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  • 1.
    Abi Nassif, L.
    et al.
    University Brest, France; University Saint Joseph, France.
    Rioual, S.
    University Brest, France.
    Farah, W.
    University Saint Joseph, France.
    Hellio, C.
    University Brest, France.
    Fauchon, M.
    University Brest, France.
    Trepos, R.
    University Brest, France.
    Abboud, M.
    University Saint Joseph, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Lescop, B.
    University Brest, France.
    Reduction of potential ennoblement of stainless steel in natural seawater by an ecofriendly biopolymer2020In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 103609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of biofilm formation on passive stainless steel in seawater environments is of primary importance since it leads to potential ennoblement of surfaces and subsequently to localized corrosion such as pitting and crevice corrosion. This study aims at developing an ecofriendly alginate biopolymer containing both non-toxic calcium and a limited amount of biocidal zinc ions which inhibits this effect. For this purpose, calcium alginate containing less than 1 % of zinc ions localized in the vicinity of the steel surface in natural and renewed seawater is demonstrated to reduce significantly the ennoblement process of steel. After 1 month of immersion, a mass loss of only 4 % of the active material is observed authorizing thereby long-term protection of steel in real environment. 

  • 2.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Jafri, Yawer
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sustainable aviation fuels – Options for negative emissions and high carbon efficiency2023In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 125, article id 103886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigating the climate impact from aviation remains one of the tougher challenges in adapting society to fulfill stated climate targets. Long-range aviation cannot be electrified for the foreseeable future and the effects of combusting fuel at high altitude increase the climate impact compared to emissions of green-house gasses only, which further limits the range of sustainable fuel alternatives. We investigate seven different pathways for producing aviation biofuels coupled with either bio-energy carbon capture and storage (BECCS), or bio-energy carbon capture and utilization (BECCU). Both options allow for increased efficiency regarding utilization of feedstock carbon. Our analysis uses process-level carbon- and energy balances, with carbon efficiency, climate impact and levelized cost of production (LCOP) as primary performance indicators. The results show that CCS can achieve a negative carbon footprint for four out of the seven pathways, at a lower cost of GHG reduction than the base process option. Conversely, as a consequence of the electricity-intensive CO2 upgrading process, the CCU option shows less encouraging results with higher production costs, carbon footprints and costs of GHG reduction. Overall, pathways with large amounts of vented CO2, e.g., gasification of black liquor or bark, as well as fermentation of forest residues, reach a low GHG reduction cost for the CCS option. These are also pathways with a larger feedstock and corresponding production potential. Our results enable a differentiated comparison of the suitability of various alternatives for BECCS or BECCU in combination with aviation biofuel production. By quantifying the relative strengths and weaknesses of BECCS and BECCU and by highlighting cost, climate and carbon-efficient pathways, these results can be a source of support for both policymakers and the industry. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 3.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Berg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Olsson, Henrik
    Karlsson, Lars-Evert
    Wärtsilä Sweden AB. Sweden.
    Niinipuu, Mirva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Biologisk metanisering av syngas från förgasning och pyrolys - lovande koncept mot implementering2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological methanation of syngas from pyrolysis and gasification – promising concepts for implementation The need for increased biogas production is significant, and in the EU, there are plans for a substantial expansion in the coming years through the RePowerEU initiative. Part of the increase will come from the expansion of conventional digestion technology, where organic materials such as food waste, manure, and crop residues are used for biogas production. However, to meet the future increased demand, it is also necessary to utilize more difficult-to-digest substrates, such as biomass rich in lignocellulose, for biogas production. This could be forest residues such as branches and tops, sawdust, or bark. This type of substrates cannot be used in a conventional digestion process, and other technology chains are therefore required to convert such biomass into biomethane. This can be done by first converting the biomass into syngas through a thermochemical process such as gasification or pyrolysis. This is followed by a methanation process where the syngas is converted into biogas, and finally, the gas is upgraded to reach biomethane quality. These types of technology chains are not currently available on a commercial scale, but they have been demonstrated, for example, through the Gobigas project, where gasification was followed by catalytic methanation for biomethane production. As full-scale implementation of catalytic methanation of bio-syngas has not yet been achieved, thereis a need to develop alternative conversion technologies that can more cost-effectively achieve the methanation of woody biomass. One possible opportunity for to this is to apply biological methanation instead of a catalytic process. A biological process comes with several advantages, including a greater ability to handle contaminants, higher selectivity in the conversion of syngas, and operation at relatively low temperature and pressure, which simplifies material selection and reactor design. RISE, together with its partners, are developing a concept based on biological methanation of syngas. This project has examined the biological process's ability to handle contaminants in syngas through continuous experiments in carrier-filled trickle bed reactors with an active volume of 5 liters. The process's ability to handle and break down contaminants is an important parameter that can affect and simplify the design of the gas cleaning that occurs after gasification or pyrolysis. Another aspect of the project has been to put the experimental results into context at the concept and system level. Different production techniques for syngas have been mapped out, which could be combined with biological methanation. Based on the mapping, three types of plants have been selected for more detailed analyses of techno-economics, carbon footprint, and opportunities for increased carbon efficiency. The methanation experiments lasted for 552 days, and overall, it was a stable process with high turnover of syngas and high methane production over a long time. There have been some operational disturbances, mainly related to the supply of gas to the process (i.e. delivery of gas cylinders). However, biochemical inhibition or disturbances have been rare, demonstrating a high robustness for biological methanation of syngas. The breakdown of contaminants has been excellent in the process, with levels decreasing below the detection limit. At the same time, as contaminants have been continuously added to the process, microbiology has been able to maintain high turnover of hydrogen and carbon monoxide to methane. The specific methane production was high both during the reference period without contaminants and during the experimental periods with added contaminants. During long periods, the specific methane production has been around 4 L CH4/Lbed volume /day, which is about 4 times higher than our previously achieved results. The transition to thermophilic temperature and using carriers with higher effective surface area has contributed to this increase. During the project, three types of plants have been selected for more detailed analysis: 1) Gasification with Cortus process, which generates a relatively clean syngas with minimal purification needs before biological methanation. There is no need for co-location with a heating plant, but it is an advantage if there is access to the district heating network to sell waste heat. 2) Gasification with Bioshares' concept, where the gasifier is integrated into a larger cogeneration plant and where the produced syngas is purified with an RME-scrubber before biological methanation. Co-location with a larger cogeneration plant provides interesting synergies and integration opportunities, but also sets the boundaries for where the plants can be located. 3) Slow pyrolysis according to Envigas' concept, where the primary product is biochar and where the produced syngas is seen as a by-product. The syngas contains some impurities but generally requires no other purification than cooling to the right temperature (condensing out tars) before being added to biological methanation. This type of plant differs from plant types 1-2 in that the syngas formed is not the primary product, and the syngas has a relatively low energy value compared to the others. Syngas from plant types 2 and 3 contains some hydrocarbons (C1-C3) that are considered inert over the methanation step and therefore do not negatively affect the process. This means that heavier hydrocarbons do not need to be removed upstream, which would likely have been required with catalytic methanation. This leads to a higher system efficiency, and the need for reactor capacity for biological methanation decreases since there is less gas to be processed (more of the end-product consists of hydrocarbons already formed during the thermochemical conversion upstream). For all plant types, downstream of the methanation step, there is a need for further gas purification and upgrading. During the upgrading step carbon dioxide is separated to reach the product specification required by the end user. If long distance distribution is required a final process step consisting of a liquefaction plant for the production of liquid biogas (LBG) can be added to the concept. As another option, the systems can be supplemented with treatment of the carbon dioxide flow out of the upgrading plant, where the flow is processed by drying, compression, and cooling to produce liquid carbon dioxide. For plant type 2, where benzene is present in the syngas, this gas is expected to be separated with relatively high precision in the system and thereby generate a small flow of liquid benzene as a side product. The carbon dioxide emissions for the final product LBG are in the range of 1.6 to 2.6 gCO2-eq/MJLBG, which compares favorably to other types of second-generation biofuels. Compared to fossil gas, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is 96-97%. The carbon efficiency of the systems can be significantly increased if excess carbon dioxide is utilized either through BECCS or BECCU. If the carbon dioxide stream from the upgrading plant is processed into liquid carbon dioxide, the production cost is estimated to be 187-204 SEK/ton. If the product is to be sent to permanent storage the cost for transportation and storage would need to be added to estimate total cost of BECCS, but this is out of scope for the current project.. Assuming that BECCS is applied and that the entire carbon sink is allocated to the final product LBG, this will result in negative emissions in the range of -35 to -104 gCO2-eq/MJLBG. An alternative is to utilize excess carbon dioxide directly in the methanation process by boosting incoming gas with extra hydrogen. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide are then converted by methanogens, which generates extra methane. Since the addition of extra hydrogen is assumed to come from electrolysis, the additional methane production can likely be classified as electrofuel, so-called e-methane. The techno-economic evaluation results in a production cost ranging from 740 to 1300 SEK/MWhLBG, including all sensitivity scenarios. The lower price scenarios include a lower investment cost, which can be assumed to represent cases with public investment support. Overall, a large part of the scenarios are considered to be within the range of what can be considered market relevant production costs. This leads to the conclusion that there is techno-economic potential at this stage to justify continued development of concepts based on biological methanation of syngas. With scaling up and continued development in the right direction, the concepts may eventually lead to cost-effective utilization of forest residues for the production of biomethane at a commercially relevant scale. The next step in the development is scaling up to pilot scale, which will take place during 2023-2025 through an EU-funded project and will be carried out by RISE, Wärtsilä, Cortus and Swedish Gas Association. A pilot plant for biological methanation will then be operated with syngas from Cortus' gasifier in Höganäs.

