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  • 1.
    Fantke, Peter
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Aurisano, Nicolo
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bare, Jane
    United States Environmental Protection Agency, USA.
    Backhaus, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bulle, Cécile
    CIRAIG ESG UQAM, Canada.
    Chapman, Peter M
    Chapema Environmental Strategies Ltd, Canada.
    De Zwart, Dick
    DdZ Ecotox, The Netherlands.
    Dwyer, Robert
    International Copper Association, USA.
    Ernstoff, Alexi
    Quantis, Switzerland.
    Golsteijn, Laura
    PRé Sustainability, The Netherlands.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jolliet, Olivier
    University of Michigan, USA.
    McKone, Thomas E
    University of California, USA.
    Owsianiak, Mikołaj
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Peijnenburg, Willie
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, The Netherlands.
    Posthuma, Leo
    Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Saouter, Erwan
    European Commission, Italy.
    Schowanek, Diederik
    Procter & Gamble, Belgium.
    van Straalen, Nico M
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Vijver, Martina G
    Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Hauschild, Michael
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Toward Harmonizing Ecotoxicity Characterization in Life Cycle Impact Assessment.2018In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 2955-2971Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem quality is an important area of protection in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Chemical pollution has adverse impacts on ecosystems at the global scale. To improve methods for assessing ecosystem impacts, the Life Cycle Initiative hosted at the United Nations Environment Programme established a task force to evaluate the state-of-the-science in modelling chemical exposure of organisms and resulting ecotoxicological effects for use in LCIA. Outcome of the task force work will be global guidance and harmonization by recommending changes to the existing practice in exposure and effect modelling in ecotoxicity characterization. These changes reflect the current science and ensure stability of recommended practice. Recommendations must work within the needs of LCIA in terms of (a) operating on information from any inventory reporting chemical emissions with limited spatiotemporal information, (b) applying best estimates rather than conservative assumptions to ensure unbiased comparison with results for other impact categories, and (c) yielding results that are additive across substances and life cycle stages and allow a quantitative expression of damage to the exposed ecosystem. Here, we report the current framework as well as discuss research questions identified in a roadmap. Primary research questions relate to the approach for ecotoxicological effect assessment, the need to clarify the method's scope and interpretation of its results, the need to consider additional environmental compartments and impact pathways, and the relevance of effect metrics other than the currently applied geometric mean of toxicity effect data across species. Because they often dominate ecotoxicity results in LCIA, metals pose a specific focus, which includes consideration of their possible essentiality and changes in environmental bioavailability. We conclude with a summary of key questions along with preliminary recommendations to address them as well as open questions that require additional research efforts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Fransson, Kristin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Jönbrink, Anna Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kristinsdottir, Anna Runa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Olsson, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Bäck, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wilson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Karlsson, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Miljöhandbokför upphandlare2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbar utveckling innefattar såväl social, ekonomisk som miljömässig hållbar utveckling.

    I Miljöhandboken kommer dessa tre aspekter av hållbar utveckling att behandlas,

    dock ligger störst fokus på miljöaspekterna.

    Miljöhandboken ska hjälpa upphandlare att ställa relevanta miljökrav vid upphandling

    och är ett komplement till exempelvis Konkurrensverkets (f.d. Miljöstyrningsrådets)

    upphandlingskriterier och ska bidra med fakta kring hur miljökrav kan ställas.

    Miljökrav vid upphandling kan innefatta bl. a. energianvändning, livslängd, skadliga

    ämnen, strålning, återvinning och miljöledningssystem. Kravens betydelse påverkas

    bl. a. av upphandlingens omfattning och miljömognaden inom produktsegmentet. I

    miljöhandboken presenteras inga specifika kriterier eller gränsvärden för olika miljöaspekter,

    i stället ges länkar till exempelvis lagstiftning, myndigheter och miljömärkningar.

    Detta för att kriterier och gränsvärden uppdateras kontinuerligt som en följd

    av teknikutveckling men också för att den samlade kunskapen om vad som är miljöproblem

    ständigt växer och kan ge upphov till nya kriterier och gränsvärden. Tyngdpunkten

    i denna handbok ligger på miljöpåverkan ur ett livscykelperspektiv, vilket innebär

    att hänsyn tas till miljöpåverkan från utvinning av råmaterial till resthantering av

    en produkt.

