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  • 1.
    Aalberg, Asbjørn Lein
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Holen, Siri Mariane
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Læring etter branner i Norge – forutsetninger, barrierer og fremmende faktorer2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denne rapporten presenterer resultater fra et prosjekt som er utført av Fire Research and Innovation Centre - FRIC fra 2020 til 2022. Første versjon av rapporten ble publisert på engelsk i mars 2022. Denne norske versjonen er oversatt av SINTEF Digital og RISE Fire Research i samarbeid. En spesiell takk til Caroline Kristensen for arbeidet med oversettelsen. Rapporten er også oppdatert på enkelte punkter, uten at fokus og konklusjoner skal være endret.

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  • 2.
    Aalberg, Asbjørn Lein
    et al.
    SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Holen, Siri Mariane
    SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne Elise
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Preconditions for Learning from Fires in Norway: Structural, Cultural, Technological, Interactional and Relational Aspects2021In: Proceedings of the 31st European Safety and Reliability Conference, 2021, p. 1747-1754Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning from incidents is widely accepted as a core part of safety management. This is also true for fires – however few fires in Norway are investigated. Fires are interesting incidents conceptually due to their potential of devastating outcomes on material and human lives and because they happen across all sectors and industries, businesses, and homes. In Norway, several different actors play a role in investigating and learning from fires, from the fire rescue services to directorates and Non-Governmental Organisations. The present study seeks to understand the preconditions for learning from fires in Norway, with emphasis on the formal actors that play a role in preventing and mitigating fires. Methodologically, the study is based on qualitative interviews conducted with relevant actors from first responders, authorities, and other sectors. We found that there are structural, cultural, technological, and relational aspects that seem to influence learning from fires in Norway. The results were analyzed using thematic analysis and the Pentagon model framework. The findings are discussed in relation to theories from organisational learning and learning from incidents.

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  • 3.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Holmvaag, Anders Ole
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sanfeliu Melia, Cristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Erfaringer med mobile vanntåkeanlegg installert i boliger2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences regarding personal protection water mist systems installed in dwellings. Personal protection water mist systems can produce a water mist that can cool down and limit a fire in a small area in a dwelling. The system is equipped with sensitive detectors which can activate the system in the early stages of the fire and limit the fire spread, and in some cases extinguish the fire. This gives more time for evacuation, which can be especially important for vulnerable people with risk factors, like impaired cognitive and physical functioning. The goal of this study has been to map the experiences in Norway regarding personal protection water mist systems, considering how the municipalities have experienced the work related to the systems and whether the systems have activated and saved lives. This will shed light upon whether mobile water mist systems are appropriate measures for vulnerable people in the society, and the risk factors that determine whether the measure is appropriate or not. This study has used literature studies, questionnaires, and interviews to map the experiences of personal protection water mist systems in Norway. The results showed that personal protection water mist systems installed in Norwegian dwellings have been activated in connection with fire outbreaks, and thus limited or extinguished the fire. This has saved lives on several occasions and reduced the damage potential. There are many people who have risk factors that make it appropriate to install a mobile water mist system in their home, but there are also exceptions. The risk factors that indicate that it is beneficial to install mobile water mist systems in Norwegian dwellings are - Impaired cognitive abilities - Impaired physical abilities - Drug and alcohol problems - Smoking - Living alone The systems are particularly suitable when several of the risk factors are present at the same time. It was also shown that personal protection water mist systems are not suitable for mobile people who spend time in several places in the home and are therefore often outside the system's coverage area. Personal protection water mist systems are not recommended for people who may have the potential to sabotage the system. In questionnaires and interviews, it emerged that there are big differences between how Norwegian municipalities work with assigning, installing, operating, and maintaining personal protection water mist systems. In larger municipalities, there are more people who rely on routines and formal processes for the work, and there is therefore a greater proportion of the larger municipalities who distribute the facilities out to individuals than in the small municipalities where the work is more characterised by informal routines and personal relations. 3 Based on the results from this study, it is our opinion that the following aspects should be covered by future work: • Need for a new and updated cost-benefit analysis for personal protection water mist systems. • Need for a better statistical basis for assessment of the personal protection water mist systems. • Need for a Norwegian test standard for personal protection water mist systems. • Need for clear guidelines for assignment, procurement, installing, operation, and maintenance of personal protection water mist systems.

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  • 4.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    LEARNING FROM FIRE INCIDENTS : Analysis of a devastating fire in a building with municipal housing in Norway2022In: Proceedings of the 32nd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2022), 2022, p. 1156-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an analysis of a fire in a municipal apartment building used as housing for people with challenges connected to drug addiction. The fire took place in Norway 7th of August 2021. The incident happened during the night and the fire was spreading quickly and intensely via the external wooden balconies. The combination of risk factors both connected to the fire development and the characteristics of the occupants raises the potential for fire fatalities. This analysis seeks to understand why the fire spread with such a speed, and how everyone in the building survived without injuries. The analysis identified both technical and human factors that may help to answer these questions. The findings suggest that there were deficiencies connected to the technical fire safety design that if improved could have reduced the fire damage. Factors promoting the fire spread and fire intensity include the choice of wood material used in the construction of the balconies, no sprinkler system installed on the balconies and a large fire load on the balconies caused by the occupants’ tendency to accumulate possessions on the balconies. Factors contributing to the outcome of no injuries or fatalities included occupants being awake during these late hours, and the strong social network between them. Such a network should be seen as a positive factor regarding robustness against fire and should be encouraged.

  • 5.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olsen, Vegard E
    Multiconsult, Norway.
    Hermansen, Anna-Karin
    TBRT, Norway.
    Hermansen, Arild
    TBRT, Norway.
    Log, Torgrim
    Gassco, Norway.
    Opstad, Kristen K
    NTNU, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne C
    HVL, Norway.
    Analyse av brann i kommunalt boligbygg i Bergen 7. august 20212023Report (Other academic)
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  • 6.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Roadmap for measurable sustainability indicators for the fire safety community2023Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pre-study aims to determine whether developing measurable sustainability indicators (MSI) to assess the sustainability of projects, ideas, and decisions related to fire safety would be useful for fire safety engineers, researchers, municipalities, authorities, policymakers, first responders and other stakeholders. A review of the literature, online sources, project reports and numerous interactions with representatives of several target groups within the fire safety community were conducted to assess their sustainability needs. The results show that the target groups included in this project had some overlapping and some unique sustainability needs. Fire service product suppliers are content at this time to self-declare their sustainability status. Fire and rescue services would like MSI to help them make tactical and strategic decision while responding to fires. They are also interested in MSI to help them convey their sustainability value to the communities they serve. Fire safety engineers would like MSI to support their suggestions for improvements in construction design. Researchers and educators will contribute to the development of MSI that serve the needs of the other target groups. Authorities could use MSI to evaluate progress toward improved sustainability in their jurisdictions and transfer data to other levels of government.

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  • 7.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Roadmap for measurable sustainability indicators for the fire safety community2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This pre-study aims to determine whether developing measurable sustainability indicators (MSI) to assess the sustainability of projects, ideas, and decisions related to fire safety would be useful for fire safety engineers, researchers, municipalities, authorities, policymakers, first responders and other stakeholders. A review of the literature, online sources, project reports and numerous interactions with representatives of several target groups within the fire safety community were conducted to assess their sustainability needs. The results show that the target groups included in this project had some overlapping and some unique sustainability needs. Fire service product suppliers are content at this time to self-declare their sustainability status. Fire and rescue services would like MSI to help them make tactical and strategic decision while responding to fires. They are also interested in MSI to help them convey their sustainability value to the communities they serve. Fire safety engineers would like MSI to support their suggestions for improvements in construction design. Researchers and educators will contribute to the development of MSI that serve the needs of the other target groups. Authorities could use MSI to evaluate progress toward improved sustainability in their jurisdictions and transfer data to other levels of government.

