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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory. Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    A systematic mapping of the research literature on system-of-systems engineering2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research area systems-of-systems engineering has increased rapidly over the last decade and now contains a substantial body of literature. To get an overview of the field, a systematic mapping of the literature has been done, covering over 3000 papers. It revealed a field massively dominated by US researchers, with an emphasis on military and space systems. A large number of people are involved, but few researchers focus on the area, and citations are fairly low compared to other fields. Important research topics include architecture, modeling and simulation, integration and interoperability, communication, sustainability, and safety and security. There are signs of immaturity within the research area, and it is recommended that existing venues are complemented with an international scientific event with very high standards for submissions.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    An initial analysis of operational emergent properties in a platooning system-of-systems2018In: 2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As systems-of-systems start to be more common in commercial applications, an analysis of emergent properties related to utility and cost for all stakeholders becomes critical. This paper describes an approach for this based on network simulation and game theory, which is applied to truck highway platooning. The emergent properties of energy efficiency and transport efficiency are studied as a consequence of the strategies for platoon formation, and it is shown that having information about the route planning of other vehicles has a significant positive effect on the properties. This indicates the need for a mediator in the platooning system-of-systems architecture. Its role is to communicate plans of the constituent systems.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Architectural Allocation Alternatives and Associated Concerns in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Case Study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems is an extension of traditional embedded systems, where communication to the outside world is given more emphasis. This leads to a new design space also for software development, allowing new allocation strategies for functionality. In traditional embedded systems, all functionality was inside the product, but now it becomes possible to partition the software between the embedded systems and IT systems outside the product. This paper investigates, through a case study from the automotive domain, possible new allocation alternatives where computation is offloaded from the embedded system to a server, and what additional architectural concerns this leads to, including performance, resource utilization, robustness, and lifecycle aspects. In addition, the paper addresses new opportunities created by allocating functionality outside the embedded systems, and thus making data available for extended services, as well as the larger concerns that result on the organizational level, including new competency in architecture and DevOps.

  • 4.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Evolutionary Architecting of Embedded and Enterprise Software and Systems2012In: Aligning Enterprise, System, and Software Architectures, IGI Global , 2012, 6, p. 39-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industries rely heavily on embedded software and systems to maximize business value in their products. These systems are very complex and the architecture is important to control the complexity and make development efficient. There are often also connections between the embedded system and the different lifecycle processes, and hence to the enterprise systems supporting those processes. It is rare to start from scratch when developing new products, and instead these companies evolve their products over time, which means that architecting needs to be evolutionary. In this chapter, it is described what such an evolutionary architecting process can look like based on observations from industry, and how the process can be continuously improved using a maturity model. It is also presented how the embedded system relates to different elements of the enterprise architecture.

  • 5.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Evolutionary Architecting of Software-Intensive Systems2012In: ERCIM NewsArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most industrial software-intensive systems have a very long life span, and undergo many changes after their initial conception. To ensure that they maintain the desired system-level properties, it is essential that their architecture is also updated to reflect the added functionality. To this end, we have investigated how Evolutionary Architecting should be carried out in order to provide a strong basis for a system, not only at conception but throughout its life. The results are concrete and based on empirical findings, and include both a new state-of-the-art process description and a light-weight maturity evaluation method.

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Improving the Evolutionary Architecting Process for Embedded System Product Lines2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industries developing complex products based on embedded systems rely on architecting as a key activity. Furthermore, they use product line approaches to find synergies between their products. This means that they use a base platform which is adapted to different products, and the architecture of the product line thus evolves over time. In previous case studies we have seen that these companies often lack a defined process for the evolutionary architecting of these product lines. The contribution of this paper is to present such a process, which matches key characteristics of mature architecting practices. It is also discussed how this process compares to observations in industry.

  • 7.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    On how to deal with uncertainty when architecting embedded software and systems2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the topic of uncertainty in the context of architecting embedded software and systems. It presents links between complexity and uncertainty, and identifies different kinds of uncertainty. Based on this, it elaborates why uncertainty arises in the architecting of software-intensive systems, and presents ten different tactics that can be employed to deal with uncertainty and mitigate the associated risks.