  • 3.
    Goldsworthy, Kate
    et al.
    University of the Arts London, UK.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards a Quantified Design Process: Bridging Design and Life Cycle Assessment2016In: Circular Transitions Proceedings, 2016, p. 208-221Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe how design researchers and environmental researchers are making a joint effort in overcoming the disciplinary barriers for collaboration. By comparing existing processes and identifying potential opportunities arising from inter-disciplinary collaboration the aim is to propose methods for building a bridge between disciplines. A model for “quantified design” is generated, and explored, relevant for designers, design researchers as well as LCA researchers.

  • 4.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fransson, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Prideaux, Sonja
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wallinder, Inger O.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Improving the life cycle impact assessment of metal ecotoxicity: Importance of chromium speciation, water chemistry, and metal release2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations of metal ecotoxicity in life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) are becoming important tools for evaluating the environmental impact of a product or process. There is, however, improvement needed for LCIA of metal ecotoxicity in order to make this assessment more relevant and robust. In this work, three issues within the LCIA of metal ecotoxicity are investigated, mainly focusing on topics related to stainless steel manufacturing. The first issue is the importance of considering regional water chemistry when constructing the characterization factor (CF). A model freshwater of relevance for stainless steel manufacturing in a region of Sweden was created with chemistry different from available options. The second issue is related to the lack of consideration on changes in speciation of Cr(VI) in freshwater for a given emission, as Cr(VI) to some extent will be reduced to Cr(III). Two new options are suggested based on relationships between the Cr(VI)-total Cr ratio as a way to improve the relevancy of LCIA for Cr(VI) in freshwater. The last issue is how to treat metal release from slags in LCIA. Metal release from slags was shown to vary significantly between different ways of modelling slag emissions (differences in total metal content, slag leaching tests, estimated emissions to groundwater). © 2019 by the authors.

  • 5.
    Jönbrink, Anna Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sundgren, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Johansson, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Birgitha, Nyström
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Peter, Nyström
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Create Competitiveness In A Sustainable Society: - Use Ecodesign, In Cooperation2011In: Design for Innovative Value Towards a Sustainable Society: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2011: 7th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing / [ed] M. Matsumoto et al., Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2011, p. 430-433Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will describe a new methodology for the use of Ecodesign, where various competences are combined to obtain high quality results. The competences needed are: Environmental experts, who can evaluate the environmental performance of a product or service through Life Cycle Assessment, LCA, material- and process experts for the materials and processes in the targeted product or service, experts of the final product or service who can provide high quality data for the LCA. This cross functional team can develop new products or services, with high performance combined with low environmental impact, applying ecodesign when cooperating closely. Using this methodology is a feasible way to obtain improved competitiveness for the industry in a sustainable society.

  • 6.
    Jönbrink, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kristinsdottir, Anna Runa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Sundgren, Mats
    Johansson, Eva
    Nyström, Birgitha
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    Nayström, Peter
    Why use Ecodesign in the industry 2013?: A Survey regarding Barriers and Opportunities related to Ecodesign2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Jönsson, Christina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Arturin, Oscar L.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Hanning, Anne-Charlotte
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Landin, Rebecca
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Holmström, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Microplastics shedding from textiles-developing analytical method for measurement of shed material representing release during domestic washing2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 2457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of shedding of micro-sized polymeric particles, so called microplastics, from textiles has been covered by an increasing number of studies over the past years. However, the methods with which the shedding of microplastics from textiles has been measured so far has shown a large variation. Consequently, the results regarding the amount of shed particles also vary, from 120 to 728,289 particles from similar garments in recent studies. This article presents research enabling for identification of whether the shedding of microplastics from different types of fabric was dependent on construction parameters. As none of the methods in the existing literature could be used for evaluating shedding of microplastics from textiles, a method was developed for this purpose. The resulting final method is described in this paper as well as the work with minimizing the error sources and consequently the standard deviation of the results through selection of material samples, equipment and procedure for sample preparation, washing, filtering the washing water and analyzing the shed microplastics. Comparing the environmental load of different garments, or identifying improvement possibilities in garment construction are two examples of how the method can be utilized.

