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  • 1.
    Axell, Monica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Lidbom, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Energieffektivisering i livsmedelsbutiker med målsättning att förbättra klimatet för kunder, varor och personal - En fältstudie i tre butiker2003Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Livsmedelsbutiker har generellt sett en hög energianvändning. Studien visar att energianvändningen kan vara upp till 5 gångar högre än i en villa. Systemen för butikskyla som används för att exponera och lagra kylda och frysta matvaror svarar för i storleksordningen halva elanvändningen. Tidigare studier har visat att förvaring av kylda och frysta matvaror i butiker är en svag länk i kylkedjan samt att det kan vara problem med för låga temperaturer i de zoner av butiken där kyl- och frysdiskar är placerade. Det är viktigt att energieffektiviserande åtgärder inte sker på bekostnad av systemens prestanda. För livsmedelsbutikernas system för butikskyla innebär begreppet prestanda att det termiska klimatet för varor, personal och kunder skall bibehållas eller förbättras. Syftet med projektet har varit att studera energianvändningen, temperaturkvalitén i kylda och frysta matvaror samt den termiska komforten för personal och kunder i livsmedelsbutiker. Målsättningen är att resultaten från studien skall användas för att bedöma vilka åtgärder som kan genomföras i livsmedelsbutiker för att minska energianvändningen. Denna studie redovisar resultat från fältmätningar i tre livsmedelsbutiker. Mätningar har genomförts för tre olika tidsperioder för att studera hur livsmedelsbutikernas system för butikskyla påverkas av variationer i utomhusklimat, kundgenomströmning, skillnader i inlastad mängd med matvaror samt variationer orsakade av att butiken är öppen eller stängd. Den höga energianvändningen tillsammans med de stora skillnaderna i energianvändning mellan olika butiker visar att det finns en stor potential att förbättra systemen för butikskyla ute i butikerna. Ungefär 2/3 av den installerade kyleffekten utnyttjas för att förvara kylda matvaror. Studien visar att det är för dessa system som skillnaden mellan de olika butikerna så stor som en faktor 5. En förklaring till detta är att merparten av de kylda matvarorna förvaras i vertikala kyldiskar. Dessa kyldiskar är populära eftersom det går att exponera mycket matvaror på en liten yta i butiken. I den stora öppna vertikala fronten avskiljs den varma luften i butiken från den kalla luften inne i kyldisken med en luftridå. Tidigare studier visar att vertikala luftridåer är speciellt känsliga för infiltration av varm omgivningsluft och att effektiviteten kan skilja mycket mellan olika typer av kyldiskar. Nya nyckeltal har definierats för att jämföra energieffektiviteten hos systemen för att lagra och exponera kylda och frysta matvaror i olika butiker. Fördelen med dessa nya nyckeltal är att de är enkla verktyg som kan användas av butiksägarna för att jämföra sin egen anläggning med andra butiker. De är dessutom oberoende av såväl butikens storlek som andra energikrävande system inne i butiken. Nyckeltalen baseras på att den tillförda elenergin relateras till kylda luftvolymen (den nyttiga volymen) för att lagra och exponera matvaror i butiken. Resultaten visar att utomhusklimatet påverkar inomhusklimatet i butiken, vilket resulterar i att elanvändningen kan variera med upp till 100 % mellan sommar och vinter för att förvara kylda livsmedel. Systemen för de kylda livsmedlen är därmed speciellt känsliga för variationer i inomhusklimatet. Studien visar att det är energieffektivt att täcka kyldiskarna med en nattgardin när butiken är stängd. Detta leder till en minskad elanvändning, en minskad utkylning av butiken och kan även förbättra temperaturkvalitén i de kylda matvarorna om maten används för att ackumulera kyla. Resultaten visar att den butik som har den högsta elanvändningen även uppvisar en sämre termisk komfort för personal och kunder samt en sämre temperaturkvalité i matvarorna. Slutsatsen är att insatserna bör starta med att installera energieffektiva kyldiskar och frysdiskar som täcks när butiken är stängd. Om kylan hålls inne i diskarna förbättras den termiska komforten, förbättras temperaturen i matvarorna och uppvärmningsbehovet minskar. Resultaten visar att det ä