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  • 8.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Bleye, Jaime
    Centro de Seguridad Marítima Integral Jovellanos, Spain.
    Fire suppression and manual firefighting of batteryelectric vehicle fires on ro-ro ships2023In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, 2023, p. 107-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of electric vehicles has raised a concern about firefighting measures including water spray fire suppression systems (often denoted “drencher systems”) and tactics and equipment used for manual firefighting on ro-ro cargo and ro-ro passenger ships. A test series involving testing of two pairs of geometrically similar internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV’s) and battery electric vehicles (BEV’s) under as equal test conditions as possible were conducted to investigate the performance efficiency of the drencher system. In addition, manual firefighting equipment and tactics was evaluated on three BEV fire tests. It is concluded that a fire in the two types of vehicles is different but share similarities. However, a fire in a BEV does not seem to be more challenging than a fire in an ICEV for the drencher system design given in current international recommendations. Similarly, there are common (e.g., handheld fire extinguishers and hoses) and new (e.g., fire blanket and water-cooling device) manual firefighting equipment that effectively can be used to control or limit a BEV fire.

  • 9.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire testing of alternative fixed fire-extinguishing systems for ro-ro spaces onboard ships2023In: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 423-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) recognises five different fire-extinguishing system solutions for ro-ro spaces on ships; manually activated water spray systems (Resolution A.123(V)), automatic sprinkler or deluge water spray systems and automatic nozzle or deluge water mist systems (MSC.1/Circ.1430), high-expansion foam systems and gas fire-extinguishing systems (FSS Code). A review of potential commercially available alternative systems, their expected performance efficiency and water consumption was made. Based on this review, two alternative fire-extinguishing systems were identified: Compressed Air Foam Systems (CAFS) and foam-water sprinkler/spray systems. Fire suppression performance testing of water spray systems according to the Resolution A.123(V) and MSC.1/Circ.1430, a CAFS and a foam-water spray system were conducted. The water spray system per MSC.1/Circ.1430 had superior performance while the system per Resolution A.123(V) and the foam-water spray system limited the fire size to some degrees. The CAFS provided limited fire suppression performance.

  • 10.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Westlund, Örjan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Water Spray Fire Suppression Tests Comparing Gasoline-Fuelled and Battery Electric Vehicles2023In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of electric vehicles has raised a concern about the performance efficiency of water spray fire suppression systems (often denoted “drencher systems”) typically installed on ro–ro cargo and ro–ro passenger ships. A test series was conducted involving testing of two pairs of geometrically similar gasoline-fuelled and battery electric vehicles in test conditions as equivalent as possible. During testing, key parameters such as the heat release rate, the gas temperature above the vehicle and the surface temperature of target steel sheet screens at the sides of the vehicle were measured. Fire ignition was arranged in such a way that the gasoline fuel or the battery pack was involved at the initial stage of the fire. It is concluded that fires in the two types of vehicles are different but have similarities. However, a fire in a battery electric vehicle does not seem to be more challenging than a fire in a gasoline-fuelled vehicle for a drencher system designed in accordance with current international recommendations

  • 11.
    Bachinger, Angelika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Strid, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Systematic evaluation of bromine-free flame-retardant systems in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene2022In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 139, no 13, article id 51861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic investigation of phosphorus-based flame-retardant (PFR) systems in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) is presented. The effect of various PFRs, combinations thereof and influence of different synergists is studied in terms of fire and mechanical performance, as well as toxicity of resulting ABS. Sustainable flame-retardant systems with a promising effect on the fire-retardant properties of ABS are identified: A combination of aluminum diethylphosphinate and ammonium polyphosphate is shown to exhibit superior flame-retardant properties in ABS compared to other studied PFRs and PFR combinations. Among a variety of studied potential synergists for this system, a grade of expandable graphite with a high-initiation temperature and a molybdenum-based smoke suppressant show the most promising effect, leading to a significant reduction of the peak heat release rate as well as the smoke production rate. Compared to current state-of-the-art brominated flame-retardant for ABS, the identified flame-retardant systems reduce the maximum smoke production rate by 70% and the peak heat release rate by 40%. However, a significant reduction of the impact performance of the resulting ABS is identified, which requires further investigation.

  • 12.
    Bahrami, Soheila
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zeinali, Davood
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    The sustainability challenge of product information quality in the design and construction of facades: lessons from the Grenfell Tower fire2023In: Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, ISSN 2046-6099, E-ISSN 2046-6102, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 488-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper explores the quality and flow of facade product information and the capabilities for avoiding the risk of facade fires early in the design process. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative case study using the process tracing method is conducted in two stages. First, a thematic analysis of reports and literature identified two categories for the problems that caused fast fire spread across the Grenfell Tower facade. This enabled classifying the identified problems into four stages of a facade life cycle: product design and manufacturing, procurement, facade design and construction. Second, the capabilities for avoiding the problems were explored by conducting in-depth interviews with 18 experts in nine countries, analyzing design processes and designers' expertise and examining the usability of three digital interfaces in providing required information for designing fire-safe facades. Findings: The results show fundamental flaws in the quality of facade product information and usability of digital interfaces concerning fire safety. These flaws, fragmented design processes and overreliance on other specialists increase the risk of design defects that cause fast fire spread across facades. Practical implications: The findings have implications for standardization of building product information, digitalization in industrialized construction and facade design management. Originality/value: This research adds to the body of knowledge on sustainability in the built environment. It is the first study to highlight the fundamental problem of facade product information, which requires urgent attention in the rapid transition toward digital and industrialized construction. © 2022, Soheila Bahrami and Davood Zeinali.

  • 13.
    Bergius, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Comparison of two test methodologies for fire testing of façade system2023Report (Other academic)
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  • 14.
    Blom, Joel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Stöd för revidering av brandskyddshandbok med riktlinjer för brandskydd för fordon och maskiner i undermarksanläggningar2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Supportive report with suggestions at revision of GRAMKO mining guidelines regarding fire suppression systems in mining vehicles

    A need has been identified to revise swedish minings guidelines BRANDSKYDD I GRUV- OCH BERGANLÄGGNINGAR Bilaga 1-FORDON BRANDSKYDDSKONTROLL dated 2016 as SBF 127 has been revised in 2021. SBF 127:17 has been revised on crucial points regarding the installation of automatic extinguishing systems in engine compartments. The transition rules for extinguishing systems according to previous editions of SBF 127 expire on 31-12-2023. The work has also included a review of how other needed revisions in the same appendix can be handled. A proposal for how extinguishing systems according to SBF 127:17 can be applied for fire protection of vehicles with Li-ion batteries that are used in underground facilities has been elaborated. Recommendations of additional measures that may need to be implemented to achieve a reasonable fire protection of these vehicles and machines is included. This project has been financed by TUSC.

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  • 15.
    Boddaert, S.
    et al.
    CSTB, France .
    Bonomo, P
    SUPSI, Switzerland .
    Eder, G
    OFI, Austria .
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ishii, H
    LIXIL Corporation, Japan .
    Kim, J-T
    Kongju National University, Republic of Korea .
    Ko, Y
    National Research Council Canada, Canada .
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olano, X
    Tecnalia, Spain .
    Parolini, F
    SUPSI, Switzerland .
    Qi, D
    Université de Sherbrooke, Canada .
    Shabunko, V
    SERIS, Singapore .
    Slooff, L
    TNO, Netherlands .
    Stølen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Valencia, D
    Tecnalia, Spain .
    Villa, S
    TNO, Netherlands .
    Wilson, H R
    Fraunhofer, Germany .
    Yang, R
    RMIT, Australia.
    Zang, Y
    RMIT, Australia.
    Fire safety of BIPV: International mapping of accredited and R&D facilities in the context of codes and standards 20232023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of Task 15 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to create an enabling framework to accelerate the penetration of BIPV products in the global market of renewables, resulting in an equal playing field for BIPV products, BAPV products and regular building envelope components, respecting mandatory issues, aesthetic issues, reliability issues, and financial issues.