  • 8.
    Jönsson, Christina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Sustainable Chemicals: A Model for Practical Substitution2017In: Detox Fashion – Sustainable Chemistry and Wet processing / [ed] Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan, Singapore: Springer, 2017, p. 1-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The textile industry sees currently a fast development of legal and voluntary restrictions of chemicals content in textile products. However, the on-going phase-out work focuses on evaluating the environmental and health aspects of chemicals. The technical performance in the end application for the chemical does not receive the same attention. In addition, many research projects committed to evaluating hazardous substances and their possible alternatives also neglects the technical performance. The technical performance is left to the companies to evaluate. This may lead to inefficiency in the substitution process and also have the consequence that companies never dare to take the step to practical substitution, at least not in a proactive way. This chapter presents a model for practical substitution, developed and evaluated in several case studies, whereof two in the textile field: water and soil repellent textile coating materials and flame retarded textiles. From the general lessons learnt, an improved substitution methodology with widespread applicability has been defined.

  • 9.
    Posner, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Brunn Poulsen, Pia
    FORCE Technology.
    Ólína Jörundsdottir, Hrönn
    Matis.
    Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga
    Matis.
    Xenia Trier, D
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Astrup Jensen, Allan
    Nordic Institute of Product Sustainability Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology.
    A. Katsogiannis, Athanasios
    Norwegian Institute for Air Reasearch.
    Herzke, Dorte
    Norwegian Institute for Air Reasearch.
    Cecilie Bonefeld-Jörgensen, Eva
    University of Aarhus.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Alsing Pedersen, Gitte
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Ghisari, Mandana
    University of Aarhus.
    Jensen, Sophie
    Matis.
    Per- and polyfluorinated substances in the Nordic Countries: Use, occurence and toxicology2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Tema Nord report presents a study based on open information and custom market research to review the most common perfluorinated substances (PFC) with less focus on PFOS and PFOA.The study includes three major parts: 1) Identification of relevant per-and polyfluorinated substances and their use in various industrial sectors in the Nordic market by interviews with major players and database information. 2) Emissions to and occurence in the Nordic environment of the substances described in 1). 3) A summary of knowledge of the toxic effects on humans and the environment of substances prioritized in 2). There is a lack of physical chemical data, analystical reference substances, human and environmental occurrence and toxicology data, as well as market information regarding PFCs other than PFOA and PFOS and the current legislation cannot enforce disclosure of specific PFC substance information.

  • 10.
    Rex, Desiree
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Oksabol, Sibel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    possible sustainable berson the market and their technical properties: the fiber bible part 12019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a study of the technical performance of new sustainable textile_bers. The sister report scrutinizes the de_nition of “new sustainable textile _bers” andquanti_es the environmental potential of _bers. Together they aim to identify the _berswith the greatest potential to mitigate the environmental impact of _bers currentlydominating the fashion industry.We wanted to quantify the environmental potential of _bers and compare them on a fairand level playing _eld, with the aim to guide policy makers, industry and end customers inselecting “winners” and “losers”. A multitude of other reports and tools with similar aimsexist, though this report includes more types of textile _bers provides more quantitativedata on their performance, and to a greater extent discuss the data found, as well as thedata not found.The work with _nding sustainable _ber alternatives, but also sustainable yarns andfabrics will be on-going in the Mistra Future Fashion programme until the summer of 2019.If you, as a reader, know about sustainable _bers which are missing in the present report,please let us know by e-mail: sandra.roos@ri.se.