  • 8.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Proceedings of the 1st Scandinavian Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems (SWESoS 2015)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid digitization of society is to a large extent driven by the interconnection of existing systems in order to co-ordinate their activities. This leads to systems-of-systems (SoS), where the parts more or less voluntarily co-operate for mutual benefits while keeping their autonomy. The term SoS started to become relevant some 20 years ago, and accelerated as a research area about 10 years ago. Although some people tend to take SoS as a synonym for large and complex systems, the research community has arrived at a fairly precise characterization of the term. In an SoS, the elements, or constituent systems, exhibit an operational and managerial independence, meaning that they can operate outside the SoS context, and have different owners. They choose to collaborate in order to achieve a common goal, manifested as an emergent property of the SoS, i.e. a property not existent in any of its parts in isolation. The field so far has been dominated by US researchers focusing on military and space applications. Key topics include architecture, communications, interoperability, modeling and simulation, and also a number of properties where dependability attributes such as safety play an important role. From its origins in the government driven sectors, SoS are now spreading to civilian and commercial usage. To investigate the needs and strategies for Sweden in relation to SoS, VINNOVA in late 2014 commissioned a consortium led by the Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS) to develop a research and innovation agenda for the area. The agenda project has included an industrial perspective captured in a series of workshops with practitioners, and also a research perspective. The latter was handled through an extensive research literature review, which indicated a poor representation of Scandinavia in the SoS research community. Also, a survey was sent to all relevant Swedish universities, research institutes, and funding agencies, and the result of this was somewhat contradictory. Many researchers are indeed working on topics related to SoS, but often use different terms for it, and publish at other venues than the SoS community. Given the large, but scattered, activity in the highly multidisciplinary SoS area, SICS and the Swedish Chapter of the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) decided to organize the 1st Scandinavian Workshop on the Engineering of Systems of Systems (SWESoS 2015). The primary purpose of the workshop was to create a meeting place for researchers and practitioners interested in SoS. The workshop was intended to be an informal event, focusing on presentation of results and ongoing research, to stimulate interaction among the researchers. This proceedings volume contains the extended abstracts of those presentations. In many cases, the presentations are based on work already published elsewhere, and the interested reader can find links to more material in each contribution. The scope of the workshop was all aspects related to SoS engineering. This included, but was not restricted to, the following topics when applied to systems of systems: Autonomous and cooperative systems; Business models, including software ecosystems; Case studies of applications in different domains; Control strategies; Communication; Dependability, robustness, and other quality attributes; Enterprise architecture; Governance; Interoperability; Modeling and simulation, including multi-agent systems; Service oriented architecture; Systems engineering methods; and Systems thinking. In total, 16 papers were submitted to the workshop, and 13 were accepted for presentation, whereas the remaining three were somewhat outside the core scope of the event.

  • 9.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Proceedings of the Third SwedishWorkshop on the Engineering ofSystems-of-Systems (SWESoS2018)2018Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Safety Analysis for Systems-of-Systems2015In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, p. 22-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Safety in Vehicle Platooning: A Systematic Literature Review2016In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle platooning has been studied for several decades, with objectives such as improved traffic throughput on existing infrastructure or reduced energy consumption. All the time, it has been apparent that safety is an important issue. However, there are no comprehensive analyses of what is needed to achieve safety in platooning, but only scattered pieces of information. This paper investigates, through a systematic literature review, what is known about safety for platooning, including what analysis methods have been used, what hazards and failures have been identified, and solution elements that have been proposed to improve safety. Based on this, a gap analysis is performed to identify outstanding questions that need to be addressed in future research. These include dealing with a business ecosystem of actors that cooperate and compete around platooning, refining safety analysis methods to make them suitable for systems-of-systems, dealing with variability in vehicles, and finding solutions to various human factors issues.

