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  • 1.
    Abrahamsen, Rune
    et al.
    Moelven Limtre, Norway.
    Bjertnaes, Magne A.
    Sweco, Norway.
    Bouillot, Jacques
    Eiffage, France.
    Brank, Bostjan
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Cabaton, Lionel
    Arbonis, France.
    Crocetti, Roberto
    Moelven, Sweden.
    Flamand, Olivier
    CSTB, France.
    Garains, Fabien
    Eiffage, France.
    Gavric, Igor
    InnoRenew, Slovenia.
    Germain, Olivier
    Galeo, France.
    Hahusseau, Ludwig
    Eiffage, France.
    Hameury, Stephane
    CSTB, France.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Moelven, Sweden.
    Ao, Wai Kei
    University of Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Kurent, Blaz
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Malo, Kjell
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Manthey, Manuel
    CSTB, France.
    Nåvik, Petter
    Sweco, Norway.
    Pavic, Alex
    University of Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Perez, Fernando
    Smith and Wallwork, United Kingdom.
    Rönnquist, Anders
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Stamatopoulos, Haris
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Sustersic, Iztok
    InnoRenew, Slovenia.
    Tulebekova, Salue
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Dynamic Response of Tall Timber Buildings Under Service Load: The DynaTTB Research Program2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind-induced dynamic excitation is becoming a governing design action determin-ing size and shape of modern Tall Timber Buildings (TTBs). The wind actions generate dynamic loading, causing discomfort or annoyance for occupants due to the perceived horizontal sway – i.e. vibration serviceability failure. Although some TTBs have been instrumented and meas-ured to estimate their key dynamic properties (natural frequencies and damping), no systematic evaluation of dynamic performance pertinent to wind loading has been performed for the new and evolving construction technology used in TTBs. The DynaTTB project, funded by the Forest Value research program, mixes on site measurements on existing buildings excited by heavy shakers, for identification of the structural system, with laboratory identification of building elements mechanical features coupled with numerical modelling of timber structures. The goal is to identify and quantify the causes of vibration energy dissipation in modern TTBs and pro-vide key elements to FE modelers.

    The first building, from a list of 8, was modelled and tested at full scale in December 2019. Some results are presented in this paper. Four other buildings will be modelled and tested in spring 2020.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsen, Rune
    et al.
    Moelven Limtre, Norway.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tulebekova, Saule
    NTNU, Norway.
    DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF TALL TIMBER BUILDINGS UNDER SERVICE LOAD – RESULTS FROM THE DYNATTB RESEARCH PROGRAM2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind-induced dynamic excitation is a governing design action determining size and shape of modern Tall Timber Buildings (TTBs). The wind actions generate dynamic loading, causing discomfort or annoyance for occupants due to the perceived horizontal sway, i.e. vibration serviceability problem. Although some TTBs have been instrumented and measured to estimate their key dynamic properties (eigenfrequencies, mode shapes and damping), no systematic evaluation of dynamic performance pertinent to wind loading had been performed for the new and evolving construction technologies used in TTBs. The DynaTTB project, funded by the ForestValue research program, mixed on site measurements on existing buildings excited by mass inertia shakers (forced vibration) and/or the wind loads (ambient vibration), for identification of the structural system, with laboratory identification of building elements mechanical features, coupled with numerical modelling of timber structures. The goal is to identify and quantify the causes of vibration energy dissipation in modern TTBs and provide key elements to finite element models. This paper presents an overview of the results of the project and the proposed Guidelines for design of TTBs in relation to their dynamic properties.

  • 3.
    Airaksinen, Miimu
    et al.
    Finnish Association of Civil Engineers RIL, Finland .
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Kurnitski, Jarek
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia; Aalto-University, Finland.
    Hvidberg, Staffan
    Isolergrund, Sweden .
    Highly insulated crawl spaces with controlled minimal ventilation - Proof of concept by field measurements2020In: E3S Web of Conferences. Volyme 172, 2020., EDP Sciences , 2020, article id 07004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In current practices crawl spaces are typically ventilated with outdoor air. This leads very often to high relative humidity especially in the beginning of the summer, which can be problematic if the excess humidity cannot be ventilated efficiently enough. This paper introduces a crawl space concept where the crawl space is highly insulated and traditional ventilation openings are replaced by minimal mechanical exhaust ventilation set by pressure difference with the aim to prevent potential pollutants to penetrate indoors through the base floor. The concept that has been developed based on the simulation study is tested in this study with field measurements in four single family houses. Continuous measurements of relative humidity and temperature in crawl spaces and outdoor air were running more than one year in each building. The results revealed that all the crawl spaces had very low relative humidity, mostly below 75% and for very short periods close to 80% even though some of the buildings were new and construction phase moisture was drying out. The results revealed that the crawl space concept studied provided an ultimate moisture safety and can be recommended for all buildings with wooden floor. © The Authors

  • 4.
    Allsopp, Benjamin
    et al.
    Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Johnson, Simon
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Baistow, Ian
    Solar Capture Technologies, UK.
    Sanderson, Gavin
    Solar Capture Technologies, UK.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Bingham, Paul
    Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Towards improved cover glasses for photovoltaic devices2020In: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 28, p. 1187-1206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the solar energy industry to increase its competitiveness, there is a global drive to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) module assembly is material-demanding, and the cover glass constitutes a significant proportion of the cost. Currently, 3-mm-thick glass is the predominant cover material for PV modules, accounting for 10%–25% of the total cost. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of cover glasses for PV modules and present our recent results for improvement of the glass. These improvements were demonstrated in terms of mechanical, chemical and optical properties by optimizing the glass composition, including addition of novel dopants, to produce cover glasses that can provide (i) enhanced UV protection of polymeric PV module components, potentially increasing module service lifetimes; (ii) re-emission of a proportion of the absorbed UV photon energy as visible photons capable of being absorbed by the solar cells, thereby increasing PV module efficiencies and (iii) successful laboratory-scale demonstration of proof of concept, with increases of 1%–6% in Isc and 1%–8% in Ipm. Improvements in both chemical and crack resistance of the cover glass were also achieved through modest chemical reformulation, highlighting what may be achievable within existing manufacturing technology constraints. © 2020 The Authors.

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  • 5.
    Amiandamhen, Stephen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Adl-Zarrabi, Bijan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yin, Haiyan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Recycling sawmilling wood chips, biomass combustion residues, and tyre fibres into cement-bonded composites: Properties of composites and life cycle analysis2021In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 297, article id 123781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the properties and sustainability of cement-bonded composites containing industrial residues such as wood chips, tyre fibres and biomass combustion residues, i.e. bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA). The effect of cement-to-raw material (wood/tyre fibre) ratio (C/RM) and the aggregate content (BA and FA) on thermal and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and life cycle analysis (LCA) were also conducted. The results revealed that as the aggregate content increased in wood composites, the mechanical properties also increased. The mean thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of tyre composite samples were 0.37 W/mK and 1.2 MJ/m3K respectively, while the respective values for wood composite samples were 0.29 W/mK and 0.81 MJ/m3K. SEM analysis showed adequate bonding between wood/tyre fibres and cement matrix. LCA revealed that the materials share of the total primary energy use was about 60% for all analysed composites. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 6.
    Amiryarahmadi, Nata
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Kropp, Wolfgang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A virtual design studio for low frequency impact sound from walking2021In: Acta Acustica, ISSN 2681-4617, Vol. 5, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience with wooden multi-storey houses have shown that impact sound insulation is one of most critical issues to ensure a good indoor environment. Even in cases where the impact sound insulation is fulfilled, people perceive the sound from e.g. walking neighbours as very disturbing. To investigate the subjective perception, a test facility is needed which allows for a coherent evaluation of different floor designs by listening test. The facility should ensure, that when comparing different floors, the same excitation by a walker and the same receiving room are involved. Only the floor design should be changed. As a consequence the spread in the data will only be due to the spread in the perception by subjects. In this paper a virtual design tool for low frequency impact sound insulation is presented, which consists of four parts; measured walking forces, floor models, an auralisation system which consists of a grid of loudspeakers simulating the vibration of the floor and a receiving room furnished as a common living room. In a pilot study a listening test is carried out for 13 different floors with different impact sound spectra at frequencies below 100 Hz. The results indicate that the judged annoyance strongly correlates with the judged loudness. However, there is a substantial spread observed in between the subjects participating in the listening tests. To understand this spread, a more extended study is needed with more participants and a classification of the subjects with respect to criteria such as noise sensitivity or age.

  • 7.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Eriksson, Jerry
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate. Elitfönster AB, Sweden.
    Jakonis, Darius
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Pantzare, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Sundin, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Ahrentorp, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Daoud, Kaies
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Svensson, Henrik
    Elitfönster AB, Sweden.
    Gregard, Greger
    ChromoGenics AB, Sweden.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Vasakronan AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Integration of Screen Printed Piezoelectric Sensors for Force Impact Sensing in Smart Multifunctional Glass Applications2022In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 24, no 11, article id 2200399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Screen printed piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride?trifluoro ethylene (PVDF?TrFE)-based sensors laminated between glass panes in the temperature range 80?110?°C are presented. No degradation of the piezoelectric signals is observed for the sensors laminated at 110?°C, despite approaching the Curie temperature of the piezoelectric material. The piezoelectric sensors, here monitoring force impact in smart glass applications, are characterized by using a calibrated impact hammer system and standardized impact situations. Stand-alone piezoelectric sensors and piezoelectric sensors integrated on poly(methyl methacrylate) are also evaluated. The piezoelectric constants obtained from the measurements of the nonintegrated piezoelectric sensors are in good agreement with the literature. The piezoelectric sensor response is measured by using either physical electrical contacts between the piezoelectric sensors and the readout electronics, or wirelessly via both noncontact capacitive coupling and Bluetooth low-energy radio link. The developed sensor concept is finally demonstrated in smart window prototypes, in which integrated piezoelectric sensors are used to detect break-in attempts. Additionally, each prototype includes an electrochromic film to control the light transmittance of the window, a screen printed electrochromic display for status indications and wireless communication with an external server, and a holistic approach of hybrid printed electronic systems targeting smart multifunctional glass applications.