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  • 4.
    Becker, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Pellé, J.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Rioual, S.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Lescop, B.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Atmospheric corrosion of silver, copper and nickel exposed to hydrogen sulphide: a multi-analytical investigation approach2022In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 209, article id 110726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of two concentrations of H2S (0.5 and 2.5 ppm), in controlled laboratory conditions (20 °C, 75%RH), on the atmospheric corrosion of pure Ag, Cu and Ni was investigated in this study. The corrosion product morphology and composition were analysed through a multi-technique approach including SEM/EDX, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and XRD. Different corrosion products were identified depending on the type of characterisations providing a better overview of the effect of H2S on the atmospheric corrosion of pure Ag, Cu and Ni. Possible mechanisms involved in the formation of these corrosion products are also discussed in this work. © 2022 The Authors

  • 5.
    Bender, R.
    et al.
    DECHEMA eV, Germany.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Zheludkevich, M.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Germany.
    Corrosion challenges towards a sustainable society2022In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 73, no 11, p. 1730-1751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A global transition towards more sustainable, affordable and reliable energy systems is being stimulated by the Paris Agreement and the United Nation's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This poses a challenge for the corrosion industry, as building climate-resilient energy systems and infrastructures brings with it a long-term direction, so as a result the long-term behaviour of structural materials (mainly metals and alloys) becomes a major prospect. With this in mind “Corrosion Challenges Towards a Sustainable Society” presents a series of cases showing the importance of corrosion protection of metals and alloys in the development of energy production to further understand the science of corrosion, and bring the need for research and the consequences of corrosion into public and political focus. This includes emphasis on the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions, on the lifetime of infrastructures, implants, cultural heritage artefacts, and a variety of other topics. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 6.
    Bin Mohamad Sultan, Borhan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion. PSL University, France.
    Gharbi, Oumaïma
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Ogle, Kevin
    PSL University, France.
    Han, Junsoo
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    On-line inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry: Real-time element-resolved electrochemistry2023In: Current Opinion in Electrochemistry, E-ISSN 2451-9103, Vol. 41, article id 101350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical techniques are coupled with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry for in-line electrolyte analyses. In this way, direct measurement of the elemental dissolution rates in real-time or element-resolved electrochemistry can be carried out, complementary to conventional electrochemical measurements. This methodology can be used to obtain the element-specific reaction mechanisms under either spontaneous or polarized conditions up to part-per-billion level resolution with applications in diverse domains of corrosion science and interfacial reactivity. This review aims to summarize recent research activities using ICP coupled with other analytical techniques to answer specific questions on the mechanism of degradation of materials in aqueous or organic environments including the dissolution of metal oxides, catalysis, reaction stoichiometry, electrochemical kinetics, and photoelectrochemical reactivity.

  • 7.
    Björk, Folke
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden .
    Sederholm, Bror
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden .
    Electroosmosis - A method applied for handling of moisture in foundations2020In: E3S Web of Conferences. Volyme 172, 2020, EDP Sciences , 2020, article id 17010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroosmosis is an electrokinetic phenomena which is applied in some technical fields. It is also applied large scale for transport of moisture out of basements. We see the method of electroosmosis as an opportunity for solving moisture problems in basements. However, there is a need to develop both the technology for the method and the understanding about what to expect out of it. Better methods are needed to predict whether the method will work in a particular case. © The Authors.

  • 8.
    Bonin, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion. Université de Toulouse, France.
    Roggero, Aurelien
    Université de Toulouse, France.
    Caussé, Nicolas
    Université de Toulouse, France.
    Pébère, Nadine
    Université de Toulouse, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Le Bozec, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Impedance analysis of the barrier effect of coil-coated materials: Water uptake and glass transition variations2021In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 153, article id 106163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, an industrial polyester coil-coated steel sample was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The diagrams were obtained for various immersion times in a 0.5 M NaCl solution for three different initial states of the same coil coating (as received, dried and dried after the impedance measurements). The aim of the study was to have a better knowledge of how the water uptake influences the coil coating physical properties and to extract relevant parameters of the ageing processes. From the high-frequency part of the impedance diagrams, the water uptake was calculated using a linear rule of mixtures. Two sorption regions were observed for the dried samples suggesting the presence of porosities already filled with ambient moisture for the as-received sample. It was shown that the water uptake was a slow process and, independently of the initial state of the sample, a saturation plateau was never reached, even after 456 h of immersion. A time constant, clearly visible on the phase angle of the impedance diagrams, was analysed through the dielectric permittivity formalism and attributed to the signature of the dielectric manifestation of the glass transition. This time constant was shifted to higher frequencies with increasing water fraction (increasing immersion time), consistent with a plasticization effect. This result was supported by differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Finally, the data obtained for the different initial states of the coating highlighted that, even if the water uptake was reversible, the sorption kinetics was different for the sample dried after the impedance measurements. This could be of importance in the degradation process of the coil coated steel. 