  • 2.
    Haglund Stignor, Caroline
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Tiljander, Pia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lidbom, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Axell, Monica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Masgrau, M.
    Airec, Sweden.
    New type of energy efficient heat exchanger for indirectly cooled display cabinets - Laboratory and field tests2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 206-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a completely new type of air-to-liquid heat exchanger, adapted for obtaining good heat transfer performance even at a laminar flow regime on the liquid side has been evaluated in a display cabinet application. The heat exchanger consists of parallel plates, with liquid in every second passage and air in the other passages. Tests were performed with a traditional open vertical display cabinet, first with a traditional finned-tube coil and thereafter with the new type of heat exchanger, both in a climate chamber and thereafter in the field. The results from both tests showed that the liquid inlet temperature could be increased by around 6°C, from the range -8°C - -7°C with the traditional coil to the range -2°C -1°C with the new type of heat exchanger, which can lead to considerable energy savings and operation without the need for defrosting of the heat exchanger.

  • 3.
    Jensen, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Larsson, Kristin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Kyldiskar i butik: Referensmätning av temperaturer2014Report (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Jensen, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Lidbom, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Rolfsman, Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Dörrar på kyldiskar för minskad energianvändning, ökad matvarukvalitet och bättre inneklimat2014Report (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Jensen, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rolfsman, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Prioriterade åtgärder i befintliga livsmedelslokaler för ökad energieffektivisering2017In: Kyla & värme, no 2, p. 34-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6. Johnni, Mathilde
    et al.
    Kellner, Philip
    Malmberg, Malin
    Svanborg, Magnus
    Vavassori, Giacomo
    Cold Chain of Chilled meals - A case study2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ”Active Ageing – Personalised food and meal solutions for health and quality of life”(Aktivt åldrande – individuellt anpassade måltidslösningar för hälsa och livskvalitet hosäldre. Diarienr 2013-02780) is a project that aims to maintain the quality of life and autonomy of older persons, through individual and personalised meal solutions that fit their needs and requirements. The target group are primarily the age 75 or older. Five work packages are included in the project. One of the work packages had the scope of developing a concept for the ordering, distribution and delivery of meal to the elderly.The final report from that work package can be found in SP Report 2015:75. An interdisciplinary approach – combining knowledge of ICT (information and communications technology) – Technology, food quality, packaging, logistic, sensory, and waste/return systems for the food that is distributed is increasingly necessary. Being able to influence food choices, for the elderly, is central and open up possibilities for different activities and the development of new products, models and services that might be facilitated by collaborating with SMEs (micro, small and medium sized enterprises) and other business partners interested in delivering solutions for the elderly consumers. The concept for the ordering, distribution and delivery of meal to the elderly developed in the project can be used by other end users and/or for other products and services.Students at the KTH performed a case study “cold chain of chilled meals” together with participant, Medirest, from the project Active Ageing which is presented in this report.The focus is on hospital food provisioning, which is an even more delicate branch in the general food processing panorama. The entire cold chain is mapped and analysed, from the factory up to the hospital wards, in order to ensure integrity and identify critical points. The work is done in collaboration with Medirest, a company responsible for food provision in five hospitals in Stockholm’s county. The aim of the project were to investigate if Medirest cold chain of a meal containing chicken were kept intact starting from when the frozen chicken were thawed until it was delivered in a meal box to the S:t Görans Hospital, including all storing and transportation.Starting from the background knowledge of food regulations, production procedures, logistic technologies and delivery schemes, the overall situation can be depicted and subsequently investigated. Temperature measurements were carried out upon cooked chicken. The results shows that the chicken holds a temperature below 6°C, which is Medirest’s goal, when it is put in the holding fridge at Medirest. The temperature fluctuates a lot.When it is put in the holding fridge at the hospital the temperature is held more constant, just above 6°C. The difference may depend on the activity and the amount of internal loads, as well as the ventilation flow required at the Medirest facility. The most exposed parts of the cold chain were during the preparation of the meal boxes, the transportation to the hospital, and during the delivery of the meal boxes to the different wards. The measurements were carried out in November, which is a relative cold month. Problems not showed in this study could however occur during the summer months when the cold chain is exposed to higher loads and higher ambient temperatures.