    Subtask E of Task 15 is focused on pre-normative international research on BIPV characterisation methods and activity E.3 is dedicated to fire safety of BIPV modules and installations.

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  • 16.
    Bram, Staffan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Burgén, Julia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Guidelines for crew-centered fire safety design: LASH FIRE guidelines2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing an onboard fire is a time sensitive process where smooth action and collaboration amongst the crew is key to good outcomes. These actions and interactions, however, are heavily influenced by ship design. Information that is difficult to collect, systems that create confusion and disturbances in the bridge environment are all factors that may lead to delays, and ultimately, to an aggravated fire scenario.

    Fire safety design is often treated as a purely technical issue, with a focus on technical performance and rule compliance. But when a fire occurs, gaining control requires correct and timely actions from the crew. Providing the crew with the right tools for this job – purposefully designing onboard environments, systems and tools according to their needs – is an underused and powerful approach to fire safety. This guide sets out from an activity-centered perspective, that is, a strong emphasis on what the crew needs to do in the event of fire, and how those actions can be supported. The purpose of this guide is to show how such an approach can be applied in the early phases of a ship newbuild project.

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    ”Requirements worksheet”
  • 17.
    Bram, Staffan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Burgén, Julia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Evakuering av kustnära fartyg i en automatiserad framtid2023Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den kustnära färjetrafiken är en tacksam miljö för att testa nya automationslösningar. Här finns många fartyg som trafikerar relativt lugna vatten och där bemanningen redan idag är begränsad till en eller två personer. Men förändringar i teknik och bemanning kommer också kräva nya perspektiv i säkerhetsarbetet. I projektet SPECTRUM har besättningens roll vid en nödevakuering undersökts och jämförts med olika automationsscenarier för kustnära färjetrafik. Resultatet pekar ut områden där fortsatt forskning och utveckling är nödvändig för att säkerställa att en evakuering av ett fartyg kan genomföras med så goda förutsättningar som möjligt - om bemanningen reduceras, yrkesroller förändras eller om besättningen ersätts med automationslösningar.

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  • 18.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Engineering methods for structural fire design of wood buildings – structural integrity during a full natural fire2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural collapse as a result of fire is rare, but it can, especially in case of high rise buildings, lead to high property loss. For buildings with a risk of high financial damages, such as tall buildings, there may be a need to show that the building can withstand a complete natural fire without structural collapse, by e.g. using simulation and calculation methods. Such methods and guidance on how to use these are available for structures made of concrete and steel. Hereby, the structure is assessed against design fire exposures which are expected in a potential fire of the specific building or building design. However, such methods and guidance on how to use them is lacking for tall timber buildings. The risk of collapse is dependent on the fire exposure and properties of the structure. When timber is the structural material, the structure can have an influence on the fire exposure as timber can contribute to the fire as fuel. Therefore, successful structural design methods should include the contribution of timber to the fuel of the fire.

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  • 19.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings – Phase 2: Task 4 – Engineering Methods2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent architectural trends include the design and construction of tall buildings with visible structural members comprised of mass timber. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is such a mass timber material and is increasingly used for tall buildings because of a combination of advantages regarding its structural performance, low environmental impact and more. As timber is a combustible material, CLT can become involved in the fire if it is not protected against the fire. Previous tests have shown that the contribution of the timber possibly leads to sustained fires that do not burn out, because of failure of the base layer of gypsum boards, debonding of CLT lamellas (delamination) or due to an excess of unprotected timber. If it cannot be assumed that the fire brigade or sprinkler activation will suppress a fire, it can be needed to design for burn-out without successful fire suppression. Engineering methods to limit the impact of gypsum failure, delamination and an excess of exposed timber are needed. Additionally, a method for structural design for CLT structures considering natural fires is needed. This report proposes and evaluates pragmatic design methods using parametric design fires. The methods using parametric design fires can only be valid if delamination and failure of the base layer of gypsum boards are avoided. Therefore, an additional method to predict gypsum fall-off is presented. A method to avoid delamination is presented in other work. The parametric fire design methods proposed, resulted in conservative predictions of the damage of exposed CLT and conservative predictions of the occurrence of gypsum board fall-off. Parametric design fires can be used for structural predictions of the timber building exposed to fire using recently developed methods.

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  • 20.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Dagenais, Christian
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings – Phase 2: Task 5 – Experimental Study of Delamination of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) in Fire2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent architectural trends include the design and construction of tall buildings with visible structural members comprised of mass timber. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is such a material and is increasingly used for tall buildings because of a combination of advantages regarding its structural performance, low environmental impact and more. As timber is a combustible material, CLT can become involved in the fire at locations where it is not protected against the fire. In that case, the CLT contributes to the fuel load of the fire and has an influence on the fire dynamics. Recent compartment fire tests have shown that bond line failures within cross-laminated timber caused by fire can result in sustained fires that do not extinguish naturally. Due to weakening of the bond line, glued lamellas of the exposed layer of the CLT can delaminate, which can result in a sudden exposure of cold timber to the high temperatures of a fire. This delamination results, therefore, in an increased combustion of exposed timber, and was previously shown to be the cause of continuous fully developed fires and fires that re-intensify after a period of decay. The study presented in this report aimed to (1) determine whether delamination in compartment fires can be avoided by using robust adhesives and (2) to assess the capability of a small scale test method to identify robust adhesives that do not lead to delamination of CLT in fires. The study involved a replication of fire conditions recorded in a recent compartment fire test performed earlier for this research project on Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings. These fire conditions were replicated in an intermediate scale furnace test with an exposed CLT specimen. The fire temperatures, oxygen concentration, incident radiant heat flux, CLT temperatures, charring rate and times of delamination resulting from the intermediate scale tests were similar to those of the compartment test, if the same CLT product was used in both specimens. It was shown that some CLT specimens made with other adhesives do not delaminate in the same conditions. The capability of a small scale Bunsen burner test to identify non-delaminating and delaminating adhesives was assessed. A comparative study showed that there is a good correspondence between results of the intermediate scale furnace test and the small scale Bunsen burner test.

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  • 21.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hopkin, Danny
    OFR Consultants, UK.
    Emberley, Richard
    California Polytechnic State University, USA.
    Wade, Colleen
    Fire Research Group, New Zealand.
    Timber Structures2021In: International Handbook of Structural Fire Engineering / [ed] LaMalva, Kevin; Hopkin, Danny, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2021, p. 235-322Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines structural fire engineering considerations that are specific to timber, which is a relatively emerging construction material for large engineered buildings. First, thermal and mechanical properties of timber at elevated temperatures are discussed. Second, failure modes specific to timber structures (e.g., adhesive debonding) are examined. Lastly, pertinent analysis techniques for structural fire engineering applications involving timber structures are presented. The renaissance of timber as a construction material, allied to its application in less common building forms, has led researchers to map many challenges that should be considered and addressed when seeking to demonstrate that an adequate level of structural fire safety has been achieved when adopting timber. In parallel, new research studies have emerged which fundamentally seek to understand the timber pyrolysis process and its translation to the enclosure fire context. These challenges and the recent prevalence of timber-associated fire research shape the content of this chapter.