  • 9.
    Bulidon, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Deydier, Valerie
    Andra, France.
    Bumbieler, Frederic
    Andra, France.
    Duret-Thual, Claude
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion. Exacorr, France.
    Mendibide, Christophe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Crusset, Didier
    Andra, France.
    Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of P285NH and API 5L X65 steel grades in the high-level radioactive waste repository cell concept2021In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, no 1-2, p. 154-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2014, the concept developed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the French deep geological repository project Cigéo includes a cement-based grout material. This cement-based grout material will be injected between the casing and the claystone to neutralize the potential acidity resulting from the claystone oxidation induced by the drilling process of the disposal cell. In these conditions of pH (around 10.5) and temperature (90°C, maximum expected during the disposal), the metallic materials could be sensitive to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In this project, different environments (aerated or deaerated, at room temperature or at 90°C) and synthetic solutions are considered to reproduce the different periods expected during the long life repository. The project is based on electrochemical measurements (polarization curves to define the SCC critical domain of potentials), slow strain rate tensile tests, and long-term immersion for crack initiation and propagation tests.

  • 10.
    Bulidon, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Pélissier, Krystel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Boissy, Clément
    M.E.C.M Rond-point de l'échangeur, France.
    Mendibide, Christophe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Maillot, Valérie
    Andra, France.
    Bourbon, Xavier
    Andra, France.
    Crusset, Didier
    Andra, France.
    Hydrogen production through aluminium corrosion in a cement-based matrix2023In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 74, no 11-12, p. 1765-1776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In France, deep geological disposal is considered for the storage of high and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive wastes. For aluminium, the possibility to encapsulate the wastes in a cement-based matrix is studied. However, cement being an alkaline environment, aluminium can lose its passivity, starts to corrode leading to hydrogen evolution in the infrastructures and generate a possible explosive hazard after decades of storage if hydrogen can accumulate somewhere in the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the corrosion behaviour of aluminium in the different cements considered for the encapsulation to estimate the possible amount of hydrogen that could be generated through corrosion and design the cement capsules accordingly. This work mainly focused on the reaction occurring at the aluminium-cement interface. Raman spectroscopy did not highlight significant differences in the nature of the corrosion products forming at the cement/aluminium interface, leading to the conclusion that it is not the chemistry of the cement that is the key factor controlling the corrosion rate but rather the physical properties of the cement matrix. 

  • 11.
    Cahill, P. L.
    et al.
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Moodie, L. W. K.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hertzer, C.
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Pinori, Emiliano
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Pavia, H.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hellio, C.
    Univ. Brest, France.
    Brimble, M. A.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Svenson, Johan
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Creating New Antifoulants Using the Tools and Tactics of Medicinal Chemistry2024In: Accounts of Chemical Research, ISSN 0001-4842, E-ISSN 1520-4898, Vol. 57, p. 399-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conspectus The unwanted accumulation of marine micro- and macroorganisms such as algae and barnacles on submerged man-made structures and vessel hulls is a major challenge for any marine operation. Known as biofouling, this problem leads to reduced hydrodynamic efficiency, significantly increased fuel usage, microbially induced corrosion, and, if not managed appropriately, eventual loss of both performance and structural integrity. Ship hull biofouling in the international maritime transport network conservatively accounts for 0.6% of global carbon emissions, highlighting the global scale and the importance of this problem. Improved antifouling strategies to limit surface colonization are paramount for essential activities such as shipping, aquaculture, desalination, and the marine renewable energy sector, representing both a multibillion dollar cost and a substantial practical challenge. From an ecological perspective, biofouling is a primary contributor to the global spread of invasive marine species, which has extensive implications for the marine environment. Historically, heavy metal-based toxic biocides have been used to control biofouling. However, their unwanted collateral ecological damage on nontarget species and bioaccumulation has led to recent global bans. With expanding human activities within aquaculture and offshore energy, it is both urgent and apparent that environmentally friendly surface protection remains key for maintaining the function of both moving and stationary marine structures. Biofouling communities are typically a highly complex network of both micro- and macroorganisms, representing a broad section of life from bacteria to macrophytes and animals. Given this diversity, it is unrealistic to expect that a single antifouling “silver bullet” will prevent colonization with the exception of generally toxic biocides. For that reason, modern and future antifouling solutions are anticipated to rely on novel coating technologies and “combination therapies” where mixtures of narrow-spectrum bioactive components are used to provide coverage across fouling species. In contrast to the existing cohort of outdated, toxic antifouling strategies, such as copper- and tributyltin-releasing paints, modern drug discovery techniques are increasingly being employed for the rational design of effective yet safe alternatives. The challenge for a medicinal chemistry approach is to effectively account for the large taxonomic diversity among fouling organisms combined with a lack of well-defined conserved molecular targets within most taxa. The current Account summarizes our work employing the tools of modern medicinal chemistry to discover, modify, and develop optimized and scalable antifouling solutions based on naturally occurring antifouling and repelling compounds from both marine and terrestrial sources. Inspiration for rational design comes from targeted studies on allelopathic natural products, natural repelling peptides, and secondary metabolites from sessile marine organisms with clean exteriors, which has yielded several efficient and promising antifouling leads.

  • 12.
    Caussé, Nicolas
    et al.
    Université de Toulouse, France.
    Bonin, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion. Université de Toulouse, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion. Université de Toulouse, France.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Roggero, Aurelien
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Pébère, Nadine
    Université de Toulouse, France.
    Ageing processes of coil-coated materials: Temperature-controlled electrochemical impedance analysis2023In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 183, article id 107682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, an industrial polyester coil-coated steel was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) during immersion in a 0.5 M NaCl solution for different temperatures (30, 40, 50 and 60 °C). The objective was to propose a methodology to follow the ageing of the coil-coated system, from the first stage of water uptake until the blistering appearance. Relevant parameters were extracted from the EIS diagrams to analyse ageing processes of the polymer and of the metal/polymer interface. Water uptake was determined from the high-frequency part of the impedance diagrams using a linear rule of mixtures. By increasing the temperature, both the water uptake kinetics and the water content in the coating increased. The effect of water uptake on the physical structure of the coating (plasticization) was discussed through the analysis of a time constant corresponding to the dielectric manifestation of the polymer glass transition. At 40, 50 and 60 °C, appearance of corrosion was detected on the impedance spectra by a decrease, at low frequency, of the impedance modulus and of the phase angle. For 60 °C, the corroded surface area as a function of time, was assessed from the EIS data analysis with adapted equivalent circuits. The corroded surface areas followed similar trend as blister surface areas determined from images analysis.

  • 13.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Larché, Nicholas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Cathodic activity on passive materials in deep seawater2020In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 76, no 4, p. 344-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the cathodic activity of biofilmed stainless steel surfaces was investigated at two exposure depths at the same location at 1,020 m and 2,020 m depth. For this purpose, a set of passive materials and sensors were exposed for 11 months in Azores, in the Atlantic Ocean. Characteristic cathodic depolarizations due to biological activity were observed in intermediary and deep water. However, a strong cathodic activity was only measured in deep water. Potential ennoblement appeared between 80 d and 200 d, depending on the exposure depth and the experimental setup used. In a given environment, the biological cathodic activity appears to be strongly related to the limiting parameter of the reaction, which can be anodic or cathodic. The biofilm sensors exposed for the first time in open, deep water appear relevant to discriminate cathodically “strongly-active” and “weakly-active” biological activity. Under cathodic control, a high current density was measured on stainless steel in deep seawater. The experimental setup used is particularly relevant as it allows determination in situ of the maximal cathodic current density.

