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  • 1. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Andersson, Carin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ericsson Öberg, Anna
    Hammersberg, Peter
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Landström, Anna
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Windmark, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Winroth, Mats
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Sustainable and Resource Efficient Business Performance Measurement Systems: - The Handbook2017Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Carlström, Elis
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Orlenius, Jessica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Avellán, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    LCA as a Strategic Tool for Technology Development – Li Ion Battery Case2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Berg, Helena
    et al.
    AB Libergreen, Sweden.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Perspectives on environmental and cost assessment of lithium metal negative electrodes in electric vehicle traction batteries2019In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 415, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a lithium metal negative electrode may give lithium metal batteries (LMBs), higher specific energy density and an environmentally more benign chemistry than Li-ion batteries (LIBs). This study asses the environmental and cost impacts of in silico designed LMBs compared to existing LIB designs in a vehicle perspective. The life cycle climate and cost impacts of LMBs show a similar pattern: the use phase has more climate and cost impacts than the production phase. As compared to LIBs and with respect to the positive electrode, Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) is preferable to Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP). The cell cost is highly dependent on the cost of lithium metal; a cost reduction of 50% causes a cell cost reduction of 8–22% depending on the choice of positive electrode material and if the cell is optimised for power or energy. For electric vehicle usage, the total cost per km is mainly dependent on the energy consumption per km and the capacity of the positive electrode, representing cost saving potentials of about 10%. These generic results can be used as a base for investigations of other battery technology using lithium metal electrodes.

  • 4.
    Jönbrink, Anna Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Norrblom, Hans Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Ekodesign: praktisk vägledning2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det blir alltmer uppenbart att vi behöver vara rädda om vår jord. Miljöfrågorna startade med debatten om kvicksilver och DDT och handlade sedan om direkta utsläpp från fabriker. Idag inser vi vikten av att sätta produkten i centrum. Att förbättra produktens egenskaper under hela livscykeln är centralt för ett framgångsrikt miljöarbete. Produktutvecklare är en av de grupper som har störst möjlighet att påverka denna utveckling i en positiv riktning. Många lösningar ger – förutom bättre miljö – dessutom ökat kundvärde till lägre kostnader. Bra miljö genom ekodesign är ett nytt sätt att tänka. Denna bok ger vägledning i hur man kan integrera miljöaspekter i produktutvecklingen. Boken visar också ett antal verktyg, checklistor och exempel på ekodesign i företag. Boken vänder sig i första hand till produktutvecklare och konstruktörer men också till företagsledning, inköpsavdelning, marknadsförare och miljöansvariga. Dessutom lämpar sig boken väl för undervisning inom ekodesign.

  • 5.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Denzler, Patrick
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Bjelkemyr, Marcus
    Production System And Material Efficiency Challenges For Large Scale Introduction Of Complex Materials2017In: Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Vol. 2, no 8, p. 492-499Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper links production system research to advanced material research for the vehicle industry. Facilitated by need for reduction of fuel use, the automotive industry is pushing a radical change from using steel structures to new mixed materials structures. In production systems optimised for steel, the changes will affect productivity and material efficiency. Four industrial case studies focusing on production economy and productivity give implications of production technology demands on the material selection regarding new joining techniques and additive or forming methods which has to be investigated when considering new materials. Material efficiency analysis shows that minimising spill in production operations and regulatory demand of recycling need to be considered in material development, which implies both design for disassembly, advanced separation processes and use of recycled raw materials. To be successful in new material introduction, new information flows and knowledge sharing moving from operations and manufacturing development to materials development and design are needed. The material developers could use axiomatic design strategies to structure the production system demands on the materials. State of the art lightweight producers in vehicle and automotive industry are likely early adopters to advanced lightweight structures with need of information flows between material development and operations.