  • 11.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Circular flows of textiles – results from a LCA study on behalf of the NordicCouncil of Ministers2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Calculating the toxicity footprint of Swedish clothing consumption2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major environmental challenges of the textile industry is the emissions of toxic substances during the production of textiles. It is therefore vital that toxicity impact potential is included when calculating the environmental impact of textile products with life cycle assessment (LCA). Generally, toxicity is considered a weak point in LCA, and specifically for LCA of textile products there is a lack of guidance in the literature. This paper shares the experiences from using USEtox 2.0 for calculating the toxicity footprint of Swedish clothing consumption. The most commonly occurring garments, production processes and related toxic emissions were inventoried for the Swedish clothing consumption. The selected case offered the possibility to compare a variety of bio-based as well as synthetic materials and their production processes. The inventoried substances were matched against existing databases for USEtox characterization factors (CF): the USEtox databases and COSMEDE. For the substances that did not have any CF, USEtox 2.0 was used to calculate new CF. The potential contribution to freshwater ecotoxicity from the Swedish clothing consumption was calculated to 7.9 billion CTUe which can be interpreted as 7.9 cubic kilometres of freshwater where 50% of the species in the ecosystem are exposed daily to a concentration above their EC50. It was found that background processes in the life cycle (exhaust gases from fuel combustion, leakage of substances from mining waste etc.) accounted for 5.5 billion CTUe, or 70%. Direct emissions of toxic substances from the foreground processes (dyestuff, solvents, pesticides etc.) accounted for 2.4 billion CTUe, or 30%. It is important to note that there is a considerable amount of uncertainty in these values. An interesting discovery was that the wet treatment (dyeing and finishing) had the largest contribution to freshwater ecotoxicity impact, both regarding background and foreground processes. The cotton fibre production, infamous for its use of pesticides, had only the second largest contribution, followed by the yarn production. The paper concludes that emissions of toxic substances from textile production are an important environmental aspect to include in LCA studies of textile products. The results also contribute to the understanding of the order of magnitude that use and emissions from textile chemicals have in relation to a nations total clothing consumption. Sharing the experiences from the study can facilitate the inclusion of toxic substances in future LCA studies of textiles and other products.

  • 13.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Hedberg, J
    Kaplin, C
    Odnevall Wallinder, Ingrid
    KTH Royal Institute of Thechnology.
    Integrating real metal runoff data to the life cycle assessment of alloys2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Labelling of chemicals in textiles: Nordic Textile Initiative2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains an analysis of the needs and barriers for a legal requirement on declaration and/or labelling of chemicals in textiles. The project is a part of the Nordic action plan for textiles ”Well dressed in a clean environment. Nordic action plan for sustainable fashion and textiles”. Based on the findings from the analysis in this report, a way forward towards a legal requirement on a declaration and/or labelling of chemicals in textiles is proposed via two main options. One option is to work for an extension of the REACH legislation: to make it applicable for labelling and declaration. This option is supported by the industry. Another option is to create a new legislation framework; a product safety regulation for textiles. This option may have a more holistic approach and can include CE-marking.

  • 15.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    An inventory framework for inclusion of textile chemicals in life cycle assessment2019In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 838-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Toxicity impacts of chemicals have only been covered to a minor extent in LCA studies of textile products. The two main reasons for this exclusion are (1) the lack of life cycle inventory (LCI) data on use and emissions of textile-related chemicals, and (2) the lack of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) data for calculating impacts based on the LCI data. This paper addresses the first of these two. Methods: In order to facilitate the LCI analysis for LCA practitioners, an inventory framework was developed. The framework builds on a nomenclature for textile-related chemicals which was used to build up a generic chemical product inventory for use in LCA of textiles. In the chemical product inventory, each chemical product and its content was modelled to fit the subsequent LCIA step. This means that the content and subsequent emission data are time-integrated, including both original content and, when relevant, transformation products as well as impurities. Another key feature of the framework is the modelling of modularised process performance in terms of emissions to air and water. Results and discussion: The inventory framework follows the traditional structure of LCI databases to allow for use together with existing LCI and LCIA data. It contains LCI data sets for common textile processes (unit processes), including use and emissions of textile-related chemicals. The data sets can be used for screening LCA studies and/or, due to their modular structure, also modified. Modified data sets can be modelled from recipes of input chemicals, where the chemical product inventory provides LCA-compatible content and emission data. The data sets and the chemical product inventory can also be used as data collection templates in more detailed LCA studies. Conclusions: A parallel development of a nomenclature for and acquisition of LCI data resulted in the creation of a modularised inventory framework. The framework advances the LCA method to provide results that can guide towards reduced environmental impact from textile production, including also the toxicity impacts from textile chemicals. Recommendations: The framework can be used for guiding stakeholders of the textile sector in macro-level decisions regarding the effectiveness of different impact reduction interventions, as well as for guiding on-site decisions in textile manufacturing.