  • 22.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Tiso, M
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Parametric fire design – zero-strengthlayers and charring rates2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of fire safety engineering performance based design methods are increasingly used to demonstrate that building designs are safe. However, performance based design is not commonly used for the design of timber structures, as there are not many relevant assessment methods available (Östman et al. 2010). For assessment whether the design of a building meets certain criteria, a design fire scenario is needed. Design fires often describe the temperature throughout a fire and are often based on dimensions, ventilation conditions and the fuel load of the compartment. Parametric fires are such design fires, used for structural calculations corresponding to post-flashover fires in compartments, based on the compartment’s dimensions, ventilation openings, lining materials, and the fuel load. Eurocode 1 (EN1991-1- 2:2004) includes parametric fires. Annex A of Eurocode 5 (EN1995-1-2:2004) offers calculation methods to determine charring rates of timber under parametric fire exposure, which depend mostly on the compartment’s ventilation opening sizes. However, Annex A is not accepted for use in all European countries, as the provided charring rates are questioned. Additionally, there are some parameters missing for calculations of structures exposed to parametric fires, namely: (1) notional charring rates, which take into account an increased char depth at the corners of small crosssections and (2) zero-strength-layers, which take into account a strength reduction of uncharred but damaged wood in the structural member. This paper presents an experimental study performed to determine one-dimensional, notional charring rates and zero-strength-layers corresponding to a range of parametric fire curves.

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  • 23.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Klippel, Michael
    Frangi, Andrea
    Glueline Integrity in Fire2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass timber is an increasingly popular material for large and tall buildings. Such buildings typically have higher consequence classes than buildings of traditional timber construction and have higher fire resistance requirements. Architectural demands pushing towards having large surface areas of visible and exposed wood lead to additional fire safety challenges. Previous research has shown that some mass timber products can exhibit glue line integrity failure when exposed to fire, while other mass timber products are not prone to this phenomenon. In practice, it is important to know whether glue line integrity failure occurs, to be able to suitably perform fire resistance calculations (for example using the upcoming version of Eurocode 5) and to be able to predict the fire exposure and duration of fires in real buildings (needed for a performance-based approach). The research presented in this report studies the suitability of a furnace test for determining whether products exhibit glue line integrity failure or not. The study includes the determination of a conservative test duration, by comparisons with conditions of a statistically severe compartment fire. Furthermore, a round robin study with twelve fire tests in furnaces of different labs at different scales, fired with different fuel types has been performed. For all tests, the specimens were made of a mass timber material that does not exhibit glue line integrity failure. The average mass loss rate per unit of exposed area and the average charring rate were determined and assessment criteria were evaluated. Comparisons of the round robin study results have been made, against those of a specific CLT product that has been shown to maintain glue line integrity in numerous furnace and compartment fire tests and a recommendation of a pass/fail criterion is given for a future classification standard.

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  • 24.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ziethen, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Allbrektsson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    High-Fire-Resistance Glulam Connections for Tall Timber Buildings2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tall timber buildings generally require fire resistance ratings of 90 minutes, 120 minutes or more. The vast majority of fire tested structural timber connections, however, did not reach a fire resistance that was relevant for these buildings. Commonly timber connections between glued laminated timber members comprise of exposed steel fasteners, such as bolts, screws, nails and dowels. However, it has previously been concluded that connections with exposed steel fasteners, generally do not achieve fire resistance ratings of 30 minutes and are, therefore, inadequate to be implemented in tall timber buildings without fire encapsulation. The research project presented in this report consists of four connection fire tests that are designed to achieve structural fire resistance ratings of 90 minutes, using different design strategies. This goal was achieved for all tested column-beam connections. A single test of a moment resisting connection did not lead to a fire resistance rating of 90 minutes, due to timber failure at the smallest cross-section after 86 minutes. The low temperature of the steel fasteners and the limited rotation of the connection, however, suggest that the connection would have been capable of achieving a 90 minutes fire resistance rating if larger beam cross-sections would be used.

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  • 25.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Qvist, Siri
    ARUP, Netherlands.
    van Straalen, IJsbrand
    TNO, Netherlands.
    Wattez, Yvonne
    ARUP, Netherlands.
    Steenbakkers, Pascal
    ARUP, Netherlands.
    Literatuurstudie - Brandveiligheid en Bouwen met Hout2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [nl]

    In opdracht van het Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut (NEN) en in overleg met werkgroep 351 007 00 07 ´Brandveiligheid en bouwen met hout, heeft RISE met medewerking van Arup en TNO een literatuurstudie uitgevoerd. Deze literatuurstudie is stap 1 van meerdere te nemen stappen om antwoord te kunnen geven op motie nr. 28325-220 d.d. 20 april 2021 van de Tweede Kamer waarin wordt geconstateerd dat het Bouwbesluit / Besluit Bouwwerken Leefomgeving nog niet is toegerust op de toenemende toepassing van nieuw of hernieuwd bouwmateriaal, zoals hout, voor nieuwe hoogbouw. Het doel van deze literatuurstudie is specifieke punten te identificeren die aandacht behoeven in de regelgeving om te zorgen voor brandveilige gebouwen waarin veel hout is toegepast. Het onderzoek geeft op basis van literatuur inzicht in nut, achtergronden, noodzaak en relevantie van gebruik van bestaande regelgeving, beoordelingsmethoden en de uitgangspunten daarin. De vervolgstappen op dit rapport omvatten in de literatuurstudie geïdentificeerde punten die aandacht behoeven, waaronder mogelijke aanpassing van de Nederlandse bouwregelgeving en bestaande normen, zoals NEN 6068, NEN 6069 en de Eurocodes 1995-1-2, 1991-1-2 en de in de Eurocode 1995-1-2 aangeduide bepalingsmethode, NEN-EN 13381-7. Uit deze literatuurstudie blijkt onder andere dat: • de huidige brandveiligheidseisen uit het Bouwbesluit / Besluit Bouwwerken Leefomgeving niet zonder meer adequaat zijn voor alle massieve houtconstructies, omdat de huidige prestatie-eisen geen directe relatie kennen met de eventueel verhoogde permanente vuurbelasting; • wanneer de huidige prestatie-eisen uit het Bouwbesluit en BBL worden toegepast voor gebouwen met de nieuwe houten bouwsystemen dan levert dit voor die gebouwen een mogelijke onderschatting van het bereikte veiligheidsniveau, en wordt er mogelijk aan de functionele eisen van het Bouwbesluit en BBL onvoldoende voldaan; • de huidige prestatie-eisen uit het Bouwbesluit / Besluit Brandveiligheid Leefomgeving en bijbehorende bepalingsmethodes (NEN-normen) zijn niet altijd voldoende toegesneden op het beoordelen van nieuwe typen houten bouwsystemen, zoals ‘engineered wood’-producten waaronder CLT (Cross Laminated Timber) en NLT (Nailed laminated timber) en LVL (Laminated veneer lumber). Dit is gerelateerd aan de grotere hoeveelheid brandstof in constructies met deze materialen, waardoor de vuurlast, de brandrisico’s en gevolgen voor de omgeving mogelijk zijn verhoogd. Nader moet worden onderzocht welk deel van de constructie, rekening houdend met repressieve inzet, een bijdrage levert aan de vuurbelasting, intensiteit en de duur van de brand; • het blussen van een brand en de aanvullende brandrisico’s vergen extra inzet, middelen en aandacht van de brandweer voor wat betreft het blussen en volledig doven van smeulende resten in het gebouw (en dus ook in de bouwconstructie); Op basis van de resultaten van het literatuuronderzoek komt de werkgroep tot de conclusie dat de toename van de vuurlast bij houtbouw de brandveiligheid in potentie negatief beïnvloedt. De werkgroep heeft de indruk dat voor gebouwen met een beperkt brandrisico en een beperkte hoeveelheid brandbare bouwmaterialen en hout, en ook met een laag gevolg-risico, de invloed beperkt is en de huidige eisen en bepalingsmethoden mogelijk gehandhaafd kunnen blijven. Voor de overige situaties zullen aanvullende maatregelen of aangepaste bepalingsmethoden moeten worden ontwikkeld, om aanvullende brandrisico’s te beheersen, en/of zullen de eisen en de bepalingsmethodes moeten worden herzien. Om op dit moment aantoonbaar aan de functionele eisen van het Bouwbesluit / Besluit Bouwwerken Leefomgeving te voldoen is een nadere studie op basis van een integrale aanpak, en gebruikmakend van fire safety engineering, nodig. Zowel de op fire safety engineering gebaseerde aanpak als een mogelijke aanscherping van de prestatie-eisen moeten nader worden uitgewerkt.