  • 8.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Westerberg, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Arvén, Patrik
    J2 Holding AB, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Batteryless Electronic System Printed on Glass Substrate2021In: Electronic Materials, E-ISSN 2673-3978, Vol. 2, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Batteryless hybrid printed electronic systems manufactured on glass substrates are reported. The electronic system contains a sensor capable of detecting water, an electrochromic display, conductors, a silicon chip providing the power supply through energy harvesting of electromagnetic radiation, and a silicon-based microcontroller responsible for monitoring the sensor status and the subsequent update of the corresponding display segment. The silicon-based components were assembled on the glass substrate by using a pick and place equipment, while the remainder of the system was manufactured by screen printing. Many printed electronic components, often relying on organic materials, are sensitive to variations in environmental conditions, and the reported system paves the way for the creation of electronic sensor platforms on glass substrates for utilization in see-through applications in harsh conditions. Additionally, this generic hybrid printed electronic sensor system also demonstrates the ability to enable autonomous operation through energy harvesting in future smart window applications.

  • 9.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Delreparation av tätskiktssystem: del 1    Pilotundersökningar i labb2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Pilot surveys in labs This project is the first part of an intended major project to verify methods for partial repairs and methods for quality assurance of these repairs. This part of the project is implemented in order to make the next part of the project (Part 2. Field study) credible and valid. The purpose is to investigate whether selected measurement systems are capable of warning of excess moisture where leakage occurs so that there is no consequential damage to the building. The aim of this part is to evaluate and build knowledge about how sensors should be used and the possibility to interpret results from these. The study of the function of the warning systems for moisture and water damage that will be used in the future field study has been carried out in a mock-up that has been developed within the project. The project has been carried out with five different moisture sensor systems. During the entire test period, RISE have carried out measurements of temperature and moisture level in the test set’s timber framework compartments. Measured values from the five moisture sensor systems have been compared to values from RISE's calibrated temperature and humidity sensors. The surveys carried out can be grouped as follows: • Function control of the moisture system's ability to detect elevated moisture levels in each mock-up’s framework. • Loading of undamaged floor and wall penetrations with water  • Loading of pre-damaged floor and wall penetrations with water  • Loading of partially repaired floor and wall penetrations with water  Function control Moisture sensor systems 2, 3, 4 and 5 show a relatively good compliance with RISE's calibrated moisture and temperature sensors, usually only a few percentage points deviation is noted. Note that the test procedure selected is not relevant for Invisense’s moisture sensor system (system 1) as these are located in different positions than the other moisture sensor systems. Loading of undamaged floor and wall penetrations with water  Floor When loading the floors with water, leakage was noted in test space 1 already after two hours of loading. This was recorded by the moisture sensors located in test compartment 1. Wall Already a few minutes after commencement of water spraying, a rising moisture level was observed and also recorded by the moisture sensors in test compartment 3. It is worth noting that this leakage was so small that no free water was detected. An increase in moisture level was recorded at the wall penetrations in test compartment 4 after about 10 hours. At the end of the spraying cycle the moisture sensor sample in compartment 1 also showed a raised value. Loading of pre-damaged floor and wall penetrations with water  Floor All of the floor drains were subjected to pre-test damage, which consisted in removal of the clamping ring, cutting of the collar in one place and splitting it open a few centimetres. All moisture sensor systems used in the floor wells in test compartments 1-4 indicated elevated values. Wall Pre-test damage to all wall penetrations was carried out using an awl that was pressed into the space between the tile and wall box and thus puncturing the sealing collar. All moisture sensor systems used in the wall penetrations in test compartments 1-4 indicated elevated values. Loading of partially repaired floor and wall penetrations with water  Floor After partial repair where all floor drains were replaced, water loading of the floor was again carried out with 100 mm water.  No leakage was detected during the 5-day water load. None of the moisture sensor systems indicated any leakage. Wall After the partial repair where all pipe collars were replaced, water spraying took place again with alternating cold and warm water (1500 times).  No leakage was detected. None of the moisture sensor systems indicated any leakage.

    Conclusion • All moisture sensor systems in the study have the capability to show that leakage has occurred • It is not the absolute measured value of the moisture level that determines whether the waterproofing system is leaking or not  

    It is the change in the moisture level in the construction itself that is crucial to the question as to whether it is to be opened up or not.

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  • 10.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Testmetod för funktion och beständighet hos regn- och vindskydd: Utveckling av provningsmetod för verifiering av regn -och vindskydd av folie2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet har byggt vidare på erfarenheter från de två tidigare projekten som ingått i E2B2-program-met, projekten 40636–1 och 40636–2 som handlade om lufttäthet i klimatskalet.

    I det här projektet har skiktet som finns utanför isoleringen, det så kallade regn- och vindskyddet studerats. Om detta skikt inte fungerar och isoleringsmaterialet blir vått eller att vinden tillåts blåsa igenom isoleringsmaterialet förlorar det sin isolerande förmåga, med högre energianvändning som en av följderna. Avsikten har varit att vidareutveckla provningsmetoden som togs fram i de tidigare pro-jekten. Nu har även skiktens regn- och vindtäthet undersökts. Provningsmetoden har fungerat bra vid pilotprovningarna. Man kan se en förändring av lufttätheten vid mätningar före respektive efter värmebehandlingen. Vi noterar att alla de tre provande regn- och vindskyddssystemen är mycket lufttäta. Det borgar för en god energihushållning.

    Värmebehandlingen har gett varierande resultat. En del mätningar visar ett ökat läckage efter vär-mebehandlingen medan andra mätningar visar på minskat luftläckage efter värmebehandlingen.

    Alla de undersökta regn- och vindskyddssystemen uppvisar en högst varierande grad av läckage vid regnbelastning under samtidigt pulserande vindbelastning (slagregn). Det faktum att regn- och vind-skyddssystemen inte är helt vattentäta är problematiskt då det är en av förutsättningarna för att byggnader långsiktigt ska kunna ha en låg energianvändning. Det kan också vara ett problem då regn- och vindskyddssystemen ibland används i stället för ett separat väderskydd på en byggarbets-plats.

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  • 11.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Berntsson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Demker, Ingvar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Sjöqvist, Mia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Funktionsprovning av tätskiktsystem för våtutrymmen 20222022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional testing of waterproofing systems for use behind ceramic tiling based on flexible sheets 2022 This research project is a repetition of previously completed projects. These projects span a long period of time, 12 years. The projects were completed during the period 2010 to 2022. Functional testing The result is better than before. 2022 2019 (1) 2016 (2) 2014 (3) 2010 (4) Result Result Result Result Result Result No leakage 9 (47 %) 6 (32 %) 8 (40 %) 3 (15 %) 0 (0 %) Leakage 10 (53 %) 13 (68 %) 12 (60 %) 17 (85 %) 5 (100 %) In this investigation, most of the leaks are located to penetrations of large and small sewer pipes. In this investigation, we have on several occasions seen that the pipe sleeves have had substandard quality. This has manifested itself in the fact that the polymeric material which is to seal around the pipe during the test has lost its sealing ability. It is probable that the material has developed a residual deformation (settling) which means that the material has lost its ability to seal around the pipe. We have also noticed that pipe cuffs have delaminated, the layers in the cuff during the test have been divided into their components. Leakage has also occurred at inner corners, outer corners and at chafing. Only a few, two, leaks at connections to floor drains have been noted. Better yet, none of the examined waterproofing systems showed leaks that were so extensive that one can speak of a total damage. Water vapour resistance and mass per unit area The vast majority of investigated waterproofing foils have a water vapour resistance of between 2.5 and 4.5 million s m, which is a high or very high value. Results for five waterproofing foils fall below 2.5 million s / m. Based on the determinations of water vapor resistance and basis weight, it can be concluded that probably six of the waterproofing suppliers have developed new or changed foils since the last survey. The trend of wanting to make thinner foils seems to have been broken. Most of the waterproofing foils have a higher vapor passage resistance now than in the previous survey. It is also noteworthy that the PVC sealing layer has a low water vapor passage resistance. The waterproofing foil has basically the same basis weight now compared to the previous survey. Indication of long-term properties To obtain an indication of the amount of added antioxidants that improve the long-term properties of the materials, DSC analyses of the waterproofing foils have been performed. Compared with the previous study, the induction temperatures are at about the same level as before, only small differences occur. The average induction temperature for all polyethylene films is 216 ° C and, in summary, the materials appear to be stabilized at the same level as the previous study. In the same way as in the survey, 2016, most materials seem to be more stabilized for long-term use compared with the previous study, 2014. However, for all analysed materials, to make a reliable service life prediction of the material, a more comprehensive aging study is recommended

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  • 12.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Peltoperä, Janne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Bygg- och möbelskiva som tillverkas av återvunna mjölkförpackningar2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trenden i samhället är att öka återvinningsgrad av produkter för att skapa ytterligare värden av förbrukade produkter. Detta projekt har initierats av möjligheten att återanvända mjölkkartonger till bygg- och möbelskivor i syfte att minska byggindustrins totala miljöpåverkan genom minskat uttag av primärmaterial och lägre CO2 belastning. Förpackningsmaterial för mat och dryck innehåller ofta ett skikt av plast, av typen PET med syfte att hålla livsmedlet färskt och fritt från atmosfären. Efter användning samlas förpackningar in till förbränning då det inte finns något annat sätt att återvinna/återbruka dessa material. Det är svårt att skilja pappkartong och plast åt vid dagens förbränningsanläggningar och därmed skapas stora förorenande utsläpp (bland annat CO2). Det är önskvärt att hitta ett område där kartonger för livsmedel kan återvinnas till ett annat högvärdigt material och då kan ersätta material med högre miljöbelastning. Att göra en skiva till bygg och möbelindustrin genom att sönderdela kartonger för livsmedel och utan tillsatser pressa dem till en produkt som därmed ersätter mer belastande skivor som gips och OSB ger industrin en möjlighet att ytterligare minska sin miljöpåverkan. Ett potentiellt område kan vara inom byggindustrin, och att då hitta en ersättning eller komplement till de skivmaterial som idag används i väggar och tak. Dagens skivor är tillverkade av blandade material, i form av OSB (träspån och lim) och gips (kalk och papp). Initiala prover, genomförda av tillverkaren ej RISE, av den framtagna skivan har visat på god teknisk prestanda, men byggindustrin är på goda grunder kritisk till nya material, varför det krävs en noggrann kontroll av prestanda på såväl lång som kort sikt för att säkerställa ett kontrollerat byte till mer hållbart material. Metoden att samla in och sönderdela kartonger på ett band för press under tryck och värme, och att skapa en bygg- och möbelskiva producerad av återvunnet material utan andra tillsatser i processen är lovande. Den ingående andelen PET agerar som bindemedel för att skapa skivan som är homogen och stark. Initiala tester har visat en funktionsprestanda mellan OSB och gips, varför målsättningen är att ersätta kombinationer av dessa i flera applikationer. Introduktion av material och produkter kräver en robusthet avseende tekniska egenskaper samt tester i faktiska miljöer för introduktion i byggindustrin. Men ett ökat intresse för och krav ur miljösynpunkt öppnar för möjligheter att skapa värde. För att realisera detta värde finns det ett behov av att testa och verifiera olika tekniska egenskaper av produkten mot de funktionella krav som finns på marknaden för denna typ av produktändamål. Tekniska egenskaper som bör verifieras är bland annat formstabilitet, tålighet mot fukt, akustik, brand och avslutningsvis de miljöegenskaper som uppstår.