  • 6.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Persson, Kalle
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Berglund, Rickard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Ericson Öberg, Anna
    Volvo Group, Sweden.
    Myrelid, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Trollsfjord, Pia
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Implementation of daily visual management at five small and medium sized enterprises in Produktionslyftet compared to six larger Swedish companies2016In: Swedish Production Symposium 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the implementation of daily visual management (DVM) in five SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises), with practice in six large Swedish companies, considering the challenge to include sustainability aspects. With method definition from Produktionslyftet (PL), a Swedish development programme, DVM includes daily meetings around key performance indices (KPIs) and visualised information on boards. The SMEs were studied within PL while the large companies were studied in the research project SuReBPMS (Sustainable and resource efficient Business Performance Measurement Systems). The empirical result from SMEs shows that KPIs often cover few areas (most common: delivery, safety and quality) while the larger companies have wider range of areas. In some SMEs the meeting agendas, KPIs and pulse-boards are standardised while in others there are differences between teams or operations. The larger companies were mainly standardised. Both SMEs and larger companies mostly include all employees in DVM, in line with PL-DVM methodology. The general tendency is to focus on short term rather than follow-up of strategic challenges in the DVM. Furthermore, environmental issues, such as climate impact, are rarely found on boards, while often reflected in company policy. However, many KPIs have a strong, indirect, connection to sustainability and environment.

  • 7.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Arbetsmiljö.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Wiktorsson, M.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Arbetsmiljö.
    Lean and green integration in production systems in Sweden - barriers, incentives and opportunities2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, special issue on Making progress towards more sustainable societies through lean and green initiatives, p. 180-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on integration of operations management, specifically production system models with environmental management and related issues such as quality and safety. Based on knowledge concerning lean-based improvement programmes for company-specific production systems (XPS) and integration between formal management systems, such as ISO 9001 and 14001, industrial practices from integrating management systems with the XPS were studied. A literature-based comparison between formal management systems and XPS is made, indicating integration potentials. The empirical research is an analysis of five vehicle and automotive companies in which various efforts have been made to integrate their management systems with their XPS. The results show that although conscious steps have been taken since the introduction of ISO 14001 in integrating environmental management into everyday operations, there are still obstacles to overcome. To fully include sustainability aspects, the characteristics of the improvement systems have to be adapted and extended. One barrier to extended integration is the lack of integration strategy. There is further a lack of sustainability metrics and adaptation of improvement methods to push companies’ operational performance. In addition, organisational issues still arise concerning the responsibility and ownership of environmental management in relation to operations.

    Based on these results it is concluded that processes for integration are recommended; however, each organisation needs to consider its operations, corporate culture and business opportunities of its environmental management. Still, incorporating environmental management systems into XPS is seen as an effective way of establishing company commonality in continuous improvement, resulting in holistic understanding and improved organisation performance.

  • 8.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wiktorsson, M.
    Mälardalen University.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lean and green integration into production system models - Experiences from Swedish industry2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 85, p. 180-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on integration of operations management, specifically production system models with environmental management and related issues such as quality and safety. Based on knowledge concerning lean-based improvement programmes for company-specific production systems (XPS) and integration between formal management systems, such as ISO 9001 and 14001, industrial practices from integrating management systems with the XPS were studied. A literature-based comparison between formal management systems and XPS is made, indicating integration potentials. The empirical research is an analysis of five vehicle and automotive companies in which various efforts have been made to integrate their management systems with their XPS. The results show that although conscious steps have been taken since the introduction of ISO 14001 in integrating environmental management into everyday operations, there are still obstacles to overcome. To fully include sustainability aspects, the characteristics of the improvement systems have to be adapted and extended. One barrier to extended integration is the lack of integration strategy. There is further a lack of sustainability metrics and adaptation of improvement methods to push companies' operational performance. In addition, organisational issues still arise concerning the responsibility and ownership of environmental management in relation to operations. Based on these results it is concluded that processes for integration are recommended; however, each organisation needs to consider its operations, corporate culture and business opportunities of its environmental management. Still, incorporating environmental management systems into XPS is seen as an effective way of establishing company commonality in continuous improvement, resulting in holistic understanding and improved organisation performance. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lean and green integration into production system models: Experiences from Swedish industry2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 85, no Supplement C, p. 180-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on integration of operations management, specifically production system models with environmental management and related issues such as quality and safety. Based on knowledge concerning lean-based improvement programmes for company-specific production systems (XPS) and integration between formal management systems, such as ISO 9001 and 14001, industrial practices from integrating management systems with the XPS were studied. A literature-based comparison between formal management systems and XPS is made, indicating integration potentials. The empirical research is an analysis of five vehicle and automotive companies in which various efforts have been made to integrate their management systems with their XPS. The results show that although conscious steps have been taken since the introduction of ISO 14001 in integrating environmental management into everyday operations, there are still obstacles to overcome. To fully include sustainability aspects, the characteristics of the improvement systems have to be adapted and extended. One barrier to extended integration is the lack of integration strategy. There is further a lack of sustainability metrics and adaptation of improvement methods to push companies’ operational performance. In addition, organisational issues still arise concerning the responsibility and ownership of environmental management in relation to operations. Based on these results it is concluded that processes for integration are recommended; however, each organisation needs to consider its operations, corporate culture and business opportunities of its environmental management. Still, incorporating environmental management systems into XPS is seen as an effective way of establishing company commonality in continuous improvement, resulting in holistic understanding and improved organisation performance.