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  • 26.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hallberg, Emil
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire Safety of CLT Buildings with Ex-posed Wooden Surfaces: Summary Report2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Five real scale compartment fire tests, constructed of CLT slabs and glulam beam and column in accordance with current US product standards, were performed. The compartments had surface areas of exposed mass timber equal to up to two times the area of the floor plan. The 4 hours long tests showed that compartments with such quantities of exposed wood can exhibit continuous decay to hot-spots and embers after flashover. The tests indicate that the presence of two exposed wall surfaces in one corner should be avoided to ensure this.

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  • 27.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Mikkola, Esko
    SAFITS - Statistical Analysis of Fires in Timber Structures2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to changes of regulations and product development among other things, the number of multi-storey buildings of timber frame or heavy timber construction has increased consistently in the last two decades. The use of a combustible materials in the structure and the relatively short history with such buildings, has led to insurance related questions regarding risks of property loss. Studies of damages in real fire incidents, where a fair comparison between the fire performance of modern multi-storey timber buildings is made, were lacking. In this study damage data of fire incidents from the USA, Canada, Sweden, New Zealand were found and analyzed. Using different methods the extent of fire damage or the financial damage was compared for fires in multistorey buildings of timber construction types and fires in multistorey buildings of other construction types. For each database a qualitative assessment of the reliability and the fairness of the comparison was made. Also, a comparison, for which only a limited number of fire incidents was available, was made between damages caused in sprinklered fires and damages caused in non-sprinklered fires. In addition to the comparative study also qualitative analysis of 33 high damage fire incidents in multistorey timber buildings was made. The goal of this assessment was to identify the most important details to prevent high damage fires.

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  • 28.
    Burgén, Julia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Huang, Chen
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Safe and Suitable Firefighting2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of protection for personal protective equipment (PPE) in firefighting is important for Swedish shipowners; they want to be sure that the equipment they provide is sufficiently safe for the types of fires that can occur onboard. Shipowners also want to be updated on risks related to the carriage of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Safety products and equipment used onboard ships with a European flag must be certified in accordance with the Marine Equipment Directive (MED) and follow the regulations in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). For fire suits, this means that they must be certified according to one of three standards listed in MED. Two of these standards cover suits used in special cases, with very intense radiant heat, and should only be worn for short periods. The third standard, EN 469, is the same standard that is referred to the PPE Regulation 2016/42, making EN 469-approved fire suits used among European firefighters ashore. However, EN 469 contains two different performance levels where the lower level is not suitable for protection against risks encountered when fighting fires in enclosures. Based on a user study and a risk assessment for AFVs, a set of suggested changes to MED and SOLAS were prepared, together with a set of recommendations for operators that were found important but not subject for regulations. A ready-to-use quick guide, containing the most important results, has been developed for operators.

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  • 29.
    Bøe, Andreas Sæter
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Friquin, Kathinka Leikanger
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; SINTEF, Norway.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-01 – Exposed ceiling2023In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, article id 103869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposing cross-laminated timber (CLT) structures in buildings is increasingly popular in modern buildings. However, large timber surfaces, window facades, and different geometries can change the fire dynamics in a compartment. The effect of those parameters, therefore, needs to be studied. Two large-scale CLT compartment fire experiments (95 m2) have consequently been performed. The experiments were designed to represent a modern office building with an open-plan space and large window openings. In this experiment, #FRIC-01, the ceiling was exposed. The wood crib fire developed slowly and travelled approximately 1.5 m before the ceiling ignited at 32.5 min. Thereafter the fire spread rapidly across the ceiling and wood crib before it shortly after retracted. Three such cycles of rapid spread followed by a retraction occurred within 13 min, whereby the wood crib fire grew larger for each cycle. After the flames extended through the compartment for the fourth time, the fire remained fully developed. After a short period of intense burning, the CLT self-extinguished while the wood crib fire was still burning. The compartment withstood full burnout, and no reignition occurred despite some delamination and using an adhesive that lacks a demonstrated resistance against glue-line integrity failure. © 2023 The Authors

  • 30.
    Charlier, Marion
    et al.
    ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Luxembourg.
    Vassart, Olivier
    ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Luxembourg.
    Glorieux, Antoine
    ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Luxembourg.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Gamba, Antonio
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Dumont, Fabien
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. RISE.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Xu, Dai
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Nadjai, Ali
    Ulster University, UK.
    Alam, Naveed
    Ulster University, UK.
    TRAFIR: Characterization of TRAvelling FIRes in large compartments2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspection of recent fire events in large compartments reveals them to have a great deal of non-uniformity, they generally burn locally and move across floor plates over a period of time. This phenomenon which generates transient heating of the structure is idealized as “travelling fire”.A first series of tests was launched to define a fire load representative of an office building according to Eurocodes. Additional tests where the fire dynamics were controlled were launched to develop an understanding of the fire exposure to steel structures.Then, a second series of large scale tests were performed in real building dimensions. These tests had no artificial control over the dynamics, which allowed a realistic characterization of the fire. The fire load was identical for all tests, only the openings were modified.CFD numerical models were developed to reproduce the experimental campaign and to launch parametrical analyses. This allowed to provide information concerning the conditions which may lead (or not) to a travelling fire scenario.An analytical model for the characterization of a travelling fire was developed and implemented in a simple calculation tool. It allows to evaluate the fire location, the gas temperatures in the flames, the heat fluxes in the different parts of the compartment and the temperature in a steel member. In addition, the methodology is introduced in the FEM software SAFIR and OpenSees.Ultimately, a design guide was prepared including worked examples which are detailed step-by-step and for which the influence of the inputs on the results is analysed.