  • 14.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Leblanc, Vanessa
    Corrodys, France.
    Gueuné, Herve
    Corrodys, France.
    Larché, Nicolas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Deydier, Valerie
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Linard, Yannick
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Crusset, Didier
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Potential influence of microorganisms on the corrosion of carbon steel in the French high- and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste disposal context2021In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 72, no 1-2, p. 218-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of the high-level radioactive waste disposal CIGEO, the corrosion rate due to microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has to be evaluated. In France, it is envisaged to dispose of high- and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste at a depth of 500 m in a deep geological disposal, drilled in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone (Cox) formation. To do so, a carbon steel casing will be inserted inside disposal cells, which are horizontal tunnels drilled in the Cox. A specific cement grout will be injected between the carbon steel casing and the claystone. A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of MIC on carbon steel in the foreseeable high radioactive waste disposal. The corrosiveness of various environments was investigated at 50°C and 80°C with or without microorganisms enriched from samples of Andra's underground research laboratory. The monitoring of corrosion during the experiments was ensured using gravimetric method and real-time corrosion monitoring using sensors based on the measurements of the electrical resistance. The corrosion data were completed with microbiological analyses including cultural and molecular characterizations.

  • 15.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Leblanc, Vanessa
    Corrodys, France.
    Gueuné, Herve
    Corrodys, France.
    Maillot, Valerie
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Linard, Yannick
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Charrier, Gaelle
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Crusset, Didier
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Potential influence of microorganisms on the corrosion of carbon steel in the French high-level long-lived radioactive waste disposal context at 80°C2023In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, experiments were carried out to assess the microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) risk in the context of the French high-level radioactive waste disposal. The exposures were carried out at 80°C in different repository relevant conditions, including the presence of different cement-grout mixtures as filling material. Biotic conditions with nutrient and nonsterile conditions with indigenous microbes added from Callovo Oxfordian clayey rock and without nutrients were considered. For biotic conditions, specific preparations of microbial inoculum were carried out from samples collected at Andra's Underground Research Laboratory and microorganisms from microbial culture collection centers. Corrosion kinetics were determined using traditional coupons and completed with real-time corrosion sensors. Microbiological characterizations consisted of cultural approach, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and next-generation sequencing. The obtained results show no significant MIC and a reduced risk with the use of more alkaline filling material. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 16.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Leblanc, Vanessa
    Corrodys, France.
    Gueuné, Herve
    Corrodys, France.
    Maillot, Valerie
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Linard, Yannick
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Charrier, Gaelle
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Crusset, Didier
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Potential influence of microorganisms on the corrosion of the carbon steel in the French high-level long-lived nuclear waste disposal context at 50°C2023In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, short-term experiments were carried out to assess the microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) risk in the context of the French high-level radioactive waste disposal CIGEO (Centre Industriel de Stockage Géologique). The exposures were carried out in different representative media, including the presence of different cement-grout mixtures as filling material. Nonsterile and biotic conditions with nutrients were considered. For biotic conditions, specific preparations of microbial inoculum were carried out from samples collected at ANDRA's Underground Research Laboratory and microorganisms from the library. Corrosion kinetics were determined using both traditional coupons and completed with real-time electrical resistance sensors. Microbiological characterizations consisted of cultural approach, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and next-generation sequencing. The obtained results show no significant MIC, but a reduced risk was observed using more alkaline filling materials. © 2023 The Authors.

  • 17.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Peltier, Fabienne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Becker, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Real-time corrosion monitoring of aluminium alloys under chloride-contaminated atmospheric conditions2021In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 1377-1387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the use of electrical resistance (ER) sensors to monitor the corrosion of Al94Cu6 alloy is assessed and compared with 2024-T3 coupons. Under uniform corrosion, a good correlation was found between the ER sensors and mass loss on coupons. Three different chloride depositions are studied: (i) pre-contamination with dry/wet cycles, (ii) Volvo standard accelerated corrosion test and (iii) neutral salt spray test. The obtained results show good reproducibility of the ER sensors under all tested conditions. This suggests that ER sensors more levelled the effect of localised corrosion through a large surface evaluation compared with cross-sections. The corrosion thickness obtained with the ER sensors does not correspond to the mean depth obtained by cross-sections. This can be explained by the distribution and size of the localised corrosion events according to a finite element model proposed. The ER method allows obtaining useful real-time corrosion data for the understanding of the corrosion mechanisms and the development of accelerated tests. The chloride concentration, the frequency of salt application and wet/dry cycles have a strong influence on the corrosion rate of aluminium alloys. © 2021 The Authors. 

  • 18.
    El Masri, I.
    et al.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Lescop, B.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Talbot, P.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Vien, G. N.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Becker, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Rioual, S.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Development of a RFID sensitive tag dedicated to the monitoring of the environmental corrosiveness for indoor applications2020In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 322, article id 128602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental corrosiveness is governed for indoor applications by the presence of gaseous pollutants in air and levels of temperature and relative humidity. Its determination is a challenging task and requires the monitoring of thickness reduction of selected metals in the range of few tens of nanometers. The present work aims at developing an UHF RFID (Ultra High Frequency Radio Frequency Identification) sensor dedicated to such measurements. The sensor is based on the coupling between the antenna of a commercial RFID tag and a thin layer of copper exposed to the environment. The ability of the proposed sensor to be sensitive to a variation of the metal thickness in the range of tens of nanometers is demonstrated experimentally through exposure tests in a climatic chamber. The results are supported by electromagnetic simulations performed in the case of a coupling between a dipolar antenna and a thin metallic layer.

  • 19.
    Even, Anais
    et al.
    University of South Brittany, France; SOCOMORE, France.
    Vignaud, Guillaume
    University of South Brittany, France.
    Guitter, Nadia
    SOCOMORE, France.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Tingaut, Philippe
    SOCOMORE, France.
    Grohens, Yves
    University of South Brittany, France.
    Influence of radical photoinitiator content on UV curing process and UV-cured hybrid sol–gel films2020In: JCT Research, ISSN 1547-0091, E-ISSN 2168-8028, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 333-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid sol–gel coatings are widely used as protective layers for aluminum alloys because of their barrier abilities. This study aims at explaining the barrier properties of a sol–gel coating based on alkyltrimethoxysilane and methacrylate resin by its film structure. This approach was examined by modifying one photopolymerization parameter, e.g., by varying the content of radical photoinitiator. By neutral salt spray test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the barrier properties are highlighted. The film structure is related to thermomechanical properties of films whose glass transition temperature and elastic modulus are measured by dynamic mechanical analysis and nanoindentation, respectively. On a finer scale, conversion of methacrylate functions calculated from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has given information on the chemical structure of films. The morphology of these coatings is studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy operating in tapping mode, and X-ray diffraction. Results revealed that formulations containing between 3 and 9 wt% of radical photoinitiator exhibit the maximal conversion of methacrylate functions and, at a microscopic scale, a homogeneous coating where the two organic and inorganic networks are well interpenetrated. This hybrid sol–gel microstructure corresponds to the highest glass transition temperature and the highest mechanical characteristics (elastic modulus, E and hardness, H) and the highest protection performance. This results in the best barrier properties, and thus the highest corrosion resistance.

  • 20.
    Han, Junsoo
    et al.
    PSL Research University, France; University of Virginia, USA.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Ogle, Kevin
    PSL Research University, France.
    Zr-based conversion coating on Zn and Zn-Al-Mg alloy coating: Understanding the accelerating effect of Cu(II) and NO3−2020In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 402, article id 126236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reactivity of a Zn-Al-Mg galvanized steel substrate was monitored during a two-step conversion coating sequence with an alkaline pretreatment followed by conversion coating with hexafluorozirconic acid (H2ZrF6). The main effect of alkaline pretreatment was to remove initial oxides and to selectively dissolve Al, limiting the dissolution of Al in the zirconate bath. The commercial alkaline cleaner dissolved Mg from the MgZn2 intermetallic phase. The effect of NO3− and Cu(II) on the reactivity of a commercial Zn-Al-Mg alloy coating was investigated in H2ZrF6, simulating a Zr-based conversion coating process. NO3− served as an oxidant which enhanced the production of OH− leading to a more consequent ZrO2 deposition. Cu(II) underwent a displacement reaction with Zn (0) to form Cu(0) which catalyzed the reduction of NO3− and H+. The interplay between activation and passivation was demonstrated by the occurrence of oscillations in the both NO3− and Cu(II) containing electrolyte under certain conditions. 