  • 7.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Energieffektivisering gynnar alla2013In: Kyla, no 5, p. 32-33Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Energy efficiency in Supermarkets – Implication of EU efficiency directives2011In: Proceedings of 23nd International Congress of Refrigeration, 2011, , p. 8Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Indoor thermal environment in supermarkets - comparison of measured and perceived comfort parameters2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Klimatpåverkan i kylkedjan - från livsmedelsindustri till konsument: med stöd av Jordbruksverket2011Report (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Primärproduktion av livsmedel – En förstudie avseende köldmedium och energianvändning: SIK – Institutet för Livsmedel och Bioteknik2011Report (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Vertical display cabinets with doors - influence of the door-opening frequency on storage temperature and cooling demand2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Vertical display cabinets without and with doors - a comparison of measurements in a laboratory and in a supermarket2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Öka lönsamheten med värmeåtervinning2014In: Kyla, no 6, p. 36-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Ökat behov av livsmedelskyla skapar utmaningar för framtiden2014In: Kyla, no 4, p. 42-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Alonzo, Ylva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    A purchaser network for increased energy efficiency in supermarkets2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Axell, Monica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Fahlén, Per
    Fransson, Niklas
    APPROPRIATE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN SUPERMARKETS FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE SUPERMARKETS - measurements and questionnaires2008In: Proceedings of 11th International Conference on indoor air quality and climate., 2008, , p. 2476-83Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Axell, Monica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Fahlén, Per
    Fransson, Niklas
    Supermarkets, indoor climate and energy efficiency – field measurements before and after installation of doors on refrigerated cases2008In: Proceedings of 12th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference, 2008, , p. 8 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Borgqvist, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Certified energy consultant for increasednumber of retail grocery stores with low energy use, safe operation and low environmental impact2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 376-384Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the framework for a proposed certification for energy consultants targeting the grocery sector, i.e. supermarkets. Thecertificationshould cover necessary knowledge and requirements, with the overall aim of increasing energy efficiency and reducing related costs for the store at the system level. Within the retail sector, supermarkets are the most energy-intensive buildings. Buildings intended for food sector applications need to be of a special design, with requirements that differ from other premises. Half of the electricity used is employed to keep food cold. However, energy efficiency can be improved through efficient equipment and increased knowledge, sometimes by 30-50% or more. This paper presents different skills and requirements needed by a certified energy consultant, CEC, working with energy efficiency in supermarket, from the retailer's perspective. Thus, the specifications can be used to further develop the certification area; energy consulting for supermarkets and good practice approaches targeting this area.

  • 20.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Båth, Klara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Microbiology.
    Att spara energi och samtidigt öka livsmedelssäkerheten.: En rapport från SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut och2011Report (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. University of Borås, Sweden ; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fahlén, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Axell, Monica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Fransson, Niklas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thermal comfort in the supermarketenvironment – multiple enquiry methods and simultaneous measurements of the thermal environment2017In: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 82, p. 426-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the supermarket environment three factors must be considered: food (food quality), personnel (working conditions), and customers.The customers do not remain in this environment very long but are of particular interest since they constitute the supermarket’s commercial basis. However, there are no recommendations on the indoor environment based on this category. This study compares the perceived indoor thermal environment with simultaneous objective measurements of the thermal environment and includes multiple enquiry methods. These methods have been used for this specific environment in order to understand how customers perceive, evaluate, and prefer variations in the thermal environment.