  • 12.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Systems-of-systems for border-crossing innovation in the digitized society - A strategic research and innovation agenda for Sweden2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report constitutes a strategic research and innovation agenda for the area systems-of-systems. The agenda has been developed during the first half of 2015 in a project led by SICS Swedish ICT AB, in collaboration with INCOSE Sweden and a large number of representatives from industry and academia, with financial support from Vinnova. The overall conclusion of the agenda is: Sweden needs a world-leading capability to rapidly develop trustworthy systems-of-systems. A system-of-systems (SoS) can informally be defined as a group of independent collaborating systems. The elements of an SoS, called constituent systems, retain an operational and managerial independence, but when combined in a certain way, they provide together a new capability that is emergent from their cooperation. There are many applications of SoS, often as a consequence of the digitization of society which opens new possibilities for system integration. Examples can be found within command and control systems for defense and civilian crisis management; construction and mining; manufacturing and the reindustrialization; transportation; and health care. System integration is traditionally a Swedish area of strength, and by improving SoS knowledge, competitive advantages can be reached. SoS is also an important enabler for innovation, through the ability to combine existing technical products, processes, and organizations in new ways. Having the ability for rapid SoS development is very important for businesses to bring new innovations to market. However, to advance the practice of SoS engineering, a number of challenges need to be addressed, including improving the theoretical foundations; the socio-technical aspects; architecture; modeling and simulation; interoperability; trust; business and legal aspects; development processes and methods; and standardization. As part of the agenda project, a survey has been done of international and Swedish research in the area. Internationally, the SoS field is dominated by US researchers, with a very strong focus on military and space applications. A large number of people are involved, but few persons focus on the area. In comparison, Sweden has entered the research area much later, and only now is attention growing. As is the case internationally, few researchers focus on SoS, and many of them do not even call their research SoS. Activities are scattered over many organizations throughout the country. Many of the researchers in SoS in Sweden come from a background in Software Engineering or Control Engineering, and this is in contrast with the international research, which has its basis in Systems Engineering. In Sweden, research topics such as business aspects (in particular innovation), control systems, governance, and Internet of Things are more pronounced than internationally. However, there is little research in Sweden on the underlying, fundamental principles of SoS engineering. This is likely to be in part a consequence of the funding strategies currently implemented. The analysis shows a broad but scattered Swedish research community lacking critical mass. There is a high competence in software and control engineering, and in empirical research methods, but the lack of systems engineering competence is alarming, since it is fundamental for desired advances, such as in the reindustrialization (Industry 4.0). To achieve the desired capability in SoS development requires knowledge, competence, and capacity, which are provided through substantially increased research and education actions. It is suggested that research in the area is organized as a national SoS center-of-centers that coordinates activities at different academic member organizations. This requires increased research funding. There is also an urgent need for education in systems engineering, systems thinking, and SoS. It is proposed that the center-of-centers also takes responsibility for this, by developing joint courses in those disciplines, including on-line courses for practitioners, and PhD schools for industrial and academic doctoral students. To complement this, societal actions are needed to remove obstacles for building SoS, and enforcing standards. Finally, it is necessary to create meeting places, including triple helix flagship projects, that can fuel the interactions between individuals and organizations interested in SoS.

  • 13.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Eriksson, Peter
    Volvo Construction Equipment AB, Sweden.
    Towards a system-of-systems for improved road construction efficiency using lean and industry 4.02018In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 2018, p. 576-582Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road construction is a very large business segment, consuming enormous public funding every year and with significant environmental impacts. However, the rate of efficiency improvement during the last few decades has been negligible, whereas other industries, such as manufacturing, have seen very large improvements by applying automation and Leanbased flow optimization across the production system. In this paper, we outline a system-of-systems concept for road construction which applies similar principles as have previously proved successful in other industries. The paper identifies efficiency attributes and wastes in current practices, which lead to a conceptual solution that focuses on improved coordination of working machines. Technical elements from Industry 4.0 are considered as potential building blocks in this concept, identifying similarities and differences between the construction domain and other industries. Finally, challenges are identified, in particular within knowledge representation and information management.