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  • 31.
    Cuesta, A.
    et al.
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Alvear, D.
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Carnevale, A.
    CyberEthics Lab, Italy.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Gender and Public Perception of Disasters: A Multiple Hazards Exploratory Study of EU Citizens2022In: Safety, E-ISSN 2313-576X, Vol. 8, no 3, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To explore gender influence on individual risk perception of multiple hazards and personal attitudes towards disaster preparedness across EU citizens. Method: An online survey was distributed to 2485 participants from Spain, France, Poland, Sweden and Italy. The survey was divided into two parts. The first part examined perceived likelihood (L), perceived personal impact (I) and perceived self-efficacy (E) towards disasters due to extreme weather conditions (flood, landslide and storm), fire, earthquake, hazardous materials accidents, and terrorist attacks. The overall risk rating for each specific hazard was measured through the following equation R = (L × I)/E and the resulting scores were brought into the range between 0 and 1. The second part explored people’s reactions to the Pros and Cons of preparedness to compute the overall attitudes of respondents towards preparation (expressed as a ratio between −1 and 1). Results: Although we found gender variations on concerns expressed as the likelihood of the occurrence, personal consequences and self-efficacy, the overall risks were judged significantly higher by females in all hazards (p < 0.01). We also found that, in general, most respondents (both males and females) were in favour of preparedness. More importantly, despite the gender differences in risk perception, there were no significant differences in the attitudes towards preparedness. We found weak correlations between risks perceived and attitudes towards preparedness (rho < 0.20). The intersectional analysis showed that young and adult females perceived higher risks than their gender counterparts at the same age. There were also gender differences in preparedness, i.e., females in higher age ranges are more motivated for preparedness than men in lower age ranges. We also found that risk perception for all hazards in females was significantly higher than in males at the same education level. We found no significant differences between sub-groups in the pros and cons of getting ready for disasters. However, females at a higher level of education have more positive attitudes towards preparedness. Conclusions: This study suggests that gender along with other intersecting factors (e.g., age and education) still shape differences in risk perception and attitudes towards disasters across the EU population. Overall, the presented results policy actions focus on promoting specific DRR policies and practices (bottom-up participatory and learning processes) through interventions oriented to specific target groups from a gender perspective. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 32.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Anerud, Erik
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Pushp, Mohit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    A theoretical evaluation of the impact of the type of reaction on heat production and material losses in biomass piles2023In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-heating during storage of biomass in piles causes material losses, leads to emissions to air, and poses a risk of fire. There are different techniques to assess a biomass material's propensity for self-heating, some of these are briefly reviewed. One of these techniques is isothermal calorimetry, which measures thermal power from materials and produces time-resolved curves. A recently developed and published test standard, ISO 20049-1:2020, describes how the self-heating of pelletized biofuels can be determined by means of isothermal calorimetry and how thermal power and the total heat produced during the test should be measured by isothermal calorimetry. This paper supports interpretation of the result obtained by isothermal calorimetry; the mentioned standard provides examples of peak thermal power and total heat but does not provide any assistance on how the result from isothermal measurements should be interpreted or how the result from measurements on different samples could be compared. This paper addresses the impact of different types of reactions, peak thermal power, total heat released (heat of reaction), activation energy, heat conductivity, and pile size on the temperature development in a generic pile of biomass. This paper addresses important parameters when the result from isothermal calorimetry is evaluated. The most important parameter, with respect to temperature development in large piles, was found to be the total heat released. It was also proposed that safe storage times, that is, the time until a run-away of the temperature in the pile, could be ranked based on the time to the peak thermal power.

  • 33.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Jonasson, Anna
    E.ON., Sweden.
    Vatten RUI, Marius Haakon
    NOAH.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Tekedo, Sweden.
    Östrem, Sofie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Minimering av vätgasrelaterade risker från avfallseldade CFB-pannor2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are operating parameters that affect the hydrogen formation from APC-residues generated in waste fired CFB-boilers. There are also reasons to be careful and take extra consideration to safety aspects in environments where the APC-residue has been exposed to water. It is well known that if the APC-residues generated from waste fired CFB-boilers are exposed to water; hydrogen gas is formed. The overall aim of the project has been to decrease the work environment hazards related to hydrogen formation from these APC-residues. Another aim has also been to increase the general knowledge related to these hydrogen related hazards. This has been accomplished by exploring which operating parameters and general mechanisms that affect the hydrogen formation from the APC-residues. Both total amount of gas formed as well as the velocity of the gas formation has been of interest. The APC-residues used in this project have been from P14 and P15 at the waste-to-energy plant Händelöverket, owned and operated by E.ON. In literature there are almost no publications on the hydrogen gas formation from APC residues generated by waste fired CFB boilers. There are some related to waste fired grate boilers though. Conclusions and theories from literature data must be put together from results regarding similar materials in totally different environments. The experimental results indicate a difference in the hydrogen formation from APCresidues originating from P14 and P15. The bed material used in the boilers is also one of the operational parameters that seems to affect the reactivity of the APCresidue. The introduction of a share of Ilmenite in the bed material seems to have lowered the amount of hydrogen gas formed, alternatively it delayed the formation. Other operational conditions that was considered was a decreased thermal load, lowered amount of ammonia added to reduce NOx, and storage/aging of ash in the NID-reactor while it was not running on full capacity. There are indications that these conditions also affect the reactivity, however there are too few data available to make specific conclusions. In general, it seems difficult to control the reactivity of the APC-residue while keeping normal production in the plant. In fouling samples, from different parts of the boilers, levels of metallic aluminium fully comparable to those in the APC-residue were detected. Thus, there is a significant risk of hydrogen formation when using wet cleaning methods during maintenance stops. Proper ventilation and education are two of the recommendations to mitigate the risks. A potential logistic chain for APC-residues, based on ship transports, was risk assessed. Since the hydrogen formation differs greatly between different ash deliveries, an important conclusion was that it is hazardous to generalise the results, especially by using average hydrogen formation rates. Another conclusion was that consideration must be made for the fact that the hydrogen formation might be delayed and might not arise until the APC-residue is treated mechanically

  • 34.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Prediction of the self-ignition temperature in lagging fires by means of isothermal calorimetry2023In: Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, ISSN 0950-4230, E-ISSN 1873-3352, Vol. 83, p. 105010-105010, article id 105010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under certain circumstances, contamination of a porous insulation material by a combustible liquid may result in a lagging/insulation fire. In the current study, a method based on isothermal calorimetry and modelling to estimate the risk of a lagging fire, or a maximum insulation thickness for a certain system temperature, is presented. The studied system was a combination of mineral wool and rapeseed oil. Full-scale tests were performed to determine suitable ignition criteria and to validate the results from the isothermal calorimetry tests and modelling. We contaminated the lagging using two methods – a direct method and a solvent method. These methods were evaluated in the full-scale tests. The solvent method resulted in more repeatable results than the direct method, where the contaminant was poured on the insulation. Using the calorimetric measurements, we estimated the parameters for the kinetic equation. This result was used to estimate the self-ignition temperature of contaminated lagging installed on a pipe. We found that a temperature increase of 40 °C was a reasonable ignition criterion when modelling.

  • 35.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Mallin, Tove
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Bobert, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire Test Performance of Eleven PFAS-Free Class B Firefighting Foams Varying Fuels, Admixture, Water Types and Foam Generation Techniques2022In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 1639-1665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The firefighting performance of eleven PFAS-free firefighting foams was evaluated using different fuels (Jet A1, commercial heptane and diesel) and types of water (freshwater and synthetic sea water). Moreover, different firefighting foam generation techniques and application methods were evaluated. The firefighting foams were generated as aspirated foams or as compressed air foams (CAFs). The results for CAF showed a higher performance, with respect to extinction time and burn-back resistance, compared to the foam generated using a UNI 86 nozzle. The CAF was not optimised, indicating a further potential of this foam generation technique. The results indicate that the time to fire knockdown decreases with decreasing foam viscosity. The heat flux was shown to be small, although the entire fuel surface was involved in the fire. The tests showed a dependence on fuel type; different products performed differently depending on the fuel. Tests using sea water showed that addition of salt to the foam solution generally prolonged the extinction time, although for one of the firefighting foams a shorter extinction time was observed. Out of the eleven evaluated PFAS-free products there was no product that outperformed the rest. None of the products in the study met the fire test performance requirements in all the referenced standards. Instead, the products seem to have different niches where they perform best e.g., with different types of fuel or water.