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  • 13.
    Baison, J.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Zhou, Linghua
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Nils
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Mörling, Tommy
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Karlsson, Bo
    Skogforsk, Sweden----.
    Wu, Harry
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Mellerowicz, Ewa
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. IIC, Sweden.
    García-Gil, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Genetic control of tracheid properties in Norway spruce wood2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 18089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the use of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) mapping it is possible to establish the genetic basis of phenotypic trait variation. Our GWAS study presents the first such effort in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L). Karst.) for the traits related to wood tracheid characteristics. The study employed an exome capture genotyping approach that generated 178 101 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) from 40 018 probes within a population of 517 Norway spruce mother trees. We applied a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) based association mapping method using a functional multi-locus mapping approach, with a stability selection probability method as the hypothesis testing approach to determine significant Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs). The analysis has provided 30 significant associations, the majority of which show specific expression in wood-forming tissues or high ubiquitous expression, potentially controlling tracheids dimensions, their cell wall thickness and microfibril angle. Among the most promising candidates based on our results and prior information for other species are: Picea abies BIG GRAIN 2 (PabBG2) with a predicted function in auxin transport and sensitivity, and MA_373300g0010 encoding a protein similar to wall-associated receptor kinases, which were both associated with cell wall thickness. The results demonstrate feasibility of GWAS to identify novel candidate genes controlling industrially-relevant tracheid traits in Norway spruce. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 14.
    Bengtsson, Felix
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pehlivan, Ilknur Bayrak
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Alkali ion diffusion and structure of chemically strengthened TiO2 doped soda-lime silicate glass2022In: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 586, p. 121564-121564, article id 121564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion kinetics and structural properties of chemically strengthened titania-doped soda-lime silicate glasses were studied by depth-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. The glasses were ion exchanged, whereby Na+ in the glass was replaced by K+ in a molten salt bath, at four different treatment temperatures between 350 and 500 °C. The alkali diffusion coefficient, DK-Na, and corresponding activation energy were calculated to be between 3.26×10−12 and 4.47×10−11 cm2s−1 and between 101.1 kJmol−1 and 105.6 kJmol−1, respectively. DK-Na was observed to decrease as the TiO2 concentration was increased. Raman analysis showed Q3-silicate species with different bond lengths, which was attributed to surface compressive stresses, and increasing Si-O-Si bond angle with increasing ion exchange temperature. Ti3+ ions exist as a minor species in the glasses and its concentration depends on the TiO2 content. Deconvolution of the optical absorption spectra reveals Jahn-Teller compressive distortion of the Ti3+ octahedral coordination.

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  • 15.
    Bengtsson, Felix
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Pehlivan, Ilknur Bayrak
    Uppsala University.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Dataset: Alkali Ion diffusion and structure of chemically strengthened TiO2 doped soda-lime silicate glass2022Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion kinetics and structural properties of chemically strengthened titania-doped soda-lime silicate glasses were studied by depth-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and spectrophotometry.

    Chemical strengthening (CS) is frequently used to strengthen thin glasses. CS of glass is based on ion exchange of larger ions from a molten salt into glass. Both the ion and counter ion are conventionally monovalent alkali ions.

    Diffusion kinetics and structural properties of chemically strengthened titania-doped (TiO2) soda-lime silicate (SLS) glasses were studied by depth-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. The glasses were ion exchanged, whereby Na+ in the glass was replaced by K+ in a molten salt bath, at four different treatment temperatures between 350 and 500 °C.

    The following samples were prepared and analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS): (1) SLS, (2) 4.7% TiO2, and (3) 9.9% TiO2. The ion exchange procedure was performed for 5 h at four different temperatures below Tg (350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). Before XPS measurements, the samples were wet-etched using hydrofluoric (HF) acid to produce samples with six different etching depths.

    The Raman scattered light was detected in the backscattering configuration employing linear polarization and 2400 lines/mm grating, and a 100x objective lens. Depth profile spectra were collected at six different depths of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 µm for each glass sample, employing 12 scans with a 10 s exposure time for each scan.

    Spectrophotometric measurements were conducted before and after K+/Na+ ion-exchange treatmeatment for 5 h at 500 °C, collected between 300 and 2500 nm.

  • 16.
    Berggren, Göran
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Scharf, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pilotmontage av nytt fasadelementsystem i trä - Fasaden i staden Snabb Snygg Smart2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about the evaluation of the pilot installation of a new wooden façade element system that was mounted on two four-story timber buildings. Technical solutions were evaluated, mounting time, moisture and deformations were measured, and interviews were conducted with builders on-site. The mounting started in April 2020 and was followed-up with measurements and interviews during 2020. The two buildings were built by Lindbäcks Bygg AB on Porsön in Luleå, Sweden and the developer was Lindbäcks Fastigheter AB. The façade elements were prefabricated by Lindbäcks Bygg AB in the factory at Öjebyn in Piteå Sweden. The mounting work went well, and the builders were positive about the facade system. When the builders had learned how to carry out the work, it took three minutes per façade element, which is equivalent to 0.9 m2/min. This is faster than the traditional installation of a facade on a construction site. The assembly around the windows took about 10 minutes, which is about the same time as in traditional assembly. During 8 months of measurements the average moisture content (MC) behind the façade elements was about 20% during winter (low T, high RH) and about 11% during summer. That is within expected values due to the annual variation in climate. The deformation was measured with laser scanning and gave a deviation of ±1 cm from a perfect plane, indicating a better dimensional stability than traditionally mounted wooden facades. From a working environment perspective, the assembly work was quieter as no nail guns were needed and the builders did not need to handle individual panel boards. Significantly less nails and screws were needed compared to traditional assembly. Experience from the assembly show the possibility for improvements. The construction platform was not optimal for loading elements during assembly. When the builders had gained some experience of the system, the limitation was to get the elements up quickly enough. A fast and efficient assembly requires a detailed planning in the design phase, and the elements should be numbered in a logical way and sufficient packaging needs to be secured. The promising results show the potential for a future way to manufacture and mount wooden facades. “The facade of the city Swift Stylish Smart” is a project within the strategic program Bioinnovation founded by Vinnova (Sweden’s innovation agency), Energimyndigheten (Swedish Energy Agency), Formas (A Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development), and the industry partners.

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  • 17.
    Bergström, Johan M
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ziegler, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Persson, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mawlayi, Faiz
    IVL, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    IVL, Sweden.
    Melolinna, Nelli
    IVL, Sweden.
    IMPLEMENTERING OCH INNOVATIONER FÖR FÄRDPLAN BYGG- OCH ANLÄGGNINGSSEKTORN : Förslag till aktiviteter och projekt för färdplanens genomförandet och måluppfyllelse2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhället och mänskligheten står inför en av de största utmaningar vi har ställts inför någonsin. Klimatet berör oss alla. Aldrig tidigare har vi vetat så mycket om vårt beteende, vår påverkan och konsekvenserna för jordens klimat - samtidigt som vi fortsätter bygga vårt samhälle på ett på många sätt ohållbart vis. Idag står byggsektorn för cirka en femtedel av Sveriges samlade klimatutsläpp (Boverket, 2021). Fossilfritt Sverige bildades på initiativ av regeringen år 2015 inför FN:s klimatmöte i Paris, och lanserade år 2018 ”Färdplanen för bygg- och anläggningssektorn” (”färdplanen”), en av 22 branschspecifika färdplaner - med målsättning om en klimatneutral byggbransch till år 2045 (Fossilfritt Sverige, 2018). Sedan färdplanen lanserades 2018 har utveckling skett inom hållbarhets- och klimatområdet för Bygg- och anläggningssektorn. Exempelvis så har olika initiativ och plattformar startats upp med mål för minskad klimatpåverkan och klimatneutralitet, flertalet projekt med låg klimatpåverkan har genomförts, antal certifierade byggnader ökar, tillgång till betong och stål med lägre klimatpåverkan ökar och lagen om klimatdeklarationer har trätt i kraft. Trots denna utveckling finns det indikationer på att det går för långsamt och risk finns att färdplanens mål missas (Byggindustrin, 2022) (Fosilfritt, 2022) (Klimatpolitiska rådet, 2022). Detta utvecklingsprojekt syftade till att ta fram åtgärder för implementering och innovationer för att uppnå färdplanens mål. Projektets kartläggning, litteraturstudie inklusive enklare utsläppskartläggning förväntades ge en bild om vad som behöver göras framåt för att nå färdplanens mål och ligga till grund för ett förslag till aktiviteter och projekt som kan ligga till grund för en nationell genomförandeplan med en strategi och struktur för färdplanens implementerings- och innovationsarbete. Projektet har genomförts i ett antal arbetspaket med ingående aktiviteter, såsom nulägesanalys, litteraturstudier, utsläppskartläggning, intervjuer och workshops. Nulägesanalys och utsläppskartläggning har bestått att söka information och data i websökningar, litteraturstudier, och i samtal med branschaktörer om vilka genomförda och pågående initiativ och projekt som finns, samt kartlägga och redovisa utsläpp uppdelat på de olika branscherna inom bygg- och anläggningssektorn. Djupintervjuer har gjorts med ett flertal branschaktörer med kunskap, insyn och erfarenhet av klimat- och hållbarhetsarbete i bygg- och anläggningssektorn. I workshops, i projektet, kallade branschdialoger, har likt intervjuerna ställt ett antal frågor till en grupp branschaktörer och diskuterat dessa. I arbetet med gapanalys har bland annat ett framsynsarbete genomförts för att lyfta det som kan påverka och är avgörande för genomförandet av färdplanen. Projektet har samlat tankar och idéer från sektorns och forskarsamhällets både tongivande och engagerade personer. Beroende på vilka personer som har medverkat har detta resulterat det i olika utfall. Det som framkommit från intervjuerna, workshops och dialoger har inte direkt kontrollerats eller förankrats mot fakta och vetenskap, utan det har använts för att ge det underlag som detta projekts arbete vilar på tillsammans med projektets övriga arbete inom nuläges-, önskade- och gapanalyser. I det slutlig syntetiserade arbetet har projektgruppen valt ut det viktigaste, mest relevanta och intressanta ur de olika delaktiviteterna i projektet till åtta förändringsområden. Inom dessa respektive förändringsområde ges förslag till aktiviteter och projekt för färdplanens genomförande och måluppfyllelse. De åtta förändringsområden som projektet rekommenderar att färdplanens arbete framåt är: Flexibel och adaptiv användning samt ökad nyttjandegrad, Digitalisering, Hållbara material, produkter och system, Effektiv resursanvändning och cirkulära flöden, Elektrifiering, Regulatoriska krav och styrning, Hållbar finansiering och prissättning av miljöeffekten samt Energieffektivisering. Alla förslagen vilka var och en, och i kombination, bidrar till att accelerera klimatarbetet och minska klimatpåverkan. Av de resultat och förslag till aktiviteter och projekt till implementeringar och innovationer för färdplanens genomförande kan ett urval av dem återfinnas som uppmaningar i färdplanen. Att iii förslagen uppkommer igen drygt fyra år senare kan ses som ett behov att ytterligare fokusera på färdplanens implementering, då uppmaningarna ännu inte har gett den effekt som efterfrågats, eller inte har omhändertagits tillräckligt. De föreslagna aktiviteterna och projekten i detta arbete behöver vidareutvecklas, paketeras samt hitta finansieringslösningar för det fortsatta arbetet för färdplanens genomförande, så att det skapas ett reellt genomslag i branschen för att nå färdplanens mål. En generell rekommendationen från detta projekt är att skala upp pilot- och demoprojekt samt goda exempel till fullskaleprojekt i högre utsträckning samt att tillgängliggöra och dela resultat och underlag från dessa projekt för att öka transparensen mellan olika initiativ och projekt. De förändringsområde som utmärker sig mest och har i arbetet framhållits som de viktigaste samt anses ha störst påverkan på implementeringen av färdplanen för bygg och anläggningssektorn är: Regulatoriska krav och styrning, Elektrifiering, Flexibel och adaptiv användning samt nyttjandegrad samt Hållbar finansiering och prissättning av miljöeffekten. Projektet har vidare identifierat ett stort behov av sammanhållande och heltäckande klimatdata som är nedbrutna på olika delsektorer och ämnesområden inom bygg- och anläggningssektorn. Projektets rekommendation är därför att påskynda arbetet att kvantitativt beräkna de nationella klimatutsläppen som kan ligga till grund för att göra en nationell väsentlighetsanalys för att ge implementering av färdplanen rätt fokus och prioritering. Dock så visar projektets modulering att och analys är att reduktionen av klimatemissioner från bygg- och anläggningssektorn måste starta omgående. Vidare är utveckling av ett klimatfokuserat upphandlingsförfarande med relevanta och effektiva upphandlingskriterier av största vikt avseende framtida klimatrelaterade funktionskrav på bebyggelse genom hela livscykeln. Slutligen behöver nya affärsmodeller utforskas för att utveckla nya ekonomiska incitament som premierar kvalitet, upcycling, bevarande, återbruk och delande.