  • 14.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Architectural Concepts for Federated Embedded Systems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Federated embedded systems (FES) is an approach for systems-of-systems engineering in the domain of cyber-physical systems. It is based on the idea to allow dynamic addition of plug-in software in the embedded system of a product, and through communication between the plug-ins in different products, it becomes possible to build services on the level of a federation of products. In this paper, architectural concerns for FES are elicited, and are used as rationale for a number of decisions in the architecture of products that are enabled for FES, as well as in the application architecture of a federation. A concrete implementation of a FES from the automotive domain is also described, as a validation of the architectural concepts presented.

  • 15.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    On the Conceptual Design of a Dynamic Component Model for Reconfigurable AUTOSAR Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has recently developed the embedded software standard AUTOSAR, which is now being introduced widely in production vehicles. The standard structures the application into reusable components that can be deployed in a specific vehicle using a configuration scheme. However, this configuration takes place at design time, with no provision for dynamically installing components to reconfigure the system. In this paper, we present the conceptual design of a dynamic component model that extends an AUTOSAR based control unit with the possibility to add plug-in components that execute on a virtual machine. This concept is intended to give benefits in terms of much shorter deployment time for new functions, even into vehicles that have already been produced. Further, it creates opportunities for vehicles to take part in federated embedded systems together with other products. It also opens up a market for third-party developers, and fosters open innovation in an ecosystem around the automotive software business.

  • 16.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Towards a risk analysis method for systems-of-systems based on systems thinking2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of systems-of-systems (SoS) present fundamental challenges regarding properties such as safety, security, reliability, and robustness. This is due to the SoS nature where a collection of independent systems cooperate to fulfil certain high-level objectives. Risk analysis is thus an important activity in SoS engineering. This paper presents a risk analysis method which extends the existing STAMP safety analysis method that is based on systems thinking. Our extensions are aimed at coping with other risks than safety, and the usage is tailored to SoS. The method aims at deriving requirements on the constituent systems that will reduce the emergent risks on the SoS as a whole. The method has been applied to a case study of vehicle platooning.

  • 17.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Ni, Ze
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Zhang, Shuzhou
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Johansson, Eilert
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    MOPED: A Mobile Open Platform for Experimental Design of Cyber-Physical Systems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increasing importance of cyber-physical and embedded systems in industry, there is a strong demand for engineers with an updated knowledge on contemporary technology and methods in the area. This is a challenge for educators, in particular when it comes to creating hands-on experiences of real systems, due to their complexity and the fact that they are usually proprietary. Therefore, a laboratory environment that is representative of the industrial solutions is needed, with a focus on software and systems engineering issues. This paper describes such an environment, called the Mobile Open Platform for Experimental Design (MOPED). It consists of a model car chassis, equipped with a network of three control units based on standard hardware, and running the automotive software standard AUTOSAR, which consists of operating system, middleware, and application software structures. It is equipped with various sensors and actuators, and is open to extensions both in hardware and software. It also contains elements of future systems, since it allows connectivity to cloud services, development of federated embedded systems, and continuous deployment of new functionality. In this way, the platform provides a very relevant learning environment for cyber-physical systems, today and in the future.

  • 18.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Nylander, Stina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    An analysis of systems-of-systems opportunities and challenges related to mobility in smart cities2018In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 2018, p. 132-137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is one of the major current trends in society. Cities around the world are looking into 'smart' solutions based on information and communication technology to deal with the challenges that result from this development. Mobility is one of the most important areas to address, and system-of-systems solutions where vehicles and infrastructure are connected have a potential to improve urban transportation in many aspects. In this paper, current initiatives related to mobility in smart cities around the world are surveyed, and this is complemented with input from focus groups of transportation stakeholders to identify the important aspects of the problem. Based on this, challenges related to the application of systems-ofsystems in urban mobility are identified.