  • 10.
    Landström, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Almström, Peter
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Winroth, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Carin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ericson Öberg, Anna
    Volvo Construction Equipment AB, Sweden.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Windmark, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    A life cycle approach to business performance measurement systems2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 126-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtually every company has implemented a Business Performance Measurement System (BPMS) with the purpose of monitoring production and business performance and to execute the corporate strategy at all levels in a company. The purpose of this article is to shed light on common pitfalls related to the practical use of BPMS and further to present a life cycle model with the purpose of introducing structured approach to avoiding the pitfalls. The article contributes to further development of the BPMS life cycle concept and practical examples of how it can be used.

  • 11.
    Landström, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Carin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Windmark, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Almström, Peter
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Winroth, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Ericsson Öberg, Anna
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden.
    Myrelid, Andreas
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Sweden.
    Present state analysis of business performance measurement systems in large manufacturing companies2016In: PMA Conference 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to empirically investigate the present state of the performance measurement systems (PMS) at 7 sites of 6 different large Swedish manufacturing companies. The methodology has both a bottom-up and a top-down perspective. Important findings are that the PMSs are very similar in how they function but differ a lot in what is measured.

  • 12.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kristinsdortter, Anna Runa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Comparison of Four Environmental Assessment Tools in Swedish Manufacturing: A Case Study2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 2173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve sustainable development goals, it is essential to include the industrial system. There are sufficient numbers of tools and methods for measuring, assessing and improving the quality, productivity and efficiency of production, but the number of tools and methods for environmental initiatives on the shop floor is rather low. Incorporating environmental considerations into production and performance management systems still generally involves a top-down approach aggregated for an entire manufacturing plant. Green lean studies have been attempting to fill this gap to some extent, but the lack of detailed methodologies and practical tools for environmental manufacturing improvement on the shop floor is still evident. This paper reports on the application of four environmental assessment tools commonly used among Swedish manufacturing companies—Green Performance Map (GPM), Environmental Value Stream Mapping (EVSM), Waste Flow Mapping (WFM), and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)—to help practitioners and scholars to understand the different features of each tool, so in turn the right tool(s) can be selected according to particular questions and the industrial settings. Because there are some overlap and differences between the tools and a given tool may be more appropriate to a situation depending on the question posed, a combination of tools is suggested to embrace different types of data collection and analysis to include different environmental impacts for better prioritization and decision-making.

  • 13.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kristinsdottir, Anna Runa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Comparison of four environmental assessment tools in Swedish manufacturing: A case study2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 2173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve sustainable development goals, it is essential to include the industrial system. There are sufficient numbers of tools and methods for measuring, assessing and improving the quality, productivity and efficiency of production, but the number of tools and methods for environmental initiatives on the shop floor is rather low. Incorporating environmental considerations into production and performance management systems still generally involves a top-down approach aggregated for an entire manufacturing plant. Green lean studies have been attempting to fill this gap to some extent, but the lack of detailed methodologies and practical tools for environmental manufacturing improvement on the shop floor is still evident. This paper reports on the application of four environmental assessment tools commonly used among Swedish manufacturing companies-Green Performance Map (GPM), Environmental Value Stream Mapping (EVSM), Waste Flow Mapping (WFM), and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)-to help practitioners and scholars to understand the different features of each tool, so in turn the right tool(s) can be selected according to particular questions and the industrial settings. Because there are some overlap and differences between the tools and a given tool may be more appropriate to a situation depending on the question posed, a combination of tools is suggested to embrace different types of data collection and analysis to include different environmental impacts for better prioritization and decision-making.