  • 36.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Sjöblom, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Evaluation of Detection Principles and Challenges in Early Detection of Thermal Runaway in Batteries2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of battery electrical vehicles (BEVs) carried as cargo on ro-ro ships is increasing. The possibility of thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery makes BEVs a different fire risk compared to internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). One of the challenges that arise is how to detect a thermal runaway early. Current detection systems in ro-ro spaces generally consist of smoke and/or heat detection. To identify potential techniques and challenges for detection of a thermal runaway, as early as possible, tests with batteries and detectors are needed. Tests with one battery cell were performed inside an ISO container (with almost negligible ventilation) as well as in an open room with moderate ventilation (14 air changes per hour). Point-type detectors (two smoke and heat detectors, one CO detector, and one LEL detector), thermal imaging, video analytics, and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) were evaluated in the tests. A total of 14 tests were conducted. The detectors were evaluated in different positions relative to the battery cell and comparative tests with wood-sticks were performed to investigate the detectors’ ability to detect a more conventional source of fire. Based on the results, it can be concluded that early detection of thermal runaway in batteries is possible in principle. However, detection is a matter of circumstances e.g., ventilation, gas/smoke production and the location of the detector(s). The result indicates that detection in a small and confined space is relatively manageable, but detection in a large and open space could be more of a challenge. If the gas/smoke is cooled down it may sink and spread along the floor/deck, instead of rising and spreading along the ceiling. This would be a challenge with current smoke detectors installed in the ceiling. Shielding may be a problem, especially with LIDAR and thermal imaging. Future research should address full-scale tests, and it is recommended to include Optical Gas Imaging (OGI) as a mean of detection.

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  • 37.
    Dai, Xu
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh, UK; Fire Engineering Buro Happold, UK.
    Gamba, Antonio
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Liu, Chang
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal Global R&D, Luxembourg.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    An engineering CFD model for fire spread on wood cribs for travelling fires2022In: Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN 0965-9978, E-ISSN 1873-5339, Vol. 173, article id 103213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature heterogeneity due to fire in large open-plan office compartments is closely associated with fire spread behaviour and has been historically limited to experimental investigations using timber cribs. This study explores the ability of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, specifically the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), to reproduce the results of full-scale tests involving fire spread over timber cribs for continuous fuel-beds. Mesh schemes are studied, with a fine mesh over the crib and 2 × 2 cells in the wood stick cross-section by default, this being relaxed in the surrounding regions to enhance computational efficiency. The simple pyrolysis model considers the charring phase and moisture. In application to the TRAFIR-Liège LB7 test, this calibrated “stick-by-stick” representation shows a good agreement for interrelated parameters of heat release rate, fire spread, gas phase temperature, and burn-away, a set of agreements which has not been demonstrated in previous studies. Fire spread shows relatively high sensitivities to: heat of combustion, ignition temperature, thermal inertia, radiation fraction, heat release rate per unit area, and the fuel load density. An approximately linear regression was found between the different fire modes and the thermal exposures, with “travelling” (and decaying) fires characterised by heat fluxes associated with the fire plume, while the growing fires were associated with proportionally higher heat fluxes on the horizontal surfaces of the sticks, in conditions where these receive more pre-heating. The trends in the overall HRR are more dependent on the fire spread rates than variations in the stick burning rates. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 38.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Nordic Fire and Safety Days 2022 – Book of Abstracts2022Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
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  • 39.
    Degerman, Helene
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Linköping University, SWeden.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Conceptualising learning from resilient performance: A scoping literature review2024In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 115, article id 104165Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilient performance is a crucial characteristic of complex socio-technical systems, enabling them to sustain essential functionality during changing or stressful conditions. Resilience Engineering (RE), a sub-field of safety research, focuses on this perspective of resilience. RE emphasises its “cornerstone model”, presenting the RE system goals of “anticipating, monitoring, responding and learning”. The cornerstone of learning remains fragmented and undertheorized in the existing literature. This paper aims to enrich RE research and its practical implications by developing a nuanced and comprehensive understanding of the role of learning from resilient performance. To achieve this aim, a scoping literature review was conducted to assess how learning is conceptualised in the RE literature and the theoretical foundations on which previous work rest. The main findings show that RE researchers view learning as the process of understanding the system, sharing knowledge, and re-designing system properties. The application of established learning theories is limited. This paper contributes to research by proposing an organisational process for the RE cornerstone of learning, paving the way for deeper discussions in future studies about learning from resilient performance within complex socio-technical systems. 

  • 40.
    Dominguez, Armand
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Borggren, Jesper
    Beamonics AB, Sweden.
    Xu, Can
    Beamonics AB, Sweden.
    Otxoterena, Paul
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Leffler, Tomas
    Vattenfall AB, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bood, Joakim
    Lund University, Sweden.
    A compact Scheimpflug lidar imaging instrument for industrial diagnostics of flames2023In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 34, no 7, article id 075901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scheimpflug lidar is a compact alternative to traditional lidar setups. With Scheimpflug lidar it is possible to make continuous range-resolved measurements. In this study we investigate the feasibility of a Scheimpflug lidar instrument for remote sensing in pool flames, which are characterized by strong particle scattering, large temperature gradients, and substantial fluctuations in particle distribution due to turbulence. An extinction coefficient can be extracted using the information about the transmitted laser power and the spatial extent of the flame. The transmitted laser power is manifested by the intensity of the ‘echo’ from a hard-target termination of the beam located behind the flame, while the information of the spatial extent of the flame along the laser beam is provided by the range-resolved scattering signal. Measurements were performed in heptane and diesel flames, respectively. © 2023 The Author(s). 

  • 41.
    El Houssami, M.
    et al.
    Efectis, France.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Drean, V.
    Efectis, France.
    Guillaume, E.
    Efectis, France.
    Hofmann-Böllinghaus, A.
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Germany.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire safety of interior materials of buses2023In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides an analysis on the fire safety of passengers and the fire protection of coaches and buses. A brief review of major bus fire incidents, an overview of current regulations in Europe, and their limitations are presented. The study finds that the current small-scale fire test methods described in UN ECE Reg No. 118 need to be replaced by test methods that can assess the reaction to fire of materials when exposed to ignition sources of varying sizes. To address these shortcomings, the study proposed an expert recommendation to update the material fire safety requirements and testing for buses. Additional measures are proposed, derived from objectives and strategies applied in other transport sectors, and can be tested through existing European and international standards, which are widely used by several industries. These measures aim to extend the time with tenable conditions for a safe evacuation in case of fire, reduce the degree of damage to buses, reduce the risk for fast and excessive thermal exposure on modern energy carriers needed for a more sustainable transport sector. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 42.
    England, Paul
    et al.
    EFT Consulting, Australia.
    Barber, David
    Arup, Australia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Dagenais, Christian
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    De Sanctis, Gianluca
    Basler and Hofmann, Switzerland.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Pau, Dennis
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Wade, Colleen
    Fire Research Group, New Zealand.
    Performance-based design and risk assessment: Chapter 112022In: Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings : Global Design Guide / [ed] Andrew Buchanan & Birgit Östman, CRC Press, 2022, p. 369-392Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of the application of performance-based approaches to the fire safety design of timber buildings. Performancebased design methods are relevant for the design of tall timber buildings and other timber buildings that vary from accepted prescriptive solutions. Performance-based design approaches are commonly categorised as deterministic or probabilistic methods and should be applied in accordance with the applicable regulations, building codes and standards. This chapter provides references to detailed information that should be consulted when undertaking performance-based designs.