  • 19.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Characteristics of Software Ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems: A Case Study2014In: Information and Software Technology, Vol. 51, p. 1457-1475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Traditionally, Embedded Systems (ES) are tightly linked to physical products, and closed both for communication to the surrounding world and to additions or modifications by third parties. New technical solutions are however emerging that allow addition of plug-in software, as well as external communication for both software installation and data exchange. These mechanisms in combination will allow for the construction of Federated Embedded Systems (FES). Expected benefits include the possibility of third-party actors developing add-on functionality; a shorter time to market for new functions; and the ability to upgrade existing products in the field. This will however require not only new technical solutions, but also a transformation of the software ecosystems for ES. Objective: This paper aims at providing an initial characterization of the mechanisms that need to be present to make a FES ecosystem successful. This includes identification of the actors, the possible business models, the effects on product development processes, methods and tools, as well as on the product architecture. Method: The research was carried out as an explorative case study based on interviews with 15 senior staff members at 9 companies related to ES that represent different roles in a future ecosystem for FES. The interview data was analyzed and the findings were mapped according to the Business Model Canvas (BMC). Results: The findings from the study describe the main characteristics of a FES ecosystem, and identify the challenges for future research and practice. Conclusions: The case study indicates that new actors exist in the FES ecosystem compared to a traditional supply chain, and that their roles and relations are redefined. The business models include new revenue streams and services, but also create the need for trade-offs between, e.g., openness and dependability in the architecture, as well as new ways of working.

  • 20.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Törngren, Martin
    Notes On Agile and Safety-Critical Development2016In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile approaches have been highly influential to the software engineering practices in many organizations, and are increasingly being applied in larger companies, and for developing systems outside the pure software domain. To understand more about the current state of agile, its applications to safety-critical systems, and the consequences on innovation and large organizations, a seminar was organized in Stockholm in 2014. This paper gives an overview of the topics discussed at that seminar, a summary of the main results and suggestions for future work as input to a research agenda for agile development of safety-critical software.

  • 21.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory. EcoFES.
    Skoglund, Mats
    EcoFES.
    Quality assurance in software ecosystems: A systematic literature mapping and research agenda2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 114, p. 69-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Software ecosystems are becoming a common model for software development in which different actors cooperate around a shared platform. However, it is not clear what the implications are on software quality when moving from a traditional approach to an ecosystem, and this is becoming increasingly important as ecosystems emerge in critical domains such as embedded applications. Therefore, this paper investigates the challenges related to quality assurance in software ecosystems, and identifies what approaches have been proposed in the literature. The research method used is a systematic literature mapping, which however only resulted in a small set of six papers. The literature findings are complemented with a constructive approach where areas are identified that merit further research, resulting in a set of research topics that form a research agenda for quality assurance in software ecosystems. The agenda spans the entire system life-cycle, and focuses on challenges particular to an ecosystem setting, which are mainly the results of the interactions across organizational borders, and the dynamic system integration being controlled by the users.

  • 22.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Shah, Syed
    iZettle, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Selecting Software Component Sourcing Options: Detailed Survey Description and Analysis2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them fromexternal sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: 1) developing software in-house, 2) outsourcing development, 3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and 4) integrating open source software components. Unfortunately, there is little available research on howorganizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

  • 23. Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    An analysis of a layered system architecture for autonomous construction vehicles2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested in the literature to organize software in autonomous vehicles as hierarchical layers where each layer makes its own decisions based on its own world model. This paper presents two alternative designs for autonomous construction vehicles based on the layered framework 4D/RCS. As a first step, the typical use cases for these vehicles were defined. Then one use case for a hauler was traversed through the two alternatives to see how they supported safety, flexibility and the use of a product platform. We found that the coordination between bucket control and motion control must be done at a low level in the hierarchy and that the relationship between the vehicle actuators and the built-in autonomous system is important for how the software is organized.