  • 21.
    Hansson, Julia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nojpanya, Pavinee
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    COSTS FOR REDUCING GHG EMISSIONS FROM ROAD AND AIR TRANSPORT WITH BIOFUELS AND ELECTROFUELS2023In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2023, p. 368-372Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential future role of different biofuels, hydrogen, and so-called electrofuels/power-to-X (produced by electricity, water, and carbon dioxide, CO2) in different transportation sectors remains uncertain. The CO2 abatement cost, i.e., the cost for reducing a certain amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, is central from a societal and business perspective, the latter specifically in the case of an emission reduction obligation system (like in Germany and Sweden). The abatement cost of a specific fuel value chain depends on the production cost and the GHG reduction provided by the fuel. This paper analyses the CO2 abatement costs for different types of biofuels, biomass-based jet fuels and electrofuels for road transport and aviation, relevant for the Swedish and EU context. Since most assessed alternative fuel pathways achieve substantial GHG emission reduction compared to fossil fuels, the fuel production cost is, in general, more important to achieve a low CO2 abatement cost. The estimated CO2 abatement cost ranges from -0.37 to 4.03 SEK/kgCO2 equivalent. Fuels based on waste feedstock, have a relatively low CO2 abatement cost. Fuel pathways based on electricity or electricity and biomass have relatively high CO2 abatement cost. The CO2 abatement cost for lignocellulosic based pathways generally ends up in between. 

  • 22.
    Helbert, Varvara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Nazarov, A
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Rioual, S.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Hydrogen effect on the passivation and crevice corrosion initiation of AISI 304L using Scanning Kelvin Probe2021In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 182, article id 109225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning Kelvin Probe was applied to study passivation of AISI 304L stainless steel after cathodic polarisation. The rate of passivation in air decreased as a function of duration and current density. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy showed enrichment of the surface film by hydroxides of Fe (II) that was the result of hydrogen effusion from the bulk. SKP measured a decreased potential drop in the passive film. Pre-polarisation accelerates the crevice corrosion of steel in presence of chlorides. Using SKP mapping, increased hydrogen sub-surface concentration and lower level of passivity was observed in anodic zones of the crevice.

  • 23.
    Helbert, Varvara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Nazarov, Andrei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Taryba, Maryna
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Montemor, Fatima
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Kinetics of corrosion reactions on press hardened steel in atmospheric conditions under thin electrolyte films2023In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 458, article id 142500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steels with high mechanical performance are prone to hydrogen embrittlement and environmental assisted cracking. Under atmospheric corrosion conditions, the source of hydrogen can be the steel corrosion process itself or galvanic coupling with a metallic coating. Electrochemical behaviour of Press Hardened Steel (PHS) under electrolyte films of different thicknesses using local electrochemical techniques was studied on a fundamental level. Scanning Vibrated Electrode Technique (SVET) was applied to study the evolution and localization of the corrosion process during PHS immersion in NaCl electrolyte. Kelvin Probe (KP) was used as a reference electrode to obtain cathodic and anodic polarization curves on PHS surfaces which were covered by thin electrolyte films (60 to 500 µm) of 0.1 M NaOH and 0.6 M NaCl. For both electrolytes, a strong increase in the oxygen reduction rate due to the decreasing of electrolyte thickness has been clearly demonstrated. Data are correlated well with a theoretical plot determined by Nernst-Fick equation. The influence of the rust layers on the kinetics of corrosion reactions under thin electrolyte films was investigated using KP. © 2023

  • 24.
    Helbert, Varvara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Nazarov, Andrei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Larché, Nicolas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Effect of cathodic polarisation switch-off on the passivity and stability to crevice corrosion of aisi 304l stainless steel2021In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 11, article id 2921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of cathodic polarisation switch-off on the passivation of AISI 304L stainless steel in air and its crevice corrosion susceptibility in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous electrolyte were investigated. Scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) data showed that the oxide film is significantly destabilised and the rate of steel passivation in air is slowed down. Thermal desorption analysis (TDA) highlighted that hydrogen absorption is proportional to the applied cathodic current density. A special crevice corrosion set-up was designed to realise simultaneous reproducible monitoring of potential and galvanic current to study the impact of prior cathodic polarisation on crevice corrosion onset. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 25.
    Helbert, Varvara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Rioual, S.
    University of Brest, France.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Corrosion behavior of additively manufactured AISI 316L stainless steel under atmospheric conditions2022In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 73, no 11, p. 1833-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the corrosion behavior of AISI 316L produced by direct energy deposition (DED). Microstructural and chemical analysis showed a homogeneous distribution of Si and Si–Mn inclusions of 0.5–1 µm and the Cr and Mo enrichment within interdendritic areas. Scanning Kelvin probe analysis of additively manufactured stainless steel highlighted a regular “striped-like” surface potential feature with a potential gradient of 30 mV for a mean value of 0.320 ± 0.017 V versus standard hydrogen electrode. It can be related to the presence of the residual stress in the oxide film and the complex thermal history due to the fabrication process. A cyclic corrosion test simulating atmospheric conditions revealed the same corrosion properties for stainless steel fabricated by DED compared to cold rolled one. Various surface preparations of 316L were also exposed for corrosion tests. It was found that the “as-received” and “brushed” surfaces exhibited poorer corrosion resistance due to the presence of an as-build defective layer. However, prior passivation of brushed surface, machining, or mechanical grinding down to P1200 improve significantly the corrosion resistance. © 2022 French Corrosion Institute part of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Materials and Corrosion published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

  • 26.
    Jafri, Y.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, S.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Svensson, E.
    CIT Industriell Energy AB, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IIASA, Austria.
    Double Yields and Negative Emissions?: Resource, Climate and Cost Efficiencies in Biofuels With Carbon Capture, Storage and Utilization2022In: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 10, article id 797529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As fossil-reliant industries turn to sustainable biomass for energy and material supply, the competition for biogenic carbon is expected to intensify. Using process level carbon and energy balance models, this paper shows how the capture of residual CO2 in conjunction with either permanent storage (CCS) or biofuel production (CCU) benefits fourteen largely residue-based biofuel production pathways. With a few noteworthy exceptions, most pathways have low carbon utilization efficiencies (30–40%) without CCS/U. CCS can double these numbers and deliver negative emission biofuels with GHG footprints below −50 g CO2 eq./MJ for several pathways. Compared to CCS with no revenue from CO2 sequestration, CCU can offer the same efficiency gains at roughly two-third the biofuel production cost (e.g., 99 EUR/MWh vs. 162 EUR/MWh) but the GHG reduction relative to fossil fuels is significantly smaller (18 g CO2 eq./MJ vs. −99 g CO2 eq./MJ). From a combined carbon, cost and climate perspective, although commercial pathways deliver the cheapest biofuels, it is the emerging pathways that provide large-scale carbon-efficient GHG reductions. There is thus some tension between alternatives that are societally best and those that are economically most interesting for investors. Biofuel pathways vent CO2 in both concentrated and dilute streams Capturing both provides the best environomic outcomes. Existing pathways that can deliver low-cost GHG reductions but generate relatively small quantities of CO2 are unlikely to be able to finance the transport infrastructure required for transformative bio-CCS deployment. CCS and CCU are accordingly important tools for simultaneously reducing biogenic carbon wastage and GHG emissions, but to unlock their full benefits in a cost-effective manner, emerging biofuel technology based on the gasification and hydrotreatment of forest residues need to be commercially deployed imminently. Copyright © 2022 Jafri, Ahlström, Furusjö, Harvey, Pettersson, Svensson and Wetterlund.