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  • 18.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Crocetti, Roberto
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, August
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ben Osmane, Zakaria
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF A CONNECTION FOR CLT STRUCTURES2023In: Proceedings of the 2023 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), Oslo, Norway, 2023, p. 1154-1159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although building systems made of cross-laminated timber (CLT) have become common in Sweden in the past 20 years and they have developed rapidly during the same period, steps remain to be taken to simplify the assembly of such systems, especially at construction sites. Current construction methods, however, remain labour-intensive and thus show room for improvement.

    This paper describes a novel connection for the assembly of building elements made of CLT. Simple and inexpensive, the connection is fairly insensitive to manufacturing tolerances and enables rapid, more efficient construction than the connections for CLT structures currently used. Test results show the excellent strength and stiffness of the connection, which also allows the replacement of numerous fasteners, including nails and screws, with only a single steel rod. 

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  • 19.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Honfi, Daniel
    Ramboll, Denmark.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Crocetti, Roberto
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS –INSPIRATION FROM FURNITURE INDUSTRY2021In: World Conference onTimber Engineering (WCTE) 2021, Santiago, Chile, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented project aims to develop prototypes for building connections inspired by the furniture and interior industry and explore them with representatives from the timber construction industry. The long-term vision is that actors from furniture and building industry together develop a smart system for assembly of building elements, which provide higher precision, faster and more efficient assembly than what is available today. The prototype connectiondeveloped in this project shows that the idea is ripe for full-scale investigation. Laboratory tests showed promising results due to the high failure loads obtained with very high stiffness.

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  • 20.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Framtidens resurseffektiva KL-trä – en spaning2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) for house construction is a product that was developed in Central Europe in the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study is to collaboratively explore proposals for how a more efficient CLT product can be designed for the future. The goal is to produce a basis for development and generate a consensus around the issue. There is an awareness of the environmental factors that affect design with CLT. In addition, an increased demand for wood in the building sector has resulted in a dynamic mindset to replace concrete with CLT. Increased use of forest raw materials, global warming and reduced access via restrictions in forestry raise questions such as: What raw materials will we have in the future? Which tree species will be available? How large will the supply of raw materials be? The resulting material has been analysed based on the different perspectives represented by the stakeholder groups in the value chain for building with CLT. The report concludes with project ideas that emerged during the work on the feasibility study.

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    Framtidens resurseffektiva KL-trä – en spaning
  • 21.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ormarsson, Sigurdur
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Stress distribution in veneers under lamination and simultaneously bending: an experimental and numerical investigation2023In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 995-1002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated veneer products (LVPs) are veneers glued together into a predetermined shape. Experimental and numerical investigations were performed under lamination and simultaneously bending of veneer laminate to study the stress distribution in the laminate. Laminates of different thicknesses were made of peeled veneers of European beech. The veneers were coated with adhesive, inserted in a mould which had the shape of a semicircle, and finally pressed at 20°C to a laminate. Two Teflon-polymer films including sensors for measurement of the contact pressure were placed on both sides of the laminate to measure the local contact pressure (contact stress) between the laminate and the mould. At the beginning of the bending process, the contact stresses were locally distributed over the laminate in a similar pattern as in a three-point bending; after the laminate was further bent, the stress distribution rearranged to be as in four-point bending. In the end of the moulding, the local contact stresses increased over the entire laminate and reached a ‘peak-value’ over bent area in the middle part of the mould. A finite-element model was created to study the bending process. Regarding the overall development of the contact stress variations, the experimental and the numerical results agreed.

  • 22.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Formstabilitet i underlägg för dukning2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a coaster intended for table setting has been investigated regarding shape stability in relation to the surrounding climate. The coaster was made up of paper, some of which was printed, and a fibreboard that was bonded together.

    Symmetry in a construction is desirable for high shape stability, which is known since before. The fact that the surfaces have a similar moisture absorption contributes to the symmetry. Boards that have a harder surface than the opposite should be sanded so that both surfaces of the board have a similar moisture absorption. The orientation of the components in a laminate can reduce or increase the asymmetry if the surfaces have different moisture absorption capacity. Symmetrical construction as well as symmetrical moisture absorption are beneficial for high shape stability.

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  • 23.
    Bloom, Erica
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Theorin, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Mögel och hälsa i byggnader, en litteratursammanställning för träbyggnadsindustrin2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mikroorganismer kan växa på alla material om förutsättningarna är de rätta. Fukt är alltid den begränsande faktorn men andra faktorer, till exempel temperatur, kan påverka kritisk fuktnivå med avseende på start och etablering av mikrobiologisk påväxt. Mikrobiologisk påväxt på byggnadsmaterial är därför inte materialfråga utan snarare en hanterings- eller byggnadsteknisk fråga. 2009 konstaterar WHO i sin rapport Guidlines for indoor air quality att negativa hälsoeffekter motverkas effektivast genom att fukt och mikrobiella skador på och i byggnader förhindras. Nya studier har adderats sedan 2009 och ett antal vetenskapligt granskade artiklar i ämnet har publicerats. I arbetet med denna sammanställning har ingen artikel påträffats som motstrider den idag, på empiri, grundade uppfattningen att fukt och mögelskador i byggnader kan påverka innemiljön. En påverkan som i sin tur kan leda till negativa hälsoeffekter för människor. I nordiska länder så är det vanligast att fukt- och mögelskador finns inuti konstruktioner. För trähus som ofta är konstruerade av flera olika byggnadsmaterial finns en problematik som dels uppstår genom att mikroorganismer kan växa på dessa material dels genom att det finns risk att emissioner från påväxten sprids till innemiljön. För att bättre förstå när och hur människor exponeras för dessa ämnen behövs mer kunskap inhämtas om: - Hur och när emissioner från skador inuti konstruktioner når innemiljön. - Emissionernas sammansättning. - Skador på trä och hälsa specifikt - Kunskap om mögelarter och deras förekomst på olika byggnadsmaterial inklusive trä. - Vilka åtgärder behöver sättas in för att förhindra att påväxt uppstår vid fukt- och vattenskador (tid, temperatur, material mm)?

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  • 24.
    Bloom, Erica
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Theorin, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sanering av mikrobiella skador på trä i byggnader - en sammanställning av nuläget i branschen, lagar, metoder och användningsområden2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trä i byggnader som exponeras för fukt eller fritt vatten blir med tiden utsatt för mikrobiell påväxt. När detta ska åtgärdas kallas det sanering vilket innebär att trä rengörs från påväxten, om inte materialet byts ner helt. Oavsett nyproduktion eller befintliga byggnader så säger lagen genom Miljöbalken och Plan- och bygglagen att påväxt som kan orsaka skada eller olägenhet för människors hälsa ska tas bort. Kemikalielagstiftningen betonar att skador som uppkommer så att kemiska produkter och bekämpningsmedel behöver användas ska undvikas om kunskap och tekniker för detta finns. När bekämpningsmedel väl används är det enbart den avsedda användningen enligt instruktionerna som tillåts. Detta gäller allt trä i byggnader där godkännande krävs. Vetenskapliga studier och myndigheter avråder från användning av kemiska medel för att sanera påväxt på trä. Anledningen är att de verkar ha begränsad effekt och att användningen innebär en risk för att det ökar mängden föroreningar i luften inomhus. Dessutom finns en risk att metoderna eventuellt bara dödar den mikrobiella påväxten, utan att den tas bort, och att även död/inaktiv påväxt kan innebära hälsorisker Aktörer inom bygg och företag som sanerar fuktskador efterlyser ett övergripande regelverk och riktlinjer för hantering av fuktskadat trä i byggnader. Sanering av mikrobiella organismer på trä utförs i stor omfattning vid nyproduktion av byggnader om de utsatts för nederbörd eller om skydd mot fukt och vattenskador varit bristfälligt. Fuktsäkerheten behöver prioriteras i större utsträckning i många fall. Redan vid planering av budget och projektering behövs relevanta strategier för att hantera fuktsäkerheten. Áv intervjuerna framgår att slipning av träytor är den vanligast använda saneringsmetoden, följt av isblästring och användning av kemiska medel för att rengöra och bleka virkesytan. Byggnader som utsätts för fritt vatten eller höga fukthalter kan efter längre tid få rötskador och insektskador. Röt- och insektskador åtgärdas genom att skadat material byts ut och/eller genom att behandling utförs med godkända bekämpningsmedel.