  • 24. Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    An empirical study of refactoring decisions in embedded software and systems2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25. Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Effect Analysis of the Introduction of AUTOSAR - a Systematic Literature Review2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26. Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Wallin, Peter
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Analysis of the information needs of an autonomous hauler in a quarry site2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous and intelligent construction equipment is an emergent area of research, which shares many characteristics with on-road autonomous vehicles, but also have fundamental differences. Construction vehicles usually perform repetitive tasks in confined sites, such as quarries, and cooperate with other vehicles to complete common missions. A quarry can be viewed as a system-of-systems and the vehicles are individual systems within the site system. Therefore it is important to analyze the site system, i.e. included vehicles, surrounding systems, and system context, before the introduction of autonomous vehicles. It is necessary to map the needed infrastructure, and the needed input information from on-board sensors and off-board information suppliers, before designing the vehicle electronics system. This paper describes how we identified sensory and input signal needs for an autonomous articulated hauler in a scenario at a quarry site. Different architectural alternatives are evaluated and a set-up for a quarry site is suggested.

  • 27. Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    A Comparative Case Study of Architecting Practices in the Embedded Software Industry2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28. Gustavsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Architecting Complex Embedded Systems: An Industrial Case Study2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Federated Embedded Systems – a review of the literature in related fields2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is concerned with the vision of smart interconnected objects, a vision that has attracted much attention lately. In this paper, embedded, interconnected, open, and heterogeneous control systems are in focus, formally referred to as Federated Embedded Systems. To place FES into a context, a review of some related research directions is presented. This review includes such concepts as systems of systems, cyber-physical systems, ubiquitous computing, internet of things, and multi-agent systems. Interestingly, the reviewed fields seem to overlap with each other in an increasing number of ways.

  • 30.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Federated Robust Embedded Systems: Concepts and Challenges2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development within the area of embedded systems (ESs) is moving rapidly, not least due to falling costs of computation and communication equipment. It is believed that increased communication opportunities will lead to the future ESs no longer being parts of isolated products, but rather parts of larger communities or federations of ESs, within which information is exchanged for the benefit of all participants. This vision is asserted by a number of interrelated research topics, such as the internet of things, cyber-physical systems, systems of systems, and multi-agent systems. In this work, the focus is primarily on ESs, with their specific real-time and safety requirements. While the vision of interconnected ESs is quite promising, it also brings great challenges to the development of future systems in an efficient, safe, and reliable way. In this work, a pre-study has been carried out in order to gain a better understanding about common concepts and challenges that naturally arise in federations of ESs. The work was organized around a series of workshops, with contributions from both academic participants and industrial partners with a strong experience in ES development. During the workshops, a portfolio of possible ES federation scenarios was collected, and a number of application examples were discussed more thoroughly on different abstraction levels, starting from screening the nature of interactions on the federation level and proceeding down to the implementation details within each ES. These discussions led to a better understanding of what can be expected in the future federated ESs. In this report, the discussed applications are summarized, together with their characteristics, challenges, and necessary solution elements, providing a ground for the future research within the area of communicating ESs.

  • 31.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    On the Technological and Methodological Concepts of Federated Embedded Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Paving the Way for Apps in Vehicles2013Other (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Ni, Ze
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Design and Implementation of a Dynamic Component Model for Federated AUTOSAR Systems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has recently agreed upon the embedded software standard AUTOSAR, which structures an application into reusable components that can be deployed using a configuration scheme. However, this configuration takes place at design time, with no provision for dynamically installing components to reconfigure the system. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a dynamic component model that extends AUTOSAR with the possibility to add plug-in components at runtime. This opens up for shorter deployment time for new functions; opportunities for vehicles to participate in federated embedded systems; and involvement of third-party software developers.

  • 34.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Ecosystems and Open Innovation for Embedded Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study2015In: Software Business, Springer International Publishing , 2015, 11, Vol. 210, p. 81-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper surveys work on ecosystems and open innovation of systems in the context of software engineering for embedded systems. The primary research goal is to develop a research agenda based on the topics identified within the research publications on the topic. The agenda is based on a systematic mapping study of 260 publications obtained from digital libraries and is influenced by a set of areas of interest, i.e., product lines, open source, third party, business models, open innovation, and strategy. The results from the study include analysis of the type of research conducted in the field, its origin and research contribution. The study identifies the need for more solutions to specific open innovation problems such as mapping business models to technical platforms; defining open ecosystem processes that foster open innovation; and improving how ecosystem players can leverage on tool support for open innovation. A direction for future research is also provided.