  • 14.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Environmental aspects when manufacturing products mainly out of metals and/or polymers2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 43-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most fundamental aspect in the ISO 14001 standard Environmental management systems—Specification with guidance for use is to find out ways by which an organisation influences environment to a significant degree. This paper examines environmental data from companies manufacturing products mainly from metals and/or polymers. The data were collected in a uniform way by use of special guidelines. Weighting or valuation methods often used in life cycle assessments were used to quantitatively compare and rank environmental aspects. The study results suggest that, in general, the largest environmental impact in the investigated manufacturing sub-sector can be associated with product use and/or disposal phases. This in turn shows a need for more attention on environmental work on the design for environment than what the ISO 14001 standard requires. It is further suggested that weighting or valuation methods can aid in determining the significance of environmental impacts and aspects in the context of ISO 14001.

  • 15.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Indikatorer för bedömning av miljöpåverkan2014Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Lead-free brass from Nordic Brass Gusum2015Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Life cycle assessment of cable recycling: Part 1: Plastsep compared to state of the art2012Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Life cycle assessment of high temperature batteries: 5Ah cell2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a life cycle assessment of a 5Ah LiFeSO4F high-temperature battery cell weighing 110 grams. It was performed in the context of the Swedish From road to load project. The 5 Ah cell has been analyzed from cradle to grave, i.e., from raw material production over own manufacturing, use in a typical application and end-of-life. It has also been compared to other lithium battery cells. The results indicate that:

     Production in Sweden is favourable due to that electricity is a main driver of climate impact and toxicity in the production phase.

     Electricity is a main driver of climate impact and toxicity also in the use phase which emphasizes the need to keep the charge/discharge efficiency high.

     Indium tin oxide in the anode dominates abiotic depletion.

     Comparison with lithium-air cells reflects that the lithium air technology is still very far from commercial reality, while indicating that it is an interesting technology for the future.

  • 19.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Life cycle assessment of long life lithium electrode for electric vehicle batteries: cells for Leaf, Tesla and Volvo bus2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a life cycle assessment of 10Ah lithium battery cells with metallic lithium in the anode. It was performed in the context of the Swedish TriLi - Longlife lithium electrodes for EV and HEV batteries - project. The cells have been analyzed from cradle to grave, i.e., from raw material production over own manufacturing, use in three different vehicles: Nissan Leaf, Tesla model S and a Volvo bus; and end-of-life. The study aims to highlight environmental hotspots with lithium batteries with metallic lithium in the anode in order to improve them as well as to investigate environmental benefits with such lithium batteries in different vehicles. Battery cells with metallic lithium in the anode and LFP and NMC chemistry were compared to the original vehicle batteries. In short, the study points towards the following conclusions:

     Both the LFP and NMC lithium metal anode battery cells shows lower climate impact potential, lower abiotic depletion potential and lower toxicity potential than the original NMC and NCA cells with copper anodes. The main reason for the difference is higher energy density which gives lower weight and thus lower electricity consumption. However, the lower carbon footprint of the metal anode cells rests on the assumption that they last as many cycles as the original NMC and NCA, something which has not yet been proven.

     For the same reason (higher energy density) the NMC chemistry shows lower environmental impacts per vehicle kilometre than the LFP chemistry for the metal anode battery cells, but here the difference is much smaller and probably within error margins.

     Assembly energy is a main driver for climate impact. Sensitivity calculations with Swedish average electricity mix for production of the cells show that production impacts can be reduced by 25% by producing in Sweden, compared to global average production.

