chemically strengthened glass > thermally strengthened glass > annealed float glass. The scratch resistance for thermo-chemically strengthened glass is increased as compared to ordinary float glass. In addition, the transmission is not markedly reduced.

  • 47.
    Sundberg, Peter J.
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Brochot, Dominique
    Simons, Jose
    Strubel, Christine
    Surface analysis of float glass using surface ablation cell (SAC).: Part 1. Initial collaboration and comparison with SIMS2010Ingår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 13-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the use of a surface ablation cell (SAC) to quantify the elemental compositional depth profile of float glass is presented. High spatial resolution data of 10-20 nm is reported. Elemental resolution is also high so that, for example, the tin hump, which is not normally observed in low iron borofloat glasses, is recorded with good resolution. The technique is based on a wet dissolution of the glass surface on a layer by layer basis using ordinary equipment available in most chemical laboratories. Due to its simple nature, the procedure required further collaborative investigation with other instrumental surface analytical techniques. The results obtained compare very favourably with those obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). It is shown that sample pretreatment is important and directly affects the outcome of the investigation. The effects of acid concentration, and probably most other experimental parameters, are also shown to affect the step length in the profiling process. The future use of the SAC as a complementary technique for surface studies is foreseen both in laboratories and also in the production environment as a reliable off-line technique for surface characterisation. The technique was developed through a collaborative workprogramme devised by Technical Committee 2 (Chemical Durability and Analysis) a technical sub-committee of the International Commission on Glass (ICG/TC-02).

  • 48.
    Teitel, Mehr
    et al.
    The Volcani Agriculture Institute, Israel.
    Vitoshkin, Helena
    Tel-Aviv University, Israel.
    Geoola, Farhad
    The Volcani Agriculture Institute, Israel.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Stahl, Noam
    Ginegar Plastic Products Ltd, Israel.
    Greenhouse and screenhouse cover materials: literature review and industry perspective2018Ingår i: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 1227, s. 31-44Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews issues and opportunities related to greenhouse and screenhouse cover materials and presents industry perspectives. A literature survey shows that various greenhouse cover materials (glass, rigid and flexible plastic sheets and screens) are used in different regions of the world. These materials differ in their physical, chemical, mechanical and radiometric properties. Selection of the type of cover material by growers depends on many factors and is mainly affected by local tradition, which is related to the geographical climate, solar radiation intensity, crop value, cost of the cover material and its life span. Over the years, cover materials have been improved to enable higher light transmittance, a change in the characteristics of the transmitted light, reduced heat loss and hence higher energy saving and prevention of condensation and droplet formation on the inner surface of the cover. Furthermore, properties of cover materials have been changed to enable reductions in insect invasion into greenhouses/screenhouses on the one hand and to improve orientation of beneficial insects in the house on the other. Nowadays, different glass surface treatments or suitable cover materials, and sometimes a combination of the two, are in the vicinity to be used in order to increase the uniformity of the greenhouse climate and enhance plant growth, for example, diffused glass that scatters the light. Next to that, micro structures are combined with nanostructures, such as anti-reflection treatments (AR-glass), and also hydrophilic film with anti-fog additives, which can be used in order to improve light transmission. Recently, solar cells were incorporated into cover materials to generate electricity and semi-transparent plastic sheets that can generate electricity were developed and tested. In addition to the topics mentioned above, this article considers the deterioration of cover materials as a result of different environmental effects. It also briefly presents methods to measure properties of cover materials.

  • 49.
    Teitel, Meir
    et al.
    Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Italy.
    Vitoshkin, Helena
    Institute of Agricultural Engineering,Italy.
    Geoola, Farhad
    Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Italy.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Stahl, Noam
    Ginegar Plastic Products Ltd., Uk.
    Greenhouse and Screenhouse Cover Materials: Literature Review and Industry Perspective2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely accepted that in protected cultivation cover materials significantly affect crop growth, yield and quality. Hence, cover materials play an important role in the design and construction of greenhouses/screenhouses. This article reviews issues and opportunities related to cover materials and presents industry perspectives. A literature survey shows that various greenhouse cover materials (glass, rigid and flexible plastic sheets and screens) are used in different regions of the world to cover greenhouses and screenhouses. The various materials differ in their physical, chemical, mechanical and radiometric properties. Selection of the type of cover material by growers depends on many factors and is mainly affected by the local tradition, which is related to the geographical climate and solar radiation intensity, the crop value, the cost of the cover material and its life span. Over the years cover materials have been improved to enable a higher light transmittance, a change in the characteristics of the transmitted light (e.g. change the percentage of diffuse light within the greenhouse), a reduction of heat loss and hence higher energy saving and prevention of condensation and droplet formation on the inner surface of the cover. Furthermore, properties of cover materials were changed to enable reduction in insect invasion into greenhouses/screenhouses on one hand and improve orientation of beneficial insects in the house on the other hand. Attempts have also been made to reduce development of fungal disease on the crop by changing the spectrum of light transmitted into the greenhouse. Nowadays, different glass surface treatments or suitable cover materials, although sometimes a combination of both, are in the vicinity to be used in order to increase the uniformity of the greenhouse climate and enhance plant growth. For example, diffused glass is usually created by treating the surface of low-iron glass to create patterns that scatter the light. In addition, diffused glass, as well as covering diffused film, may have irregular wavy microstructure on the surface and capable of altering the optical properties (haze and light transmission) according to requirements for different climatic regions. Next to that, micro structures are combined with nanostructures, such as anti-reflection treatments (AR-glass), and also, hydrophilic film with anti-fog additives that can be used in order to improve light transmission into the greenhouse. Recently, solar cells were incorporated into cover materials to generate electricity and semi transparent plastic sheets that can generate electricity were developed and tested. In addition to the topics mentioned above, this article considers the deterioration of cover materials due to different environmental effects and discusses the resultant changes in light transmission and characteristics. It also presents methods to measure the properties of different cover materials.

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