  • 16.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Peters, G
    Simultaneous development of inventory and impact assessment enables chemicals inclusion in textile LCA2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    “Clothes made from eucalyptus – our future2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Three methods for strategic product toxicity assessment—the case of the cotton T-shirt2015In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 903-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The use and emission of chemicals and the intrinsic toxic properties of some of these chemicals are an important topic in the textile industry. Quantitative evaluation of toxic impacts is a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach, termed “toxic footprint” in this article. We ask whether calculation of toxic footprints is a useful method to steer the textile industry towards more sustainable use of chemicals. Methods: Three different methods by which strategic product toxicity assessment can be performed within the context of LCA are illustrated and compared using a wet treatment process for a cotton T-shirt as the basis of a case study. The methods are the USEtox model chosen for the European Product Environmental Footprint work, the Score System presented in the European Commission’s Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry, and the Strategy Tool presented by Askham. The methods are compared in terms of their ease of use and whether the results give a consistent evaluation of a set of chemicals. Results and discussion: New USEtox characterisation factors for textile chemicals were calculated and used for this article. The results show that the three methods do not give a consistent evaluation of the different wet treatment chemicals. Both the Score System and the Strategy Tool are very concerned with persistent contaminants such as the optical brightener in this case study, which is deemed to be less important by USEtox. The calculations also show how the results generated by the USEtox model depend on whether users apply (1) only the recommended characterisation factors or (2) these and the interim characterisation factors or (3) these and the new characterisation factors calculated for this article. Conclusions and recommendations: With current policy initiatives such as the Product Environmental Footprint now being applied for textile products, toxicity assessment will by default be performed in the LCA of textiles. It is important that the results are relevant and representative as the intended users are supposed to take actions based on them. Confidence in the results is crucial for a scientific method, and therefore, this exploratory comparison exercise shows how benchmarking can be a tool to make the differences in background assumptions explicit, to better understand the differences in the results, and help create such confidence.

  • 19.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Validation of the results from toxicity assessment in LCA using triangulation2015In: SETAC Europe 25th Annual Meeting Abstract Book, 2015, p. 28-, article id 121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission initiative for Product Environmental Footprint is based on life cycle assessment (LCA), with the USEtox consensus model as the recommended impact assessment method for toxicity. The confidence in the scientific robustness will be crucial for the intended users to take actions based on the results. This research work aims to validate the results from toxicity assessment within the context of LCA by benchmarking USEtox with two alternative approaches in a case study. While strictly speaking there can be no experimental validation of environmental damage predicted in an LCA of a generic product, comparison of the results of three different methods can be considered a form of triangulation in LCA which can potentially provide confidence in an individual method. A textile case was chosen as the textile industry is an intense user of chemicals.Three different quantitative or semi-quantitative methods for toxicity assessment were used: the USEtox model chosen for the European PEF work; the Score System presented in the European Commission's Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry; and the Strategy Tool presented by Askham. The results show that the three methods do not give a consistent toxicity assessment of the chemicals in the case study. For USEtox the result also depends on whether the practitioner uses the default method or add more characterization factors. The two semi-quantitative methods give more equal importance to the chemicals while the USEtox scores differ by several orders of magnitude. The Simple Score System and the Strategy Tool are very concerned with persistent pollutants and therefore the chemicals which are not readily biodegradable, receive a high score. The USEtox score on the other hand is relatively low for the persistent organic chemicals. Validation of results using triangulation can be used both to create confidence and/or help identify new challenges that were not previously perceived in the method. In this case we showed that the property of persistence is judged to have lower importance in USEtox compared to the two other methods, which is a finding that can be used to develop the fate modelling in USEtox. On the other hand, USEtox could provide additional advice compared to the two other methods, that one of the substances could be more environmentally problematic than what these semi-quantitative methods signals.