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  • 25.
    Bok, Gunilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Microbial growth behind tiles in bathrooms2020In: E3S Web of Conferences. Vollyme 172, 2020., EDP Sciences , 2020, article id 20003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies investigating microbial diversity in buildings have been performed mainly through the study of dust collected from e. g. floors and door frames and on moisture damaged building materials. A great diversity of mould fungi has been found and the fungus flora is dominated by the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The building materials targeted in this specific study were sampled on the back of ceramic tiles from bathroom walls and floors. Furthermore, two different analyses were used to investigate to which degree this specific environment was supportive of microbial growth. Microbial findings were detected in 48 % of the specimens from the spots exposed to liquid water in the bathrooms. To our knowledge, the microbial occurrence in this type of environment has not previously been investigated.. © The Authors.

  • 26.
    Bolmsvik, A.
    et al.
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Eriksson, O.
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Tengberg, C Svensson
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Weather protection at the construction site: Work environment and conditions for moisture and mould growth on massive timber2023In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, no 1, article id 012042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, the use of timber (especially massive timber) has increased worldwide, mainly driven by anticipated environmental benefits. However, there is debate on how to handle the susceptibility against microbial growth for wooden constructions, especially during the construction phase. Sometimes full weather protection is used to avoid exposing the wooden material to outdoor conditions, but oftentimes the structures are fully exposed to precipitation. In an earlier study, one construction site using a full weather protection was studied, and the results showed promising results on the improved hygrothermal conditions and reduced risk of mould growth. Moreover, the site contractor also indicated improved work environment and productivity, however, this was not included in that study. This present study aims to investigate the effects of using full weather protection during construction in seven different construction projects to follow-up and broaden the earlier single project study. The studied aspects include the hygrothermal conditions, potential of mould growth, and influence on the work environment. Temperature and relative humidity were measured and analysed. Samples of cross-laminated timber (CLT) were analysed using a microscope, and the results are compared to theoretical mould growth potential. This is measured both inside the weather protection and outside at the seven construction projects. Furthermore, a work environment questionnaire is distributed to workers at the sites to collect the perceived work environment using a full weather protection. The results of the study partly confirm the conclusions from the earlier study, i.e., reducing the risk of mould growth and causing a slightly warmer and dryer conditions than outside. In addition, the results indicate an improved work environment. The majority of the interviewees wishes a weather protection in their next project regarding the work environment.

  • 27.
    Bolognesi, C. M.
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Andersson, Per
    CGI Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Digital Tools for Fast Mapping of Buildings2022In: SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2022, p. 51-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the construction sector embraces digitalization, new technologies related to it are spreading benefits. The need of creating a 3D model of a building, a digital copy of something existing, is not new. Mediated by the advent of photographic and laser instrumentation, the construction of a digital model has crossed the fields of surveying with increasing accuracy and precision, imposing standards of capturing the existing first and modelling then ever higher. But while the Building Information Modelling allows a virtual representation of the existing asset enriching its geometry with precious and significant information related to its properties, advanced survey has always faced the impossibility to break the surface of the building, surveying what is inside walls, thus excluding what necessary should be contained within a BIM model. Also, BIM models do not consider the real-time component and do not report the real-time behaviour of the building. In this chapter we will investigate several technologies and instruments exploited till now for the surveying and positioning of existing buildings, plants included, and a new toolkit based on AR that, coupled with sensors and visualisation tools developed by BIM4EEB, offers many advantages when surveying the whole building. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 28.
    Bontekoe, Eelke
    et al.
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Tsarchopoulos, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Kamadanis, Nikos
    CERTH, Greece.
    Koutli, Maria
    CERTH, Greece.
    Deliverable 9.5: Report on monitoring framework in LH cities and established baseline2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The IRIS project has defined goals and targets in the project proposal, and the monitoring and evaluation work package (WP) 9 will analyse to what extent the project reaches these goals and objectives. The monitoring and evaluation will also provide information concerning the performance of the different solutions demonstrated in the Lighthouse (LH) cities in IRIS which is important for the replication of the solutions both in the LH cities and in other cities. This is of importance for the replicability of the solutions, both in the LH cities (Utrecht, Nice and Gothenburg) and in other cities. The project consists of several demonstration projects which are divided by 5 transition tracks (TTs): TT1; Smart renewables and closed- loop energy positive districts, TT2; Smart Energy Management and Storage for Grid Flexibility, TT3; Smart e-Mobility Sector, TT4; City Innovation Platform (CIP) Use Cases, TT5; Citizen engagement and co-creation.

    D9.5 is the result of 2 years of work with several iterative processes involving the LH cities and their partners with the ultimate goal to:

    Define a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) which evaluate the effectiveness and impact of the cities proposed measures.Setup monitoring plans for each IS to define how each parameter is being measured to ensure that the KPIs can be calculated.Define how the baseline and the targets are defined and measured.This work started as described in D9.2 (Report on monitoring and evaluation schemes for integrated solutions) [1] with:The definition of the initial list of KPIs and how to calculate them, based on Smart Cities Information System (SCIS) [2], the CITYKeys Project [3] and the IRIS project itself .The assignment of KPIs to relevant measures within the project.An evaluation plan to measure performance on project level, including aggregation of KPIs.

    The process has continued with D9.3 (Report on data model and management plan for integrated solutions) [4] and D9.4 (Report on unified framework for harmonized data gathering, analysis and reporting) [5], which define the basis of the methodologies used to come to the results written in this report.

    Feedback from several workshops on this topic has led to a guideline that supports the partners responsible for implementation of the demonstrators in setting up their projects such that:KPIs that are being measured are well understood.KPIs give a meaningful result.The right data is being measured to calculate the required KPIs during the implementation of the measures.

    An important part of this process is to have a close look at the KPIs that are projected for each demonstrator, the calculation method of the KPIs, and the expected results. By means of KPI interpretation forms. By doing so:

    • KPIs are defined and calculated such that only one way of interpretation is possible. This way results from different projects and cities are homogenized.

    • It is well understood what result the measurement of a KPI leads to.The method and results of this process are described in this report, which is a revised KPI list where KPIs are added, removed or adapted.

    In addition to this, the KPI interpretation forms created the basis for the formulation of detailed monitoring plans for all measures within the project. Together with template forms for reporting these plans and a common data structure, which were provided to the affiliated partners, these plans are obtained and described for all measures per Transition Track and per Lighthouse city in this report.

    Another essential part of measuring the performance of the IRIS project is the establishment of the baseline measurements and review if targets are met. Tables with KPI data requirements, consisting of the associated parameters, data sources, baseline and (possible) targets for all measures are incorporated.

    An important part of the monitoring strategy of the IRIS project is the KPI tool, which is described in detail in report D9.4 [5]. This tool is established to collect all relevant monitoring data from the IRIS project in order to calculate and visualize the performance of the project. The tool partly obtains it’s data by means of the City Information Platforms (CIP). The monitoring details combined with the updated KPIs, result in an inventory containing an overview of all data sources with as main objective:

    • To make sure that all data sources are known and will be measured by the responsible partners.

    • To know what kind of data needs to be collected by the KPI tool.

    • To know when monitoring in each demonstrator starts and data can be expected.

    • To have a clear overview for all responsible partners what to deliver.

    Besides setting up the collection of the indicators data, D9.5 also continues the work on aggregation of KPIs. For each city a revised list is made that indicates which KPIs will be aggregated to Transition Track-, City- and IRIS-level.

    In the conclusion the challenges that where met during the process of setting up the monitoring framework are described. Because of delays within the IRIS project, not all monitoring plans have been obtained yet. Therefore, a future update of this report will be submitted as soon as this information is available. Further on a perspective is described for future work to start gathering the data and visualize results of the IRIS project.

    The target group for this report is mainly people who:

    -  Are interested in how to apply a unified monitoring and evaluation scheme into a large Smart City project with many different partners and stakeholders. For example, people working on comparable (Smart City) projects, or the follower cities within the IRIS project.

    -  Are interested in how the performance of several different Smart city projects can be evaluated.

    -  Are interested in the implementation of KPIs from projects such as SCIS and CITYkeys.

    -  Want to learn from project partners from within the IRIS project who work on similar projectsabout their monitoring. For example, partners from different cities affiliated with the same transition track or transition track leaders.

    - Want to find out what kind of data can be expected from the IRIS project. For example, external researchers interested in the results of Smart City projects, but also partners working on WP4 (CIP) and WP9 (monitoring and evaluation).Want to learn what the current state is of the monitoring and evaluation of the IRIS project.

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  • 29.
    Bontekoe, Eelke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tsarchopoulos, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Isaioglou, George
    CERTH, Greece.
    Tsompanidou, Eleni
    CERTH, Greece.
    Agelakoglou, Komninos
    CERTH, Greece.
    Apostolopoulos, Vasilios
    CERTH, Greece.
    Zestanakis, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Nikolopoulos, Nikolaos
    CERTH, Greece.
    Deliverable 9.6: Intermediate report after one year of measurement2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present document is the Deliverable D9.6 “Intermediate report after one year of measurement”. The document describes the work carried out within the task 9.5 entitled “Overall evaluation and impact analysis for impact enhancement”. The focus of this task is to provide intermediate results of the demonstration activities in the three Lighthouse (LH) cities and to present the data currently transferred to the IRIS Key Performance Indicators (KPI) tool.

    The deliverable D9.6 is based on the work done in the Work Package (WP) 9, in particular the work in task 9.4 and task 9.5 (presented previously in D9.4 and D9.5). In this deliverable, the monitoring framework and established baselines developed in D9.5 are used to collect the data needed for the calculation of the KPIs. The KPIs are in turn used to evaluate the outcome and impact of the implemented measures. The collected data is transferred to the KPI tool, which was created and presented in D9.4. The tool processes and calculates the KPIs and visualizes the results. Data can be transferred to the KPI tool automatically, through a CIP, or manually through a template. A process which is described in this deliverable.