  • 20.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Life cycle assessment of long life lithiumelectrode for electric vehicle batteries: 5Ah cell2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a life cycle assessment of a 5Ah lithium battery cell with metallic lithium in the anode. It was performed in the context of the Swedish TriLi - Longlife lithium electrodes for EV and HEV batteries - project. The 5 Ah cell has been analyzed from cradle to grave, i.e., from raw material production over own manufacturing, use in a typical application and end-of-life. The study aims to highlight environmental hotspots with lithium batteries with metallic lithium in the anode in order to improve them as well as to verify environmental benefits with lithium batteries in vehicles.

    A number of LCAs of different depth and detail will be carried out in the TriLiproject, each following more or less the steps:

    1. Provision of preliminary cell design and data
    2. Screening LCA
    3. Workshop to present and discuss screening LCA results
    4. Revised cell design and data and recalculation of LCA
    5. Workshop to present and discuss LCA-results of “final” cell design
    6. Manufacturing of cell and testing of cell
    7. Calculation of final LCA if needed

    This report concerns the final LCA of a 5 Ah cell. The results indicate that:

    • LCA may be very helpful in the design process of batteries. An example is that the amount of lithium was reduced to a quarter without affecting battery performance, following that the screening LCA results pointed towards the lithium metal as the major source of climate impact.
    • The largest non-recyclable contributor to climate impact and abiotic depletion in the production phase is the assembly energy. It therefore warrants special attention in further efforts to minimize cell environmental impacts.
    • The cell efficiency is very important to consider. For η=0.95-0.5 electric losses range from 5 to 50% per delivered kWh. These losses are transformed into heat that may require further energy to get rid of.
    • Use phase weight related losses are quite low and become lower the heavier the vehicle is, i.e., battery weight is not all that important (efficiency is, for example, much more important).
    • At 4000-6000 discharge cycles and (η=0.9), production level climate impacts and use phase climate impacts are at the same level, assuming West European electricity mix for the propulsion. However, with carbonlean electricity for the propulsion, use phase climate impacts are much smaller and not at all dominant.
    • Abiotic depletion is dominated by metals depletion related to electricity distribution, not production. Therefore, abiotic depletion is not all assensitive to the choice of electricity mix as climate impact is.
  • 21.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Swerea IVF, Sweden.
    Product orientation of environmental work - barriers & incentives2009Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The research behind this licentiate is spread out over a decade of intensive development of environmental work in industry. A 1998 survey of Swedish companies with newly installed environmental management systems (EMS) concluded that such systems need more product-orientation. Data collected by companies as part of the process of creating their EMS between 1996-2001 offered further evidence that it is environmentally justified to seek improvements in the materials selection, use and disposal phases of products, i.e., to make the environmental improvement work more product-orientated. In a EU-funded project carried out between 2004-2006 it was demonstrated that developing an environmental product declaration could be a cost-effective product-oriented environmental action even for smaller companies. This licentiate thesis relates to methods for companies to orientate their environmental work on their products. In particular, it examines experience and provides insights on the possibilities for companies, including small ones, to use life cycle assessment in product development in order to design products with an environmental performance well above legal compliance. It is difficult to give general recommendations to companies about their environmental work because each company has its own unique business idea, customers, work culture, stakeholders etc. Nevertheless, the main findings of the licentiate thesis can be summed up in the following recommendations for, say, a small company in Europe without much previous experience of environmental work: §  Focus your environmental work on your products because you will accomplish more environmentally and the chance of profiting economically will motivate your personnel; §  Consider doing a life cycle assessment, LCA, on a strategically chosen product in order to learn more about your products and how to improve their environmental performance; §  Do not expect to find a general market demand for green products; start a dialogue with your best customers in order to create the demand; §  Engage an LCA specialist to do the LCA and work together with your personnel to interpret the results and generate improvement ideas; §  If your customers demand that you install an environmental management system, ask them if they would not prefer to receive an environmental product declaration on the particular product they are interested in, and a chance to discuss how its environmental performance can be improved.