  • 20.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Is Unbleached Cotton Better Than Bleached? Exploring the Limits of Life-Cycle Assessment in the Textile Sector2015In: Clothing & Textiles Research Journal, ISSN 0887-302X, E-ISSN 1940-2473, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 231-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The applicability of life-cycle assessment (LCA) for the textile industry is discussed with a special focus on environmental impact from chemicals. Together with issues of water depletion and energy use, the use of chemicals and their emissions are important environmental considerations for textile products. However, accounting for chemicals is a weak point in LCA methodology and practice. Two research questions were investigated in a case study of hospital garments: 1) whether LCA adds value to assessments of the chemical performance of textile products, and 2) whether inclusion of toxicity issues in LCA affects environmental performance rankings for textile products. It is concluded that the quantitative and holistic tool LCA is useful for environmental decision makers in the textile industry, and becomes more effective when chemical impacts are included. A flexible way forward is demonstrated to meet the challenge of accounting for chemicals in LCAs of textile products.

  • 21.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sandin, Gustav
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, .
    StarWars and the Environmental Hotspots of Textile Value Chains2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Clarifying sustainable fashion: Life cycle assessment of the Swedish clothing consumption2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology, .
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, .
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, .
    Will Clothing Be Sustainable? Clarifying Sustainable Fashion2016In: Textiles and Clothing Sustainability: Implications in Textiles and Fashion / [ed] Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, Singapore: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2016, p. 1-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mistra Future Fashion research programme (2011–2019) is a large Swedish investment aimed at reducing the environmental impact of clothing consumption. Midway into the programme, research results and insights were reviewed with the intent to see what picture appears from this interdisciplinary consortium, developed to address the multiple sustainability challenges in clothing consumption and the tools for intervention. Such tools comprise product design, consumer behaviour changes, policy development, business models, technical development, recycling, life cycle assessment (LCA) and social life cycle assessment (SLCA). This chapter quantifies the extent of the sustainability challenge for the apparel sector, via an analysis of five garment archetypes. It also considers to what extent different interventions for impact reduction can contribute in society’s endeavour towards sustainability, in terms of staying within an “environmentally safe and socially just operating space”, inspired by the planetary boundaries approach. In particular, the results show whether commonly proposed interventions are sufficient or not in relation to the impact reduction necessary according to the planetary boundaries. Also, the results clarify which sustainability aspects that the clothing industry are likely to manage sufficiently if the proposed interventions are realised and which sustainability aspects that will require more radical interventions in order to reach the targets.

  • 24.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zamani, Bahare
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A life cycle assessment (LCA)-based approach to guiding an industry sector towards sustainability: the case of the Swedish apparel sector2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 133, p. 691-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental challenges associated with consumption of textiles have generally been investigated on product level in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies. For social sustainability aspects, social hotspot analysis has instead been applied on the textile sector level. The aim with the industry sector approach developed by the authors was to enable assessment of different interventions in terms of how they contribute to reaching targets for environmental and social sustainability, on the sector level. The approach was tested in a case study on the Swedish apparel sector. The industry sector approach consists of three steps that address three different questions: 1) What is the current sustainability performance of the sector? 2) What is an acceptable sustainability performance for the sector? 3) Are proposed interventions enough to reach an acceptable sustainability performance? By answering these questions, it is possible to measure performance in relation to sector level targets and learn which types of interventions (technical improvements, behavioral changes, new business models, etc.), and which actors (manufacturers, retailers, consumers, authorities, etc.) that can potentially provide the greatest improvements. By applying the approach in the case study, conclusions could be drawn on whether specific interventions appear to be sufficient or not in relation to the set environmental targets. The influence of the interventions in relation to reaching targets for social sustainability was found to be the most difficult to measure due to lack of data. To spur the industry sector's stakeholders to actualize the full potential of the most effective environmental interventions, a scheme for structured evaluation of LCA results directed towards these prospective actors was developed. Based on the results from the study, actor-oriented advice could be provided.

  • 25.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johansson, Malin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Environmental impact of textile fibers – what we know and what we don't know: Fiber Bible part 22019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of cotton and synthetic fibres are known to cause negative environmental effects. For cotton, pesticide use and irrigation during cultivation contributes to emissions of toxic substances that cause damage to both human health and the ecosystem. Irrigation of cotton fields cause water stress due to large water needs. Synthetic fibres are questionable due to their (mostly) fossil resource origin and the release of microplastics. To mitigate the environmental effects of fibre production, there is an urgent need to improve the production of many of the established fibres and to find new, better fibre alternatives.