    This deliverable was intended to be an intermediate report to provide an initial insight to the results for all measures in the IRIS project. However, due to the lack of data from measures, which in part is due to the Covid-19 pandemic, this report focuses more on providing information about the process of collecting data and transferring it into the KPI tool. This process is collaborative and has been carried out within the IRIS LH cites with support from the technical partners and the WP9 team. Complexity of APIs and the lack of standards have made data extraction and transfer into the KPI tool more difficult. Furthermore, not all measures in IRIS are connected to CIP which means that manual data collection was required and a systematic procedure for this collection needed to be developed and introduced to the partners.

    There are several different reasons for lack of data and the resulting exclusion of some measures from this deliverable. A few measures are not yet in operation, while for other data collection have not started or the data transfer to the KPI tool has not been established yet. However, the work done in task 9.5 has provided new knowledge on issues and errors that can occur in the process of transferring data and establishing KPIs. Through dialogues with the project partners, the need to clarify some KPI cards with i.e. units, formulas or use cases has been highlighted. The close cooperation with the project partners has led to continued work on the definitions of the KPIs and what KPIs to include, taking steps in the direction of clearer interpretation and more consistent use. Further adaptation of several KPI-cards was done by the WP9 team. In the process of adjusting KPIs, the effect these adjustments would have on all measures that use them were considered. The process of developing KPIs involves a balance between finding indicators that can be used more generally and indicators that are more specific and thus better capture the purpose of a specific measure.

    The improvements of KPIs and lessons learned in task 9.5 will be of great use in the continued work of WP9. Focus will be on transfer of data from all measures into the KPI tool. A continuous dialogue with responsible project partners to ensure this data transfer and discussions on deviation and errors in the initial results will be established.

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  • 30.
    Bontekoe, Eelke
    et al.
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tsarchopoulos, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Lampropoulos, Ioannis
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Deliverable 9.10 : Third update of the Data Management Plan (DMP)2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this document is to provide the procedure to be adopted by the project partners and subcontractors to produce, collect and process the data from the IRIS demonstration activities. The adopted procedure follows the guidelines provided by the European Commission in the document Guidelines on FAIR Data Management in Horizon 2020.

    This document is based on the Horizon 2020 FAIR Data Management Plan (DMP) template (Version: 26 July 2016) [1], which provides a set of questions that the partners should answer. Furthermore, the Horizon 2020 template from DMP online [2] is utilized to expand the questions and provide more detailed explanations. This fourth report on DMP, submitted at M48 (Autumn 2021) of the project, describes a plan for data production, collection and processing, and the first input from the different lighthouse cities. It will be continuously updated until the end of the project, as part of work package 9, WP9 Monitoring and evaluation, activities. Specifically, DMP will be updated again in M60 (D9.11: Fourth and final update on the Data management plan).

    The development of the DMP is part of the work undertaken in T9.2 Defining the data model and the data management plan for performance and impact measurement (M4-M60). Since the DMP development started in M4 (spring of 2018) of the project, this third report of the DMP provides templates for data reporting and emphasises on the interactions of task 9.2, T9.2 Defining the data model and the data management plan for performance and impact measurement, with other work packages.

    An important part of this document is the data management template (DMP template). This template is supposed to be used by all partners who produce or handle datasets within the IRIS project. For example, the partners responsible for the implementation of the measures in the Lighthouse cities. By making use of this template, it is ensured that the project research data will be 'FAIR', that is findable, accessible, interoperable and re-usable. This is achieved by:

    • Making data Findable, including provisions for metadata
    • Making data openly Accessible
    • Making data Interoperable
    • Increase data Re-use (through clarifying licences)

    The template is accompanied by a chapter which describes all topics that are required to be filled in. Further on, 3 DMP examples are added to illustrate what is expected, in order to facilitate the task of providing the data.

    Besides the Ethical aspects as defined in the DMP template for all ‘sub’-projects, a separated chapter is written on these aspects on IRIS level.

    The aggregation of data within the IRIS project has started after M30. Which means that data was generated within several measures. For this reason, the template as presented in D9.9 could be filled in as far as possible for 27 datasets. The resulting information about these datasets can be found in the DMP Excel sheet on EMDESK and as tables in Appendix 0.

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  • 31.
    Bontekoe, Eelke
    et al.
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tsarchopoulos, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Lampropoulos, Ioannis
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Deliverable 9.9 : second update of the data management plan2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this document is to provide the procedure to be adopted by the project partners and subcontractors to produce, collect and process the data from the IRIS demonstration activities. The adopted procedure follows the guidelines provided by the European Commission in the document Guidelines on FAIR Data Management in Horizon 2020.

    This document is based on the Horizon 2020 FAIR Data Management Plan (DMP) template (Version: 26 July 2016) [1], which provides a set of questions that the partners should answer. Furthermore, the Horizon 2020 template from DMP online [2] is utilized to expand the questions and provide more detailed explanations. This third report on DMP, submitted at M30 (spring 2020) of the project, describes a plan for data production, collection and processing, and will be continuously updated until the end of the project, as part of work package 9, WP9 Monitoring and evaluation, activities. Specifically, the DMP will be updated again in M42 (D9.10: Third update on the Data management plan), and in M60 (D9.11: Fourth and final update on the Data management plan).

    The development of the DMP is part of the work undertaken in T9.2 Defining the data model and the data management plan for performance and impact measurement (M4-M60). Since the DMP development started in M4 (spring of 2018) of the project, this third report of the DMP provides templates for data reporting and emphasises on the interactions of task 9.2, T9.2 Defining the data model and the data management plan for performance and impact measurement, with other work packages.

    An important part of this document is the data management template (DMP). This template is supposed to be used by all partners who produce or handle datasets within the IRIS project. For example the partners responsible for the implementation of the measures in the Lighthouse cities. By making use of this template, it is ensured that the project research data will be 'FAIR', that is findable, accessible, interoperable and re-usable. This is achieved by:

    • Making data Findable, including provisions for metadata
    • Making data openly Accessible
    • Making data Interoperable
    • Increase data Re-use (through clarifying licences)

    The template is accompanied by a chapter which describes all topics that are required to be filled in. Further on, 3 DMP examples are added to illustrate what is expected, in order to facilitate the task of providing the data.

    Besides the Ethical aspects as defined in the DMP template for al ‘sub’-projects, a separated chapter is written on these aspects on IRIS level.

    After M30 the aggregation of data in the IRIS project will start to take place. Meaning that D9.10 (the third update of the data management plan) will be a version where the templates presented in this document will be largely filled in. Further on D9.10 will include the final template of data collection, which will be mainly defined by the experience built up during the collection of data during the project.

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  • 32.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ziethen, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Allbrektsson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    High-Fire-Resistance Glulam Connections for Tall Timber Buildings2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tall timber buildings generally require fire resistance ratings of 90 minutes, 120 minutes or more. The vast majority of fire tested structural timber connections, however, did not reach a fire resistance that was relevant for these buildings. Commonly timber connections between glued laminated timber members comprise of exposed steel fasteners, such as bolts, screws, nails and dowels. However, it has previously been concluded that connections with exposed steel fasteners, generally do not achieve fire resistance ratings of 30 minutes and are, therefore, inadequate to be implemented in tall timber buildings without fire encapsulation. The research project presented in this report consists of four connection fire tests that are designed to achieve structural fire resistance ratings of 90 minutes, using different design strategies. This goal was achieved for all tested column-beam connections. A single test of a moment resisting connection did not lead to a fire resistance rating of 90 minutes, due to timber failure at the smallest cross-section after 86 minutes. The low temperature of the steel fasteners and the limited rotation of the connection, however, suggest that the connection would have been capable of achieving a 90 minutes fire resistance rating if larger beam cross-sections would be used.

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  • 33.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The use of green roofs to improve wooden buildings for a future bioeconomy2022In: E3S Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2267-1242, Vol. 349, p. 04014-04014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioeconomy helps to move towards a renewable, fossil-free future. The environmental impact is significantly reduced when replacing fossil-based products with bio-based alternatives. In a bioeconomy, all products are made from renewable and biogenic resources. In the building sector examples for biogenic sources are traditionally wooden building structures, while green roofs are becoming more popular. The goal of the present project was to assess the amount of biogenic carbon stored in green roofs and wooden buildings overall. The question is whether green roofs are improving the biogenic carbon usage of buildings and find out how that can be improved. The methods used are based on construction modelling, life cycle assessment and standardised environmental product declaration (EPD). The results indicate that wooden building structures are not enough for a complete biogenic building to move to a renewable, fossil-free future. Furthermore, the green roofs do add more biogenic carbon to the building than conventional roofs, while seen over the whole building these benefits are negligible. The results are presented as renewable and nonrenewable energy as well as biogenic carbon and greenhouse gas emissions. These are compared with conventional roofing based on non-renewable standard roofs in Sweden.

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  • 34.
    Couceiro, Jose
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Forsman, Tobias
    Martinssons, Sweden.
    Oscillerande torkningsklimat – studier i tomograf och klimatkammare: Slutrapport2021Report (Other academic)
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  • 35.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The conditioning regime in industrial drying of Scots pine sawn timber studied by X-ray computed tomography: a case-study2020In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 78, no 4, p. 673-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial drying of sawn timber is a process driven by a difference in moisture content (MC) between the core and the surface as moisture moves from the wet inner region towards the drier surface. After drying, the timber surface is always drier than its core, and stresses have developed within the wood volume. If the timber is to be further processed, these stresses and the moisture gradient need to be reduced to avoid unwanted distortion, i.e. the timber needs to be conditioned. Conditioning is usually accomplished by exposing the timber to a hot and humid climate after the drying regime. The conditioning regime is essential for timber quality, and it is energy and time consuming; therefore of interest for optimisation. This research was a case study where for the first time the MC during conditioning was studied in an X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. The aim was to test a previously developed algorithm and investigate the influence of MC and heartwood-sapwood proportion on the effectivity of the moisture equalisation in 30 mm thick Scots pine boards. The MC was estimated from CT data acquired during the drying and conditioning of the boards in a lab-scale kiln adapted to a medical CT scanner. Results show that the algorithm can provide relevant data of internal MC distribution of sawn timber at the pixel level. Furthermore, for the drying schedules studied, the conditioning at low MC (8%) does not need to be longer than 3 h, while higher MC (18%) requires a longer conditioning.