    Measurements were performed in summer and winter in front of twelve display cabinets, over 1100 questionnaires have been received.To provide recommendations, this study presents measured and perceived comfort in supermarkets, information which can be used for prescribing suitable thermal environments for customers.

  • 22.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Jensen, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    How could a reduced temperature in the cold chain affect the food waste?2014In: 3rd IIR International Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, 2014, , p. 540-547Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Rolfsman, Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Axell, Monica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Fahlén, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Energy efficiency in Supermarkets and directives for efficiency - Implication of EU efficiency directives.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Rolfsman, Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Jensen, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Ruud, Svein
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    DESIGNING A NEAR ZERO ENERGY SUPERMARKET – MINIMISING ENERGY USE AND ENSURING THE SUPPLY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY2015In: Proceedings of the 24th IIR International Congress of Refrigeration:, 2015, , p. pap. n. 825Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rolfsman, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Swartz, H.
    Energy agreements regarding grocery stores for a sustainable society - Lessons learned2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 152-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we aim to shed light on waste heat from commercial refrigeration, which is common but unnecessary. Excess heat is the heat which is not recovered, although it is possible to do so. We include heating for existing buildings: grocery stores as stand-alone, or within another building. VariousSwedish perspectives of the parties involved, tenant and landlord, are discussed. Theoretically and technically, it is not difficult to distributeexcess energy from a tenant to another receiver, which in turn uses the energy. However, to meet energy goals regarding energy consumption for heating buildings requires new and efficient approaches. The technique is already known and availableon the market. We suggest that availableenergy and heat recovery projects, contracts and agreements maysignificantly enhance the possibility of creating viable energy efficiency projects, and include excess heat. Results include lessons learned from the parties.

  • 26.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sundström, Malin
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden ; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Consumer perception and behavior in the retail foodscape – A study of chilled groceries2018In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 40, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the retail grocery business, new competitors such as pure e-commerce players are growing fast, and, in order to compete, ‘brick and mortar’ stores such as supermarkets need to become more professional at providing excellent customer service, and to use the physical servicescape as the main competitive advantages. However, supermarkets also face a challenge to offer consumers high quality products while at the same time providing a pleasant and functional servicescape. Products like groceries often need to be stored in cabinets due to strict regulations and in order to maintain correct temperatures. Some of these cabinets have doors which make them more energy-efficient (Evans et al., 2007 ;  Faramarzi et al., 2002), reduces costs, and contributes to grocery quality, but it can also affect the perceived servicescape, and risk a negative impact on sales (Waide, 2014; Kauffeld, 2015). For example, moisture from the atmosphere that condenses on the inside of the door glass (Fricke and Bansal, 2015) may make the cabinets less transparent, and doors can obstruct consumers from passing by. Thus, having chilled groceries in cabinets with doors can be both beneficial and problematic. However, no studies have been conducted on how open (no doors) or closed (with doors) cabinets for chilled groceries impact consumer perception and behavior. Hence, the purpose of the study is to contribute to an understanding of how consumers behave and what they perceive when shopping chilled groceries from cabinets with doors and without doors in the supermarket.

    Based on a qualitative research approach, combining in-store observations and focus group interviews, and focusing on Bitner's (1992) three environmental variables in the servicescape, i.e. (1) ambient condition, (2) space and functions, and (3) signs, symbols and artifacts, the study investigates the question: do open or closed cabinets for chilled groceries in the supermarket impact consumer perception and behavior, and if so, how?

    Our results indicate that consumers’ behavior and perceptions of the foodscape differ when there are doors or no doors on the cabinets. The paper thereby contributes to servicescape research by focusing on a particular part of supermarkets – the foodscape for chilled groceries–and by enhancing the understanding of environmental variables in the servicescape. The results further show how doors lead to different forms of approach or avoidance behavior in terms of accessibility and that consumers’ vision, olfaction and tactility all influence consumers’ perceptions of freshness and cleanliness in relation to doors or no doors. Our results also have practical implications for retailers who are designing new stores or considering changes in existing store layouts.

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