    For the first time ever, this reports compiles all currently publicly available data on the environmental impact of fibre production. By doing this, the report illuminates two things:

    • There is a glaring lack of data on the environmental impact of fibres – for several fibres just a few studies were found, and often only one or a few environmental impacts are covered. For new fibres associated with sustainability claims there is often no data available to support such claims.
    • There are no ”sustainable” or ”unsustainable” fibre types, it is the suppliers that differ. The span within each fibre type (different suppliers) is often too large, in relation to differences between fibre types, to draw strong conclusions about differences between fibre types.

    Further, it is essential to use the life cycle perspective when comparing, promoting or selecting (e.g. by designers or buyers) fibres. To achieve best environmental practice, apart from considering the impact of fibre production, one must consider the functional properties of a fibre and how it fits into an environmentally appropriate product life cycle, including the entire production chain, the use phase and the end-of-life management. Selecting the right fibre for the right application is key for optimising the environmental performance of the product life cycle.

    The report is intended to be useful for several purposes:

    • as input to broader studies including later life cycle stages of textile products,
    • as a map over data gaps in relation to supporting claims on the environmental preferability of certain fibres over others, and
    • as a basis for screening fibre alternatives, for example by designers and buyers (e.g. in public procurement).

    For the third use it is important to acknowledge that for a full understanding of the environmental consequences of the choice of fibre, a full cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) is recommended.

  • 26.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using the planetary boundaries for evaluating interventions for impact reduction in the clothing industry2015In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 2015, p. 608-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Gillgard, Philip
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Stare, Ann
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Hanning, Anne-Charlotte
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Levenstam, O.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Cousins, I. T.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Facing the rain after the phase out: Performance evaluation of alternative fluorinated and non-fluorinated durable water repellents for outdoor fabrics2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 193, p. 675-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorinated durable water repellent (DWR) agents are used to obtain water and stain repellent textiles. Due to the on-going phase-out of DWRs based on side-chain fluorinated polymers (SFP) with “long” perfluoroalkyl chains, the textile industry lacks suitable alternatives with comparable material characteristics. The constant development and optimization of SFPs for textile applications initiated more than half a century ago has resulted in a robust and very efficient DWR-technology and textiles with exceptional hydro- and oleo-phobic properties. The industry is now in the predicament that the long-chain SFPs with the best technical performance have undesirable toxicological and environmental behaviour. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the technical performance of presently available fluorinated and non-fluorinated DWRs as part of a chemical alternatives assessment (CAA). The results are based on a study with synthetic outdoor fabrics treated with alternative DWRs and tested for repellency using industrial standard and complementary methods. Using this approach, the complex structure-property relationships of DWR-polymers could be explained on a molecular level. Both short-chain SFPs and non-fluorinated DWRs showed excellent water repellency and durability in some cases while short-chain SFPs were the more robust of the alternatives to long-chain SFPs. A strong decline in oil repellency and durability with perfluoroalkyl chain length was shown for SFP DWRs. Non-fluorinated alternatives were unable to repel oil, which might limit their potential for substitution in textile application that require repellency towards non-polar liquids.

  • 28. Schmidt, A.
    et al.
    Watson, D.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Askham, C.
    Brunn Poulsen, P.
    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of different treatments for discarded textiles2016Report (Other academic)
  • 29. Strömbom, S
    et al.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Chemicals management in the textile sector: Dialogue between authorities, research institutes and retailers leading to concrete actions2015In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 2015, p. 631-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Arbetsmiljö.
    Fransson, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Olsson, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Mall för miljöutredning - ett verktyg för att identifiera företagets miljöpåverkan2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mall för miljöutredning hjälper dig att samla in och redovisa kvantitativa data om material- och energiflödet genom det egna företaget. Med hjälp av dessa data skapas en bild som beskriver miljöpåverkan av företagets verksamhet och produkter i ett livscykelperspektiv.

    Till skriften hör bland annat:

    • en Wordmall för miljöutredningen, där man fyller i tabeller och justerar texten

    • ett inventerings- och beräkningsverktyg i Excel, som räknar ut miljöpåverkan av företagets transporter, material, utsläpp och energi

    • en översikt av miljölagarna för inventering av lagkrav

    • instruktioner och blanketter för Miljö-FMEA; ett sätt att identifiera och värdera miljöpåverkan.

1 - 30 of 30
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