  • 27.
    Johansson, J.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bushlya, V.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Obitz, Charlotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    M’Saoubi, R.
    Lund University, Sweden; Seco Tools AB, Sweden.
    Hagström, J.
    Swerim, Sweden.
    Lenrick, F.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Influence of sub-surface deformation induced by machining on stress corrosion cracking in lead-free brass2022In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 122, no 7-8, p. 3171-3181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New stricter regulations on lead (Pb) content in brass for use in certain applications is driving the industry from traditional leaded brass towards Pb-free alloys. However, machining induced surface integrity for such Pb-free alloys and related corrosion resistance are largely unknown. Two Pb-free brass alloys, CuZn38As and CuZn21Si3P, approved for use in drinking water applications, were machined under different cutting conditions, tool geometries and tool wear states. The resulting surface integrity and sub-surface deformation was characterized using nano-indentation, scanning electron (SEM) and ion microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was assessed by exposing the machined samples to a corrosive substance in accordance with SIS 117102. The results show that tool wear is the most influencing parameter leading to stronger sub-surface deformation. This was especially pronounced for alloy CuZn38As, where for equivalent depth of deformation, the material exhibited higher degree of work-hardening compared to the other tested alloy. Subsequently, substantial stress corrosion cracking was registered for machined CuZn38As samples. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 28.
    Kim, Hye-Jin
    et al.
    Hyundai-Steel Company, Republic of Korea; Seoul National University, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, Myoung
    Seoul National University, Republic of Korea.
    Yoon, Seung
    Hyundai-Steel Company, Republic of Korea.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Lee, Chang
    Hyundai Motor Company, Republic of Korea.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Kim, Sung-Ju
    Hyundai-Steel Company, Republic of Korea.
    Diffusible hydrogen behavior and delayed fracture of cold rolled martensitic steel in consideration of automotive manufacturing process and vehicle service environment2020In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 13483-13501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to elucidate the behavior of diffusible hydrogen and delayed fracture in martensitic steel with 1500 MPa strength during automotive painting process and under vehicle service conditions. A sequential process of automotive pretreatment line and vehicle service environment is simulated to evaluate the hydrogen pick up in each process. In case of the automotive painting line, the absorption of hydrogen is within the common range in the process of phosphating treatment and electrodeposition. The baking process plays an effective role for desorbing the diffusible hydrogen absorbed during the automotive pre-treatment such as zinc-phosphating, and electrodeposition process. In case of the corrosion environment under the automotive driving conditions, hydrogen induced delayed fracture is accelerated as the exposure time increases. Further, it is clarified that severe plastic deformation are the significant factors for hydrogen induced delayed fracture under with low pH value and present of chloride ion in a chemical solution parameter. In summary, hydrogen is transported constantly during electrodeposition sequential line process of automobile manufacturing below the hydrogen content of 0.5 ppm, which is not critical value for leading to hydrogen delayed fracture based on results of slow strain rate tensile tests. However, exposure to extreme conditions under service environment of vehicle, such as acidic solution and chloride chemistry solution that result in high level of hydrogen absorption, severe plastic deformation in the sheared edge, and constantly applied internal or external stresses, can cause the hydrogen induced delayed fracture in the fully martensitic steels. © 2020 The Authors

  • 29.
    Larché, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Emo, Benoit
    Véolia Water, France.
    Allion, Aaudrey
    Aperam Global Research, France.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Outokumpu Stainless AB, Sweden.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Localized corrosion of (lean) duplex stainless steels in immersion units of urban wastewater treatment plants2021In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 1338-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With lower alloying cost and higher mechanical properties, lean duplex stainless steels can be an alternative to the more commonly used austenitic stainless steels. However, these alloys are still not the preferred choice, probably due to a lack of field experience. A study was thus initiated in view of defining the limits of use of selected (lean) duplexes for urban wastewater treatment units. The present paper shows the localized corrosion performance of selected lean duplexes in chloride contaminated solutions. The results are compared with austenitic S30403 and S31603 and with the more standard duplexes S82441 and S32205. The effect of welding was also investigated. Exposures in field municipal wastewater plants were conducted for 1 year in low and high chloride content units. The results show that lean duplexes S32101 and S32202 can be used as alternatives to S30403 and S31603 in low chloride electrolytes. At 500 ppm of chloride content, duplex stainless steel S32304 showed better corrosion resistance than S30403 and S31603. For higher chloride contents (1000 ppm and above) the standard duplexes S82441 and S32205 shall be preferred. 

  • 30.
    Larché, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Emo, Benoit
    Veolia, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Duquesnes, Vincent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Mendibide, Christophe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Localized corrosion of lean duplex stainless steels in H2S-containing wet atmosphere from urban wastewater treatment units2021In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, no 11, p. 1730-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With lower alloying costs and higher mechanical properties, lean duplex stainless steels can be a good alternative to the more commonly used austenitic stainless steels. A study was initiated to define the limits of the use of lean duplex stainless steels for urban wastewater treatment (WWT) units. This paper gives and discusses the corrosion results in an aerated wet atmosphere containing H2S at different levels. Exposures were performed both at laboratory scale and in the field WWT plant for 1 year. A specific probe was also designed to study the corrosion process below water condensate film contaminated with H2S. Under such conditions, the properties of stainless steel were strongly modified with an enhanced risk of localized corrosion. The results obtained on lean duplex materials (UNS S32101, S32202, and S32304) are compared with austenitic UNS S30403 and UNS S31603 and with the more standard duplexes UNS S82441 and UNS S32205. The results show that lean duplexes can be used in aerated wet atmospheres in case of moderate contamination of H2S (<10 ppm) and chloride (<200 ppm). For higher contaminations (e.g., H2S around 100 ppm/chloride around 1000 ppm) the duplex S32205 should be preferred.

  • 31.
    Larché, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Leballeur, Charles
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Crevice Corrosion of High-Grade Stainless Steels in Seawater: A Comparison Between Temperate and Tropical Locations2023In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 79, no 9, p. 1106-1117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion risk for stainless steel components is not the same in all seawaters, with more failures generally reported in tropical seas. In this study, the influence of biofilm on electrochemical behavior and corrosion resistance of passive films of high-grade alloys was studied in different seawaters, including temperate seawater (France-Brest, North Atlantic Ocean), tropical seawater (Malaysia-Kelatan, Meridional China Sea), and intermediate conditions in terms of temperature (Brazil-Arraial do Cabo, South Atlantic Ocean). The stabilized open-circuit potentials and the polarization behavior of high-grade stainless steels were measured as a function of temperature in all of the tested field marine stations, providing quantified data and direct comparison of the biofilm-enhanced corrosion risks. Significant differences were measured in tropical and in temperate seawaters in heated conditions. Above 37°C, the biofilm activity was much more pronounced in tropical seawater compared to Atlantic Ocean sites, leading to much higher localized corrosion risk. Crevice corrosion of eight high-grades passive alloys was also studied with the use of crevice formers specifically developed for tube geometries. Duplex UNS S32205, superduplex UNS S32750, hyperduplex UNS S33207 and S32707, and 6Mo stainless steels UNS S31266 have been evaluated together with Ni-based alloys UNS N06845 and N06625. In the more severe conditions, the high-grade alloys UNS S32707 and the 6%Mo UNS S31266, both with pitting resistant equivalent number (PREN) around 50, showed better performance than commonly used superduplex UNS S32750 and UNS S39274 (PREN 40). The corrosion results are discussed regarding the monitored biofilm-induced depolarization measured in the different test conditions.