  • 43.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Organisational learning without fire?: Risk analyses as a basis for developing crisis management capabilities2023In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 163, article id 106144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk analyses are seen as a vital tool for crisis prevention and developing capability to respond to future crises. In Sweden, all municipalities are required to perform risk and vulnerability analyses as a basis for their crisis management work. The aim of this paper is to study how and why a risk and vulnerability analysis can become a part of an organisational process for learning how to prevent and prepare for crises. This is done through a study of civil servants in Swedish municipalities and county administrative boards about how they develop and use risk and vulnerability analysis for creating a crisis management capability within the organisation. It is shown that the results from risk and vulnerability analyses normally are not transferred within or beyond the municipalities and that the learning within the organisation and within society is thus limited. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 44.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Alirani, Gertrud
    Johansson, Roine
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Policy Development in Swedish Crisis Management: Restructuring of Fire and Rescue Services2023In: The Modern Guide to the Multiple Streams Framework / [ed] Zahariadis, Nikolaos; Herweg, Nicole; Zohlnhöfer, Reimut; Petridou, Evangelia, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd , 2023Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Danielsson, Erna
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Framing volunteers identifying and integrating volunteers in crises response operations2022In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 74, p. 102912-102912, article id 102912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study takes the perspective of civil society and aims to examine how different volunteers are framed both by others and themselves, and how terms such as ‘mixed blessing’ (used to describe volunteers as both a blessing and a curse) affect how volunteers are perceived during a crisis. Our objective is to further understand the consequences this may entail regarding how voluntary resources are integrated and requisitioned. Interviews were conducted with volunteers involved in the response to a large forest fire in Västmanland, Sweden in 2014. The results show four different types of volunteers, which we have classified as: the caring neighbourhood volunteers, pre-organised emergency volunteers, non-emergency professionals, and unneeded volunteers. Their contribution in a crisis is related to three areas: when they arrive at the scene (time), what resources they bring (resources), and whether or not pre-established arrangements to integrate them into the operation exist (structure). The study results indicate the need to develop and apply various strategies for efficient use of different volunteers' resources to ensure crisis preparedness.

  • 46.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Heidenreich, Sara
    Baron, Nina
    How to improve climate change adaptation in rural areas of the Nordic Region2023In: Fast Track to Vision 2030, Oslo: Nordforsk , 2023Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Fink, Gerhard
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Jockwer, Robert
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Šušteršič, Iztok
    Innorenew CoE, Slovenia.
    Stepinac, Mislav
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Palma, Pedro
    Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Bedon, Chiara
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Casagrande, Daniele
    National Research Council of Italy, Italy.
    Franke, Steffen
    Bern University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    D’Arenzo, Giuseppe
    University of Kassel, Germany.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Viau, Christian
    Carleton University, Canada.
    HOLISTIC DESIGN OF TALLER TIMBER BUILDINGS - COST ACTION HELEN (CA20139)2023In: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2023), 2023, p. 1001-1008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the worldwide construction sector being responsible for one third of carbon dioxide emissions, as well as forty percent of the world’s energy use and waste production, a shift to sustainable and renewable construction techniques is crucial. Engineered timber, a champion of sustainable construction materials, has evolved to a stage that enables the construction of not only family housing but also taller buildings so far commonly built from concrete or steel. Designing taller timber buildings made is more demanding than their concrete and steel counterparts. Whereas different design aspects (architectural, structural, fire safety, acoustics, etc.) of concrete buildings can work almost independently, the design of taller timber buildings should be performed with intensive collaboration among the design teams. It is therefore crucial to address taller multi-storey timber buildings from a collaborative and interdisciplinary perspective, considering static, dynamic, fire, acoustic, human health, and other aspects in parallel and not in isolation. Only through interdisciplinary analysis and interaction can a set of holistic design guidelines be developed that will enable the safe construction of taller timber buildings, as well as respect human wellbeing demands. In this paper, the COST Action CA20139 will be presented and the main aims will be discussed.

  • 48.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fredagsvik, Nora
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway.
    Nergård, Annette
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway.
    Lie, Anniken
    Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste IKS, Norway.
    Effekten av Bjørnis - Studie av effekten av Bjørnis på brannsikkerheten i norske husstander2024Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    I denne FRIC studien er den forebyggende effekten av Bjørnis for brannsikkerheten i norske husstander studert. Hovedkonklusjonen er at Bjørnis har ført til en tydelig og dokumenterbar forbedring av brannsikkerheten i norske hjem. Studien er utført som en del av prosjekt 4.3 Brannsikkerhetstiltak for boliger i FRIC, i samarbeid med Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis. Det er også et webinar på norsk og engelsk som presenterer studien, opptak av webinaret vil bli publisert her: https://fric.no/publikasjoner.

    | In this FRIC study, the effect of the fire mascot Bjørnis on the fire safety in Norwegian households is studied. The main conclusion is that Bjørnis has led to a clear and documentable improvement of the fire safety in Norwegian homes. This study is a part of project 4.3 Fire safety measures for dwellings in FRIC, in collaboration with the Bjørnis Foundation. There is also a webinar in Norwegian and English presenting the study, the webinar recording will be published at: https://fric.no/en/publications.

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  • 49.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Stölen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    EBOB – Solcelleinstallasjoner på bygg: Brannspredning og sikkerhet for brannvesen2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    EBOB - Solar cell installations on buildings. Fire spread and safety for fire services.

    The aim of the project has been to answer the following four research questions: 1. How do wind speed and air gap size affect the fire development in the cavity between the solar cell module and the underlying roof structure, and how do these factors affect the extent of damage to the underlying roof structure? 2. How do solar cell modules affect a fire on a realistic, Norwegian, pitched roof? 3. What work is ongoing in Europe and internationally to developing test methods for fire technical documentation of photovoltaic modules, and how should this be implemented in Norway? 4. How should fire service personnel be secured in their work when the fire includes solar cell installation? In this research question, larger installations beyond residential houses and detached houses are also relevant, including larger buildings, flat roofs and BIPV. To answer research questions 1 and 2, a total of 29 experiments were performed with fire spread in the cavity behind solar cell modules on pitched roof surfaces. The experiments were performed at RISE Fire Research's laboratory in Trondheim in 2021. This main report (RISE report 2022:82) summarizes the entire project, and additional details from the experiments performed are given in a separate technical report (RISE report 2022:83). The main findings from the experiments are that solar cell modules mounted parallel to the roof surface on pitched roofs can affect the fire dynamics of a fire on the roof surface. It was found that both the length of the damaged area on the roof and the temperature rise inwards in the roof (below the chipboard) increased when the distance between the simulated solar cell module and the roof surface decreased. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a relation between the size of the gap between the roof surface and the solar cell module, and how large initial fire is needed for the fire to spread. A larger distance between the roof surface and the solar module requires a larger initial fire for the fire to spread. The temperature increase inwards in the roof structure was not large enough in the experiments performed to pose a danger of immediate fire spreading inwards in the structure. Work is ongoing internationally on the development of test methods for fire technical documentation of solar cell modules. This work has so far not resulted in new standards or procedures that can be implemented in Norway. Information has been found from various guidelines and reports on what equipment and expertise the fire service needs to secure their efforts. It is important that the fire service has sufficient knowledge about the working principle of a solar cell installation, so that they understand that parts of the installation can conduct electricity, even if the switch-off switch is activated. The fire service must also be given training in how to handle a fire in a building with a solar cell installation, as well as what protective equipment and tools are needed. The answers from the various fire services to a questionnaire show that solar cell installations rarely are included in the risk and vulnerability analyses (ROS analyses). As a consequence, they do not currently have good enough training and knowledge about handling fires in buildings with solar cell installations. The questionnaire also shows that it seems somewhat unclear to the fire service what responsibility they have in the event of a fire in solar cell installations. This should be clarified, and in cases where solar cell installations pose an increased risk, the fire service must be provided with resources so that they have the right equipment, the right competence, and the right staff to handle such fires.

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  • 50.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Vold, Mari
    TBRT Trøndelag Fire and Rescue Service, Norway.
    Fjellanger, Inger Johanne
    DSB Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection, Norway.
    Communication of fire safety2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is made by Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC). The purpose is to find the best ways to communicate knowledge about fire and fire safety to different target groups and to learn from those working with communication of fire safety in Norway today. These include local fire services, organizations like the Norwegian Fire Protection Association (Norsk Brannvernforening), insurance companies and local, regional and national authorities. The study poses three main questions. Information is collected through a survey which 40 Norwegian fire services answered, through dialogue with relevant stakeholdersin meetings and in a webinar, and through the authors’ own experiences in their own organizations.

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