  • 22.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Recycling production cable waste: environmental and economic aspects2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main driver for recycling cable wastes is the high value of the conducting metal, while the plastic with its lower value is often neglected. New improved cable plastic recycling routes could provide both economic and environmental incentive to cable producers for moving up the "cable plastic waste ladder". The improvement potential for the European cable industry as a whole is roughly estimated to avoidance of 30 750 tonnes of CO

    2eq annually if these new techniques were to be applied to the 5% plastic waste stream from cable production. Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of the waste management of the cable scrap is suggested and explained as a method to analyze the pros and cons of different cable scrap recycling options at hand. Economic and environmental data about different recycling processes and other relevant processes and materials are given. Cable producers could use this data and method to assess the way they deal with the cable plastic waste today and compare it with available alternatives and thus illuminate the improvement potential of recycling cable plastic waste. Through using the data and methods provided, the user will be able to show the climate impacts of improving the cable waste recycling (compared to how it is done today) and also to show the economic and technical implications of such improvements.

  • 23.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Recycling production cable waste: Environmental and economic implications2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main driver for recycling cable wastes is the high value of the conducting metal, while the plastic with its lower value is often neglected. New improved cable plastic recycling routes could provide both economic and environmental incentive to cable producers for moving up the “cable plastic waste ladder”. The improvement potential for the European cable industry as a whole is roughly estimated to avoidance of 30 750 tonnes of CO2eq annually if these new techniques were to be applied to the 5% plastic waste stream from cable production. Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of the waste management of the cable scrap is suggested and explained as a method to analyze the pros and cons of different cable scrap recycling options at hand. Economic and environmental data about different recycling processes and other relevant processes and materials are given. Cable producers could use this data and method to assess the way they deal with the cable plastic waste today and compare it with available alternatives and thus illuminate the improvement potential of recycling cable plastic waste both in an environmental and in an economic sense.

    Recycling production cable waste - Environmental and economic implications. (PDF Download Available).

  • 24.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Avellán, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Orlenius, Jessica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Life cycle assessment of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles-Critical issues2010In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, no 15, p. 1517-1527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the study was to explore how LCA can be used to optimize the design of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Two lithium-ion batteries, both based on lithium iron phosphate, but using different solvents during cell manufacturing, were studied by means of life cycle assessment, LCA. The general conclusions are limited to results showing robustness against variation in critical data. The study showed that it is environmentally preferable to use water as a solvent instead of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, NMP, in the slurry for casting the cathode and anode of lithium-ion batteries. Recent years' improvements in battery technology, especially related to cycle life, have decreased production phase environmental impacts almost to the level of use phase impacts. In the use phase, environmental impacts related to internal battery efficiency are two to six times larger than the impact from losses due to battery weight in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, assuming 90% internal battery efficiency. Thus, internal battery efficiency is a very important parameter; at least as important as battery weight. Areas, in which data is missing or inadequate and the environmental impact is or may be significant, include: production of binders, production of lithium salts, cell manufacturing and assembly, the relationship between weight of vehicle and vehicle energy consumption, information about internal battery efficiency and recycling of lithium-ion batteries based on lithium iron phosphate. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 25. Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    Boss, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Recycling production cable waste: Environmental and economic implications2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main driver for recycling cable wastes is the high value of the conducting metal, while the plastic with its lower value is often neglected. New improved cable plastic recycling routes could provide both economic and environmental incentive to cable producers for moving up the “cable plastic waste ladder”. The improvement potential for the European cable industry as a whole is roughly estimated to avoidance of 30 750 tonnes of CO2eq annually if these new techniques were to be applied to the 5% plastic waste stream from cable production. Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of the waste management of the cable scrap is suggested and explained as a method to analyze the pros and cons of different cable scrap recycling options at hand. Economic and environmental data about different recycling processes and other relevant processes and materials are given. Cable producers could use this data and method to assess the way they deal with the cable plastic waste today and compare it with available alternatives and thus illuminate the improvement potential of recycling cable plastic waste both in an environmental and in an economic sense. Recycling production cable waste - Environmental and economic implications. (PDF Download Available).