  • 32.
    Larché, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Leballeur, Charles
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Le Manchet, Sandra
    Industeel-ArcelorMittal, France.
    He, Wenle
    Alleima, Sweden.
    Localized Corrosion of High-Grade Stainless Steels: Grade Selection in Chlorinated Seawater2023In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 79, no 9, p. 997-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorination is widely used in seawater systems to avoid fouling and associated microbial-induced corrosion. Free chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent that prevents biofilm formation on immersed surfaces when used above a certain content. However, the presence of residual chlorine associated with the relatively high chloride content in seawater significantly increases the risk of localized corrosion for most stainless steels. In the present study, a module initially developed to quantify the formation of electroactive biofilms on stainless steels has been used to assess the corrosiveness of chlorinated seawater. Both the electrochemical potential and the cathodic current were measured on super-duplex stainless steel as a function of residual chlorine levels and seawater temperatures. In parallel, long-term localized corrosion tests have been performed in simulated environments to assess the environmental limits for the safe use of high-grade stainless steels in chlorinated seawater. It includes crevice corrosion exposure tests using adapted ISO 18070:2015 crevice formers and internal tube pitting corrosion exposure tests in model tube heat exchangers simulating heat flux from 35°C to 170°C. The synergetic effect of residual chlorine content and temperature on the risk of localized corrosion has been quantified. Corrosion resistance properties are correlated to the electrochemical monitoring data, and the environmental limits of selected base materials stainless steels have been established for duplex stainless steel UNS S32205, super-duplex stainless steel UNS S32750, hyper-duplex stainless steels UNS S32707 and UNS S33207, and the high-grade austenitic stainless steel UNS S31266.

  • 33.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, F
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ivars, D. Mas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; SKB Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    A novel method for geometric quality assurance of rock joint replicas in direct shear testing : Part 2: Validation and mechanical replicability2023In: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1674-7755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Each rock joint is unique by nature which means that utilization of replicas in direct shear tests is required in experimental parameter studies. However, a method to acquire knowledge about the ability of the replicas to imitate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint and their dispersion in direct shear testing is lacking. In this study, a novel method is presented for geometric quality assurance of replicas. The aim is to facilitate generation of high-quality direct shear testing data as a prerequisite for reliable subsequent analyses of the results. In Part 1 of this study, two quality assurance parameters, σmf and VHp100, are derived and their usefulness for evaluation of geometric deviations, i.e. geometric reproducibility, is shown. In Part 2, the parameters are validated by showing a correlation between the parameters and the shear mechanical behavior, which qualifies the parameters for usage in the quality assurance method. Unique results from direct shear tests presenting comparisons between replicas and the rock joint show that replicas fulfilling proposed threshold values of σmf < 0.06 mm and < 0.2 mm have a narrow dispersion and imitate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint in all aspects apart from having a slightly lower peak shear strength. The wear in these replicas, which have similar morphology as the rock joint, is in the same areas as in the rock joint. The wear is slightly larger in the rock joint and therefore the discrepancy in peak shear strength derives from differences in material properties, possibly from differences in toughness. It is shown by application of the suggested method that the quality assured replicas manufactured following the process employed in this study phenomenologically capture the shear strength characteristics, which makes them useful in parameter studies.

  • 34.
    Liew, YanHam
    et al.
    National University of Singapore, Singapore; Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore.
    Örnek, Cem
    Istanbul Technical University, Turkey.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Wijesinghe, Sudesh
    National University of Singapore, Singapore; Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore.
    Blackwood, Daniel
    National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    In-situ time-lapse SKPFM investigation of sensitized AA5083 aluminum alloy to understand localized corrosion2020In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 167, no 14, article id 141502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensitized AA5083-H2 aluminum alloy was exposed to chloride-laden thin-film electrolyte at ambient temperature (20%–85% relative humidity) and the local Volta potential measured, in-situ and in real-time, using the Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy, with the intention to elucidate the earliest stage of localized corrosion. Positive Volta potentials vs alloy matrix were measured for magnesium silicides in ambient air, which, however, underwent a severe nobility loss during corrosion, causing their nobility to invert to active potentials (negative) relative to the alloy matrix. The reason for the nobility inversion was explained by the preferential dissolution of Mg2+, which resulted in an electropositive surface. Aluminides, both with and without silicon, were seen to form the main cathodes at all exposure conditions. The local alloy matrix next to closely-separated aluminides were seen to adopt the Volta potential of the neighbor aluminides, which, hence, resulted in local corrosion protection. The phenomenon of nobility adoption introduced in this work raises questions regarding the anode-to-cathode ratio, which was observed to change during corrosion, and the resulting impact to localized micro-galvanic corrosion. This work further demonstrates that it is necessary to measure the Volta potential during corrosion to reflect the true relationship between the Volta potential and corrosion potential or breakdown potential. © 2020 The Author(s). 

  • 35.
    Liew, YanHan
    et al.
    National University of Singapore,Singapore; Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore.
    Örnek, Cem
    Istanbul Technical University, Turkey.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Wijesinghe, Sudesh
    National University of Singapore,Singapore; Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore.
    Blackwood, Daniel
    National University of Singapore,Singapore.
    Towards understanding micro-galvanic activities in localised corrosion of AA2099 aluminium alloy2021In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 392, article id 139005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The micro-galvanic interactions between Cu-Fe-Mn-Li-containing aluminides and the alloy matrix of aluminium alloy AA2099 during chloride-induced corrosion were investigated in-situ with real-time monitoring of the local contact potential difference (VCPD) using the scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) at controlled relative humidities. The aluminides showed noble potentials and were able to ennoble their neighbouring matrix sites when a cluster of aluminides surrounded the matrix. The matrix, hence, adopted a more positive VCPD, towards that of the aluminides. The anode-to-cathode ratio changed throughout the corrosion exposure and was seen to show a dynamic character. Much higher local VCPD activities were recorded during the earliest stages of corrosion, when the Al-Li AA2099 surface was first exposed to high humidities, than in later RH cycles; a phenomenon not seen in other aluminium alloys.

  • 36.
    Linder, Clara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rao, Smita G
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Boyd, Robert
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Greczynski, G
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Munktell, Sara
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    le Febvrier, Aranaud
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Björk, Emma M
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Effect of Mo content on the corrosion resistance of (CoCrFeNi)1−xMox thin films in sulfuric acid2024In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 790, article id 140220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (CoCrFeNi)1−xMox thin films with various Mo content (0–10 at.%) were grown by magnetron sputtering on a stainless steel substrate. The films with 0–2 at.% presented two crystal structures: one FCC phase and one sigma phase, while films with higher Mo content only had the FCC structure. All films have a (111) texture and follow the topography of the substrate. The corrosion resistance of the films was evaluated in 0.05 M H2SO4 at room temperature and at 80 °C. It was observed that the corrosion current densities considerably decreased for Mo > 2 at%, and that the current densities were higher at the elevated temperature. Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy showed a large potential difference between the main FCC phase and sigma phase for the Mo0–2 films. This would suggest that preferential dissolution of the FCC phase occurs over the sigma and reduces the corrosion resistance. Such preferential dissolution does not occur for the higher Mo content films with only the FCC phase. The high corrosion resistance was also attributed to the inhibition of Fe and Cr dissolution by Mo and the stabilisation of the Cr enriched oxide by incorporating Mo oxides into the passive film, identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The low corrosion current densities (below 1 µA/cm2) make these thin films possible candidates for protective coatings of bipolar plates in PEM fuel cells. 