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  • 36.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Shotton, Elizabeth
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Walsh, St John
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Cramer, Marlene
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Ridley-Ellis, Daniel
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Harte, Annete
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Ui Chulana, Catriona
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Risse, Michael
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Ivanica, Raphaela
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    De Arana-Fernández, Marina
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    García Barbero, Manuel
    Klimark + Novadomus Hábitat, Spain.
    Llana, Daniel
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Íñiguez-González, Guillermo
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Nasiri, Bahareh
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Hughes, Mark
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Krofl, Žiga
    University of Ljubljana, Slovania.
    Design for deconstruction and reuse of timber structures – state of the art review2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a state-of-the-art on timber construction in selected european countries and and discusses technical premises for a potential circular use of timber in building construction, focusing on Design for Deconstruction and Reuse (DfDR) in low-rise timber buildings, up to 3 storeys. It describes the historic and contemporary building techniques of timber buildings in all project countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, UK, Spain, Germany, Slovenia) and finds, that all of these countries have a long history of building with timber, but in most regions other materials dominated the housing output from the beginning of the 20th century. Only in the second half of the 20th century timber started gaining importance as a building material in Europe again, with light timber frame construction becoming an important construction system. From the beginning of the 21st century, innovations in the sector started transforming the construction industry. Mass timber products like CLT opened the market for high-rise timber buildings and in some countries office blocks, schools and hotels are built using timber, although the majority of timber construction remains residential. An even more important development might be the uptake of offsite construction, that makes timber construction more accurate, material efficient, fast and it reduces waste. These modern methods of construction are gaining importance in the construction sector of all partner countries and are likely to dominate the European housing output in the future. There will be some regional differences in the level of prefabrication, material choices and designs, so that any design guidelines for DfDR need to be adapted to the regional context. However, modern timber construction is not currently aligned with circular economy principles and is seldomly taking buildings endof-life-into account.

    Therefore, the report continues to summarise novel design concepts for deconstruction and reuse, that could be used in modern timber buildings. It outlines that the feasibility as well as the reuse potential depends on the scale of reclaimed components, where larger components and assemblies are often considered beneficial in terms of time, greenhouse gas emissions and waste production. If volumetric or planar units could be salvaged in the future, they also need to be adaptable for altered regulations or standards or alternative functions. It is further necessary that assemblies can be altered within buildings, since different building components have different life expectancies. Various examples for DfDR in buildings with the accompanying design strategies are presented. The buildings in the examples are often designed to be in one place for a limited timeframe and can be deconstructed and re-erected elsewhere without replacement of components. Key-features often include modularity of components, reversible connections, adaptability of the floor-plan and circular procurement. Even though it is evidently possible, the structural reuse of timber is not a wide-spread approach to date. Barriers to the use of reclaimed structural components are mainly a lack in demand for salvaged materials, but also prohibitive building regulations and the lack of design standards. Demolition practices play a crucial role as well and need to be considered in the design of buildings, to avoid damage to the components.

    Finally, the report summarises principles and guidelines for DfDR by different authors. As a generic approach an indicator system for deconstructability and reusability could be introduced. Time, Separability, Risk and Safety, Simplicity and Interchangeability are identified5as the main indicators for DfDR, that remain somewhat abstract. As opposed to using a generic indicator system, a more practical approach of assessing DfDR on an individual basis could be taken. This way specific shortcomings of the design can be addressed. But if DfDR found a wider application in the future, this approach may be too time consuming and there is a need for a more directed decision-making tool that can be used during the design phase of buildings to enhance DfDR. As the InFutUReWood project proceeds, it will examine a more granular approach to DfDR, relating it to the actual construction stages used in practice, developing a general template to be appropriated and adjusted to account for regional variations in construction. A strategic matrix is in development which will provide designers with a methodology based on relating principles, strategies and specific tactics to the typical design stages, to aid design decisions that promote DfDR.

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  • 37.
    Crocetti, R.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lappalainen, K.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Backman, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wålinder, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Multiple shear plane connections with timber based gusset plates2021In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2021, WCTE 2021, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study conducted on multiple-shear joints consisting of gusset plates made of either LVL or plywood connected to the timber members by means of full-threaded self-tapping screw. Both hardwood and softwood timber based gusset plates with different thickness and face grain orientations were investigated. The results show that this type of connection has an excellent structural performance, with not very dissimilar strength from that of comparable connections which makes use of slotted-in steel plates and dowels. It is believed, therefore, that the proposed solution can be a valid alternative to the more traditional timber connection with slotted-in steel plates and dowels. 

  • 38.
    Derba-Maceluch, Marta
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sivan, Pramod
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Donev, EN
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gandla, Medhavi
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Vaasan, Rakhesh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Heinonen, Emilia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sanna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Amini, Fariba
    Umeå University, Sweden; Arak University, Iran.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Johansson, Ulf
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Vilaplana, FJ
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Albrectsen, BR
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hertzberg, Magnus
    SweTree Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Leif
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Mellerowicz, E. J.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Impact of xylan on field productivity and wood saccharification properties in aspen2023In: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 14, article id 1218302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xylan that comprises roughly 25% of hardwood biomass is undesirable in biorefinery applications involving saccharification and fermentation. Efforts to reduce xylan levels have therefore been made in many species, usually resulting in improved saccharification. However, such modified plants have not yet been tested under field conditions. Here we evaluate the field performance of transgenic hybrid aspen lines with reduced xylan levels and assess their usefulness as short-rotation feedstocks for biorefineries. Three types of transgenic lines were tested in four-year field tests with RNAi constructs targeting either Populus GT43 clades B and C (GT43BC) corresponding to Arabidopsis clades IRX9 and IRX14, respectively, involved in xylan backbone biosynthesis, GATL1.1 corresponding to AtGALT1 involved in xylan reducing end sequence biosynthesis, or ASPR1 encoding an atypical aspartate protease. Their productivity, wood quality traits, and saccharification efficiency were analyzed. The only lines differing significantly from the wild type with respect to growth and biotic stress resistance were the ASPR1 lines, whose stems were roughly 10% shorter and narrower and leaves showed increased arthropod damage. GT43BC lines exhibited no growth advantage in the field despite their superior growth in greenhouse experiments. Wood from the ASPR1 and GT43BC lines had slightly reduced density due to thinner cell walls and, in the case of ASPR1, larger cell diameters. The xylan was less extractable by alkali but more hydrolysable by acid, had increased glucuronosylation, and its content was reduced in all three types of transgenic lines. The hemicellulose size distribution in the GALT1.1 and ASPR1 lines was skewed towards higher molecular mass compared to the wild type. These results provide experimental evidence that GATL1.1 functions in xylan biosynthesis and suggest that ASPR1 may regulate this process. In saccharification without pretreatment, lines of all three constructs provided 8-11% higher average glucose yields than wild-type plants. In saccharification with acid pretreatment, the GT43BC construct provided a 10% yield increase on average. The best transgenic lines of each construct are thus predicted to modestly outperform the wild type in terms of glucose yields per hectare. The field evaluation of transgenic xylan-reduced aspen represents an important step towards more productive feedstocks for biorefineries. Copyright © 2023 Derba-Maceluch, Sivan, Donev, Gandla, Yassin, Vaasan, Heinonen, Andersson, Amini, Scheepers, Johansson, Vilaplana, Albrectsen, Hertzberg, Jönsson and Mellerowicz.

  • 39.
    Donev, E. N.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Derba-Maceluch, M.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Gandla, M. L.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Pramod, S.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Heinonen, E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kumar, V.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Vilaplana, F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, U.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hertzberg, M.
    SweTree Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Sundberg, B.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Winestrand, S.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hörnberg, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Jönsson, L. J.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Mellerowicz, E. J.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Field testing of transgenic aspen from large greenhouse screening identifies unexpected winners2023In: Plant Biotechnology Journal, ISSN 1467-7644, E-ISSN 1467-7652, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1005-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trees constitute promising renewable feedstocks for biorefinery using biochemical conversion, but their recalcitrance restricts their attractiveness for the industry. To obtain trees with reduced recalcitrance, large-scale genetic engineering experiments were performed in hybrid aspen blindly targeting genes expressed during wood formation and 32 lines representing seven constructs were selected for characterization in the field. Here we report phenotypes of five-year old trees considering 49 traits related to growth and wood properties. The best performing construct considering growth and glucose yield in saccharification with acid pretreatment had suppressed expression of the gene encoding an uncharacterized 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2OGD). It showed minor changes in wood chemistry but increased nanoporosity and glucose conversion. Suppressed levels of SUCROSE SYNTHASE, (SuSy), CINNAMATE 4-HYDROXYLASE (C4H) and increased levels of GTPase activating protein for ADP-ribosylation factor ZAC led to significant growth reductions and anatomical abnormalities. However, C4H and SuSy constructs greatly improved glucose yields in saccharification without and with pretreatment, respectively. Traits associated with high glucose yields were different for saccharification with and without pretreatment. While carbohydrates, phenolics and tension wood contents positively impacted the yields without pretreatment and growth, lignin content and S/G ratio were negative factors, the yields with pretreatment positively correlated with S lignin and negatively with carbohydrate contents. The genotypes with high glucose yields had increased nanoporosity and mGlcA/Xyl ratio, and some had shorter polymers extractable with subcritical water compared to wild-type. The pilot-scale industrial-like pretreatment of best-performing 2OGD construct confirmed its superior sugar yields, supporting our strategy. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Lindgren, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    5G i träindustrin2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Privata 5G nätverk – antingen som en del av ett publikt eller som ett helt eget mobilnät erbjuder möjliga lösningar på ett antal av de utmaningar som finns kring WiFi och trådlösa uppkopplingar i logistik och produktion. Tekniken börjar bli väletablerad och antalet leverantörer ökar snabbt samtidigt som priser för infrastrukturen sjunker i pris. Förutom att femte generationens mobilnät löser problem kring mobilitet och uppkoppling så finns ett antal intressanta funktioner såsom positionering och standardiserad edge computing för lokala digitala tjänster. Dessa funktioner bör dock ses som en del av en framtida uppgradering snarare än något som finns tillgängligt idag (dock inte så långt bort in i framtiden). Alla de besökta sågverken hade liknande utmaningar kring trådlös uppkoppling och i vissa fall har även 4G-baserade lösningar börjat användas – med gott resultat.

    Tyvärr fick vi inte konkreta priser från de operatörer och leverantörer som dialog fördes med men via vissa leverantörer kan man ändå få en viss indikation (se t ex AWS erbjudande där det för ett privat nät med två radioaccespunkter ligger på ca 140 KSEK / månad totalt).