  • 26.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Enroth, M
    Widing, A
    Miljöledningssystem : papperstiger eller kraftfullt verktyg : utvärdering av miljömässig och ekonomisk effektivitet av ISO 14001 och EMAS : en undersökning baserad på enkät och intervjuer med sammanlagt 200 svenska miljöcertifierade företag 19991999Report (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Fransson, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Hildenbrand, Jutta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lampic, Gorazd
    Elaphe Ltd, Slovenia.
    O’Dwyer, Colm
    University College Cork, Ireland.
    Life cycle assessment of lithium-air battery cells2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 135, p. 299-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-air batteries are investigated for propulsion aggregates in vehicles as they theoretically offer at least 10 times better energy density than the best battery technology (lithium-ion) of today. A possible input to guide development is expected from Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the manufacture, use and recycling of the lithium-air battery. For this purpose, lithium-air cells are analyzed from cradle to grave, i.e., from raw material production, cathode manufacturing, electrolyte preparation, cell assembly, use in a typical vehicle to end-of-life treatment and recycling. The aim of this investigation is highlighting environmental hotspots of lithium-air batteries to facilitate their improvement, in addition to scrutinizing anticipated environmental benefits compared to other battery technologies. Life cycle impacts are quantified in terms of climate impact, abiotic resource depletion and toxicity. Data is partly based on assumptions and estimates guided from similar materials and processes common to lithium-ion technologies. Laboratory scale results for lithium-air systems are considered, which include expectations in their future development for efficiency gains. At the present level of lithium-air cell performance, production-related impacts dominate all environmental impact categories. However, as the performance of the lithium-air cell develops (and less cells are needed), battery-related losses during operation become the major source of environmental impacts. The battery internal electricity losses become heat that may need considerable amounts of additional energy for its transportation out of the battery. It is recommended that future battery cell development projects already at the design stage consider suitable methods and processes for efficient and environmentally benign cell-level recycling. LCA could provide additional arguments and a quantitative basis for lithium battery recycling. This emphasizes the need to develop LCA toxicity impact methods in order to properly assess lithium.

  • 28.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Hildenbrand, Jutta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Including grid storage to increase the use of renewables case of an island in the North sea2018In: Going Green CARE INNOVATION 2018. Conference Program &Abstract Book, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilization of renewable energy supply is limited by fluctuations and lack of alignment with demand. Including storage technology in the grid can increase self-consumption of renewable energy in local applications as well as reduce peaks in supply and demand for local low voltage grids with a high share of renewable energy input. The project NETfficient, funded by the European Union under the Grant Agreement 646463, explores requirements and effects of storage solutions in a grid on different levels. On the island of Borkum in the North Sea, a variety of grid-connected use cases is installed and tested in pilot studies. This paper focusses on homes equipped with photovoltaic panels for harvesting energy and two different storage solutions. The research addresses the resource demand and emissions due to novel components and the potential to decrease resource demand during the use phase, applying a life cycle perspective for components and systems. Data from the project as well as from LCA databases are collected and used to calculate environmental impacts for three different systems or applications: Stand alone photovoltaic (PV) panels, PV panels and customized Li- Ion-batteries and PV panels with a disused Li-Ion battery from an electric vehicle. The results indicate that the customized or dedicated Li-Ion battery in combination with PV panels have a larger climate impact avoidance than the other systems.

  • 29.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Arbetsmiljö.
    Fransson, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Olsson, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Mall för miljöutredning - ett verktyg för att identifiera företagets miljöpåverkan2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mall för miljöutredning hjälper dig att samla in och redovisa kvantitativa data om material- och energiflödet genom det egna företaget. Med hjälp av dessa data skapas en bild som beskriver miljöpåverkan av företagets verksamhet och produkter i ett livscykelperspektiv.

    Till skriften hör bland annat:

    • en Wordmall för miljöutredningen, där man fyller i tabeller och justerar texten

    • ett inventerings- och beräkningsverktyg i Excel, som räknar ut miljöpåverkan av företagets transporter, material, utsläpp och energi

    • en översikt av miljölagarna för inventering av lagkrav

    • instruktioner och blanketter för Miljö-FMEA; ett sätt att identifiera och värdera miljöpåverkan.