  • 35.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Issues and Challenges in Ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how Systems of Systems (SoS) can be constructed by linking together embedded computers in constituent systems to create complex but more flexible and adaptable systems. The approach of software system development is called Federated Embedded Systems (FES) and their revolved ecosystem of players is presented, aiming to ensure quality in engineering SoS. Ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems (EcoFES) comprise a new area of research that scales component-based software development for embedded software into new dimensions. The proposed ecosystem dimension introduces an open, flexible and adaptable SoS architecture for improving the process of FES development. In the paper, we identify some architectural challenges and discuss the implications of scaling from a closed ecosystem to an open one, providing open collaboration and innovation in the context of FES.

  • 36.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Petersen, Kai
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jan
    Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Malardalen University, Sweden.
    The GRADE Decision Canvas for Classification and Reflection on Architecture Decisions2017In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering - Volume 1: ENASE, 2017, p. 187-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a decision canvas for capturing architecture decisions in software and systems engineering. The canvas leverages a dedicated taxonomy, denoted GRADE, meant for establishing the basics of the vocabulary for assessing and choosing architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas serves as a template for practitioners to discuss and document architecture decisions, i.e., capture, understand and communicate decisions among decision-makers and to others. It also serves as a way to reflect on past decision-making activities devoted to both tentative and concluding decisions in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas has been assessed by means of preliminary internal and external evaluations with four scenarios. The results are promising as the canvas fulfills its intended objectives while satisfying most of the needs of the subjects participating in the evaluation.

  • 37. Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Larsson, Stig
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Problems and their mitigation in system and software architecting2012In: Information and Software Technology, Vol. 54, p. 686-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Today, software and embedded systems act as enablers for developing new functionality in traditional industries such as the automotive, process automation, and manufacturing automation domains. This differs from 25–30 years ago when these systems where based on electronics and electro-mechanical solutions. The architecture of the embedded system and of the software is important to ensure the qualities of these applications. However, the effort of designing and evolving the architecture is in practice often neglected during system development, whilst development efforts are centered on implementing new functionality. Objective: We present problems and success factors that are central to the architectural development of software intensive systems in the domain of automotive and automation products as judged by practitioners. Method: The method consisted of three steps. First, we used semi-structured interviews to collect data in an exploratory manner. As a second step, a survey based on problems extracted from the interview data was used to investigate the occurrence of these problems at a wider range of organizations. In order to identify and suggest how to mitigate the problems that were considered important, we finally performed root cause analysis workshops, and from these a number of success factors were elicited. Results: A total of 21 problems have been identified based on the interview data, and these are related to the technical, organizational, project, and agreement processes. Based on the survey results, the following four problems were selected for a root cause analysis: (1) there is a lack of process for architecture development, (2) there is a lack of method or model to evaluate the business value when choosing the architecture, (3) there is a lack of clear long-term architectural strategy, and (4) processes and methods are less valued than knowledge and competence of individuals. Conclusion: In conclusion, the following identified success factors are crucial components to be successful in developing software intensive systems: (1) define an architectural strategy, (2) implement a process for architectural work, (3) ensure authority for architects, (4) clarify the business impact of the architecture, and (5) optimize on the project portfolio level instead of optimizing each project.

  • 38.
    Zhang, Shuzhou
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Johansson, Eilert
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Wang, Huifeng
    Porting an AUTOSAR-Compliant Operating System to a High Performance Embedded Platform2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive embedded systems are going through a major change, both in terms of how they are used and in terms of software and hardware architecture. Much more powerful and rapidly evolvable hardware is expected, paralleled by an accelerating development rate of the control software. To meet these challenges, a software standard, AUTOSAR, is gaining ground in the automotive eld. In this work, experiences from porting AUTOSAR to a high performance embedded system, Raspberry Pi, are collected. The goal is both to present experience on the process of AUTOSAR porting and to create an AUTOSAR implementation on a cheap and widely accessible hardware platform, making AUTOSAR available for researchers and students.

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