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  • 41.
    Escamez, S.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Terryn, C.
    Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, France.
    Gandla, M. L.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Näsholm, T.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sundman, O.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, L. J.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lundberg-Felten, J.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tuominen, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Niittylä, T.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Paës, G.
    Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, France.
    Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging as an in Situ and Label-Free Readout for the Chemical Composition of Lignin2021In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 9, no 51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Naturally fluorescent polymeric molecules such as collagen, resilin, cutin, suberin, or lignin can serve as renewable sources of bioproducts. Theoretical physics predicts that the fluorescence lifetime of these polymers is related to their chemical composition. We verified this prediction for lignin, a major structural element in plant cell walls that form woody biomass. Lignin is composed of different phenylpropanoid units, and its composition affects its properties, biological functions, and the utilization of wood biomass. We carried out fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) measurements of wood cell wall lignin in a population of 90 hybrid aspen trees genetically engineered to display differences in cell wall chemistry and structure. We also measured the wood cell wall composition by classical analytical methods in these trees. Using statistical modeling and machine learning algorithms, we identified parameters of fluorescence lifetime that predict the content of S-type and G-type lignin units, the two main types of units in the lignin of angiosperm (flowering) plants. In a first step toward tailoring lignin biosynthesis toward improvement of woody biomass feedstocks, we show how FLIM can reveal the dynamics of lignin biosynthesis in two different biological contexts, including in vivo while lignin is being synthesized in the walls of living cells. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 42.
    Escamez, Sacha
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Robinson, Kathryn
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Luomaranta, Mikko
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Gandla, Madhavi
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Mähler, Niklas
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Stener, Lars-Göran
    Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, eif
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Street, N. R.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Tuominen, Hannele
    Umeå University, Sweden; SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Genetic markers and tree properties predicting wood biorefining potential in aspen (Populus tremula) bioenergy feedstock2023In: Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts, E-ISSN 2731-3654, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Wood represents the majority of the biomass on land and constitutes a renewable source of biofuels and other bioproducts. However, wood is recalcitrant to bioconversion, raising a need for feedstock improvement in production of, for instance, biofuels. We investigated the properties of wood that affect bioconversion, as well as the underlying genetics, to help identify superior tree feedstocks for biorefining. Results: We recorded 65 wood-related and growth traits in a population of 113 natural aspen genotypes from Sweden (https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.gtht76hrd). These traits included three growth and field performance traits, 20 traits for wood chemical composition, 17 traits for wood anatomy and structure, and 25 wood saccharification traits as indicators of bioconversion potential. Glucose release after saccharification with acidic pretreatment correlated positively with tree stem height and diameter and the carbohydrate content of the wood, and negatively with the content of lignin and the hemicellulose sugar units. Most of these traits displayed extensive natural variation within the aspen population and high broad-sense heritability, supporting their potential in genetic improvement of feedstocks towards improved bioconversion. Finally, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed 13 genetic loci for saccharification yield (on a whole-tree-biomass basis), with six of them intersecting with associations for either height or stem diameter of the trees. Conclusions: The simple growth traits of stem height and diameter were identified as good predictors of wood saccharification yield in aspen trees. GWAS elucidated the underlying genetics, revealing putative genetic markers for bioconversion of bioenergy tree feedstocks. © 2023, The Author(s).

  • 43.
    Falk, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sjukhus Demonstrator 2021 – 20232023Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 44.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Durgun, Özum
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Orosz, Katalin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Efficient emergency responses to vehicle collision, earthquake, snowfall, and flooding on highways and bridges: A review2020In: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 51-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article analyzes factors affecting emergency response to hazardous events on highways and their bridges, with focus on man-made and natural scenarios: heavy vehicle collision with a bridge, earthquake, heavy snowfall, and flooding. For each disaster scenario, selected historical events were compiled to determine influential factors and success criteria for efficient emergency response, both related to organizational and technical measures. This study constituted a part of a resilience management process, recently developed and demonstrated within the European Union (EU)-funded H2020 project IMPROVER and can be a useful approach in aiding operators of transportation infrastructure to improve their resilience to emergency incidents.

  • 45.
    Funk, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Värde- eller volymoptimering av sidobräder2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the help of the saw simulation program Saw2010, and the Swedish stem bank, a simulated sawing of 1288 logs has been performed, after which planks and boards have been quality-determined according to Nordic Wood (the Blue Book) and evaluated. After a large number of simulations on boards and planks of pine and spruce, it can be stated that value optimization gives a higher value yield than volume optimization in all three realistic price situations tested. The total value varies between price ranges and types of wood but is stably better on all runs with value optimization compared with volume optimization. The result is described as the total value increase in percent for all products in each run. A total of three runs were made in pine and three in spruce with respectively low, intermediate, and high prize level. The highest increase in value for edging with value optimization, compared with volume optimization, is found in both pine and spruce in the lowest price level, 5.1% and 5.0%, respectively. At the intermediate price level, the increase in value is 4.2% for pine and 3.3% for spruce. The highest price level gave a value increase of 3.0% for pine and 1.8% for spruce in value optimization compared with volume optimization. Simulations with changed quality parameters were also performed. One simulation was performed with a smaller permitted wane and one with larger permitted knots on the flat face compared to Nordic Wood. Also, these simulations showed clearly increased value in value optimization compared with volume optimization.

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  • 46.
    Grahn, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Detection of wood species and defects with NIR2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project the possibility to determine different wood species and detect defects on wood cross-sections on logs with hyperspectral near-infrared camera was investigated. This project was a laboratory study where cross-sections of logs were scanned at the wood and fibre analysis laboratory at RISE with near-infrared instrument.Wood samples from different origins and species, with different defects were scanned with a hyperspectral near-infrared camera. Classification models were developed to characterise and classify the different logs.Spruce and pine samples were collected from different sawmills, a group of these samples contained fungal growth. The defects within the collected logs varied and some samples contained decay fungi such as sap- and heart rot as well as non-destructive blue stain. Classifications models to distinguish between different wood species were developed, as well classification models to differentiate between healthy wood and the fungal attack were also developed.

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  • 47.
    Granlund, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Lindh, E. Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Malou Petersson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Evaluation of Snow Removal Methods for Rooftop Photovoltaics2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avoiding snow on photovoltaic (PV) installations is motivated for two reasons: to decrease power losses from shading, or to decrease mechanical loads to avoid damage to the PV-installation and the underlying construction. We experimentally investigated the effectiveness and suitability of four different snow removal methods at our facility in the north of Sweden (Piteå, 65°N), throughout three winters. The layout of a PV installation and the underlying roof, together with meteorological conditions and snow characteristics, impact which methods are best suited for snow removal. A simple roof rake with a rectangular toolhead works well when the snowpack is compact and not too thick, whereas a roof rake with a slide works better when the snow is dry and packed. Neither the investigated passive hydrophobic surface coatings, nor the active forward bias electrical heating methods induced shedding of the accumulated snowpack in our experiments without additional intervention. At our test facility in Piteå, the roof rake with a slide was the most effective and user-friendly snow removal. Despite maximum snow loads of approximately 1 kPa, far below the modules’ rating, cell damage was observed for both snow removal groups (except for the slide roof rake group) and the control group.

  • 48.
    Gustavsson, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Björnlund, Linus
    Conservator AB, Sweden.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    Conservator AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Olof
    Moistenginst AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Mats
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Sikander, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Fuktsäkra byggnader: en nulägesbeskrivning2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Boverket ser ett behov av en kunskapssammanställning kring nuläget om fuktsäkra byggnader i Sverige för att ha en så bred och korrekt förståelse som möjligt för vem branschen är, vilka regler som tillämpas, var det finns kunskapscentra och vilka utvecklingsbehov som behöver stödjas för att branschen ska kunna ta större ansvar. De utmaningar som noteras är: Byggsektorn beredskap och förmåga att möta de nya förändrade byggregler som planeras av Boverket.

    Den stora andelen fuktrelaterade fel och skador som rapporteras i olika utredningar. Kraven kopplat till fuktrelaterade innemiljöproblem är otydliga och ofta svåra att följa upp. Detta kan leda till fuktrelaterade innemiljöproblem som orsakar lidande för de individer som drabbas.Miljö och klimatfrågan ställer krav både på resurseffektivitet och minskad klimatpåverkan samt resiliens och klimatanpassning. Förändrade boendevanor och brukarvanor som ändrar på förutsättningarna i en byggnad. Fragmentering och specialisering med många aktörer med ansvar för sin del endast. Några utvecklingsområden har noterats. Områden där det behövs både forskning och utveckling av teknik, processer och samarbeten: Kvalitetssäkring av nya material, konstruktioner och produktionsmetoderKompetensutveckling och kompetensspridning.Framtagning och tillgängliggörande av kunskap, teknikutveckling. Samsyn behöver utvecklas när det gäller bl.a. uttorkning i betong och i vilken omfattning byggnader behöver skyddas mot fukt under byggproduktionen. Undersökning av utvecklingsmöjligheter behövs för att ta vara på digitaliseringens möjligheter med sensorer, digitala tvillingar, AI m.m. i samband med fuktsäkerhet. Kartläggningen skulle förstärkas med en bredare internationell utblick. Det tycks finnas en del skillnader både i arbetssätt och erfarenheter kring fuktsäkra byggnader.Förhoppningen är att kartläggning av fuktsäkra byggnader ska bidra till kunskapsspridning om bransch, aktörer, teknik, system, konstruktion, kontroller, drift och underhåll samt forskning och fortsatt utvecklingsarbete.

  • 49.
    Hagentoft, C-E
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Stochastic simulation of rain intrusion through small defects due to water rivulet overpressure. Introducing a driving rain leakage potential2021In: 'Journal of Physics: Conference Series , IOP Publishing Ltd , 2021, Vol. 2069, no 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need of upgrading the old building stock with respect to the thermal insulation of the building envelope and specifically the façades. There are several systems on the market, and some are quite new and innovative. To bring down the cost some of the systems many are based on prefabricated moisture tight insulated units. This means that in case there is moisture tight barrier on the interior side, two moisture tight barriers surround the wall structure. The leakage of driving rain into the structure then represents a major threat to the durability of these systems. This paper investigates the pressure build up in water rivulets running down a façade acting together with the wind pressure. A driving rain leakage potential is introduced. Using real weather data years and Monte Carlo Simulations, the mean and standard deviation of the annual leakage through small hole is estimated. The examples show that the leakage can reach a level 0-0.5 liter/year for a hole with a diameter of 1-2 mm, and 0.5-3 liter/year for a diameter of 3-4 mm.

  • 50.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Informed successive condition assessments in bridge maintenance2020In: Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring, ISSN 2190-5452, Vol. 10, p. 729-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The condition assessment of bridges considers a combination of information from different sources rendering multiple levels of assessment possible. This paper illustrates how successive condition assessment strategies increase the expected utility compared to single choice decisions through Bayesian inference. Multiple levels of assessment allow for additional possibilities for obtaining structural health information and updating one’s beliefs about structural condition. Thus, more informed decision-making is possible with respect to the gain in accuracy versus the costs of the assessment options. The paper aims to introduce how the successive approach can be implemented and in which scenarios it provides an increase in expected utility in comparison to one instant decision. To highlight this, a few pedagogical numerical examples are provided. © 2020, The Author(s).

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