  • 30.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Olsson, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost of Waste Management: Plastic Cable Waste2014In: Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, ISSN 2160-0392, E-ISSN 2160-0406, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 45002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main driver for recycling cable wastes is the high value of the conducting metal, while the plastic with its lower value is often neglected. New improved cable plastic recycling routes can provide both economic and environmental incentive to cable producers for moving up the “cable plastic waste ladder”. Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment, LCA, of the waste management of the cable scrap is suggested and explained as a method to analyze the pros and cons of different cable scrap recycling options at hand. Economic and environmental data about different recycling processes and other relevant processes and materials are given. Cable producers can use this data and method to assess the way they deal with the cable plastic waste today and compare it with available alternatives and thus illuminate the improvement potential of recycling cable plastic waste both in an environmental and in an economic sense. The methodology applied consists of: cradle-to-gate LCA for waste material to a recycled material (recyclate); quantifying the climate impact for each step on the waste ladder for the specific waste material; the use of economic and climate impact data in parallel; climate impact presented as a span to portray the insecurities related to which material the waste will replace; and possibilities for do-it-yourself calculations. Potentially, the methodology can be useful also for other waste materials in the future.

  • 31.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Samordning av ledningssystem och Lean Production: 203 telefonintervjuer med verkstadsindustrins miljöchefer2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    203 miljöchefer i svensk verkstadsindustri har intervjuats via telefon på temat integration av formella ledningssystem som ISO 14001 och ISO 9001 med Lean-baserade förbättringsprogram.

    Intervjuerna tyder på att verkstadsföretag med lean-baserade förbättringsprogram och formella ledningssystem samordnar dessa i hög utsträckning. Hela 73% tycker att nivån på samordningen är lagom. Dock är studien för begränsad för att dra några slutsatser om hur väl systemen/programmen är integrerade i verksamheten i övrigt och den sammantagna effektiviteten.

    En hypotes som framförts av många är att leanarbete främjar miljöarbete på ett positivt sätt. Intervjuerna tyder på att verkstadsföretag med lean är mer miljöinriktade än verkstadsföretag i gemen, eftersom de låter miljöchefen sitta med i ledningsgruppen i större utsträckning. Dock ser de (verkstadsföretag med lean) inte större ekonomiska vinster av miljöarbetet än andra verkstadsföretag.

    En intressant observation i denna studie som bekräftas av andra data är att ISO 14001 håller på att bli vanligare än ISO 9000 i Sverige. Totalt i världen är ISO 9000 fyra gånger större än ISO 14001.

  • 32.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Shahbazi, S.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, M.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Winroth, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Landström, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Almström, P.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, C.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Windmark, C.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    ֖berg, A.E.
    Volvo Construction Equipment AB, Sweden.
    Myrelid, A.
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Sweden.
    Sustainability Performance Indicators at Shop Floor Level in Large Manufacturing Companies2017In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 61, p. 457-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates sustainability in the performance measurement systems of Swedish manufacturing companies. It builds on a previous study that documents relatively few direct environmental indicators at shop floor level, which raises questions about possible indirect links between existing indicators and the environment that could be used to improve the environmental aspect of company’s sustainability ambitions. A method for identifying and categorizing indirect links to sustainability issues was defined and used. The results suggest that at shop floor level 90% of the indicators have at least an indirect relation to one or more of the sustainability dimensions economy, environment and social, of which 26% are at least indirectly related to the environmental dimension. Despite the many indirect connections, participating companies perceive a need to improve sustainability indicators and some ideas are suggested.

  • 33.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Rocha, C.
    INETI.
    Christiansen, K.
    2.-0 LCA Consultants.
    Jarnehammar, A.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd.
    Stepwise environmental product declarations: ten SME case studies2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 17, p. 1872-1886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of reliable communication tools is anticipated to become an important barrier to design and sell products with improved environmental performance. In this paper, environmental product declarations, EPDs, and in particular a Stepwise EPD approach is investigated as a means to overcome the communication barrier. The experiences of ten European SMEs who have tried to use Stepwise EPDs for market communication and as a basis for eco-design are described and discussed. The experiences suggest that Stepwise EPDs based on life cycle assessment can be a cost-efficient tool to improve the environmental performance of products. For normal marketing activities the Stepwise EPDs were disappointing. Using the underlying LCA as a platform for in-depth communication with selected parties in the supply chain showed more promise. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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