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  • 37.
    Linder, Clara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rao, Smita
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    le Febvrier, Arnauld
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Rune
    SAFT AB, Sweden.
    Munktell, Sara
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Björk, Emma
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Cobalt thin films as water-recombination electrocatalysts2020In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 404, article id 126643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalysts and electrocatalysts are crucial for energy production and storage. To develop cost-efficient systems taking advantage of functionalized surfaces, the catalysts can be synthesized as nanomaterials or thin films. In this work, cobalt thin films were deposited on low-alloyed steel using magnetron sputtering. The films are uniform with a smooth surface and a thickness of ~400 nm. The films were electrochemically oxidized via anodization to a mix of cobalt oxides, one of them being Co3O4, at room temperature in an alkaline solution. The electrocatalytic performances of the anodized films were evaluated in 1 M KOH electrolyte saturated with oxygen. Cathodic currents in −0.5 mA/cm2 range, corresponding to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, were measured with cyclic voltammetry. The catalytic activity of the films was evaluated as a function of time. The anodized Co coating exhibited three times higher activity than the steel substrate. The kinetics for the ORR were evaluated through Tafel plots and a slope of 226 mV/decade was found. Post-ORR characterization of the films revealed hexagonal plate-like oxide particles on the surface. After 50 cyclic voltammograms, the film was further oxidized, indicating that the ORR activity also affects the overall surface state of the film. This study demonstrates that thin films, after electrochemical modification, can be electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction and potentially used for applications in energy production and storage. © 2020 The Authors

  • 38.
    Linder, Clara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Ma, Taoran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Proper, Sebastian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Dartfeldt, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Corrosion-Fatigue Performance of 3D-Printed (L-PBF) AlSi10Mg2023In: MATERIALS, Vol. 16, no 17, article id 5964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) allows for optimized part design, reducing weight compared to conventional manufacturing. However, the microstructure, surface state, distribution, and size of internal defects (e.g., porosities) are very closely related to the AM fabrication process and post-treatment operations. All these parameters can have a strong impact on the corrosion and fatigue performance of the final component. Thus, the fatigue-corrosion behavior of the 3D-printed (L-PBF) AlSi10Mg aluminum alloy has been investigated. The influence of load sequence (sequential vs. combined) was explored using Wohler diagrams. Surface roughness and defects in AM materials were examined, and surface treatment was applied to improve surface quality. The machined specimens showed the highest fatigue properties regardless of load sequence by improving both the roughness and removing the contour layer containing the highest density of defect. The impact of corrosion was more pronounced for as-printed specimens as slightly deeper pits were formed, which lowered the fatigue-corrosion life. As discussed, the corrosion, fatigue and fatigue-corrosion mechanisms were strongly related to the local microstructure and existing defects in the AM sample.

  • 39.
    Linjee, Siwat
    et al.
    Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
    Moonngam, Suphitcha
    Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
    Klomjit, Pitichon
    National Science and Technology Development Agency, Thailand.
    Pålsson, Namurata
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Banjongprasert, Chaiyasit
    Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
    Corrosion behaviour improvement from the ultrafine-grained Al–Zn–In​ alloys in Al–air battery2022In: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 8, p. 5117-5128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of aluminium anode in alkaline solution is a challenging matter for the development of a long-life aluminium anode in Al–air battery. This research focuses on grain size reduction by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) of Al, Al–Zn, and Al–Zn–In samples. The average grain size of all samples after ECAP is lower than 1μm. Open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarisation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and self-corrosion test were carried out to study the effects of alloying elements (Zn, In) and grain size reduction by ECAP on the electrochemical behaviours of aluminium alloy anodes. The results show that alloying element, zinc, can improve the stability of ion dissolution by porous Al2ZnO4 film formation. Indium can activate ion dissolution that causes enhanced electrochemical activities for Al–Zn–In sample. Moreover, increasing grain boundaries through grain size reduction can enhance more negative potential and cause a uniformly corroded surface of Al–Zn–In sample, leading to a longer anode life in alkaline solution. © 2022 The Authors

  • 40.
    Mendibide, Christophe
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Dessolin, Carole
    Metal'in, France.
    Selective Dissolution Forming on Duplex Stainless Steels during Sour Testing. Is it a Pass or a Fail?2023In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 174-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the effect of test conditions on the formation of selective dissolution during sour testing was investigated on a cold-rolled duplex stainless steel UNS S32750. All experiments were conducted in NaCl 150 g/L and pH2S = 0.3 bar. Different pHs between 3.3 and 4.5 were studied at 80°C. Based on tests performed under varying conditions, it is demonstrated that selective dissolution (SD) competes with cracking and that under conditions leading to the formation of a large area with SD, the presence of this type of corrosion can hide the susceptibility of the material to cracking. The presence of only SD after testing must therefore be considered with caution. SD initiated also without applied stress showing that the phenomenon is correlated to a loss of passivity. From electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analyses and electrochemical monitoring the formation of SD under the test conditions considered in this work is correlated to the instability of the passive film and not to any superficial singularities of the material or specific crystallographic orientations. 

  • 41.
    Mendibide, Christophe
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Dusquesnes, Vincent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Deydier, Valerie
    ANDRA Direction de la Recherche et Développement, France.
    Bourbon, Xavier
    ANDRA Direction de la Recherche et Développement, France.
    Crusset, Didier
    ANDRA Direction de la Recherche et Développement, France.
    Corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy 5754 in cement-based matrix-simulating nuclear waste disposal conditions2021In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 72, no 1-2, p. 383-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depending on the lifetime and level of radioactivity of radioactive wastes, different disposal facilities are considered. Though low- and intermediate-level short-lived waste can be disposed in surface disposal facilities, deep geological disposal is considered for high- and intermediate-level long-lived waste. In France and Belgium, long-term disposal is studied in clay host rock media. For aluminum, the disposal concept is based on encapsulation of the waste in a cement-based matrix. It is also well-known that aluminum is prone to severe corrosion in sufficiently alkaline environments leading to possible hydrogen production. To ensure the safety of the disposal facilities and the integrity of the cement capsules, the amount of aluminum that is disposed in each waste package must be specified and is limited to mitigate the level of hydrogen production by aluminum corrosion. In the present study, the corrosion resistance of an aluminum alloy (grade EN-AW-5754/H111) in two different cement matrices was studied in different configurations at room temperature. In each case, the evolution of hydrogen production was monitored to address the corrosion rate variation versus time.

  • 42.
    Mendibide, Christophe
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Martinez, M
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France.
    Joshi, GR
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France.
    Kittel, J
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France.
    Effect of degraded environmental conditions on the service behavior of a X65 pipeline steel not designed for hydrogen transport2023In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the international drive to deploy green energies and decarbonized intermediates in the place of fossil fuel sources, a large number of developed countries are actively preparing for a future where hydrogen plays a strategic role as an energy storage medium. Producing and using hydrogen requires the rapid expansion of a dedicated, economically viable industrial sector. Nevertheless, questions on how to safely store, transport and distribute hydrogen remain an important priority today. In countries with existing natural gas transport grids, the possibility to retrofit these networks to store and transport hydrogen-natural gas blends is being studied. A key challenge is to evaluate how pressurized H2 would interact with steel structures with regards structural embrittlement of the latter, with a view to exploiting existing transport infrastructures for storage and transport applications. In this work, we evaluate the H2-performance of a non-hydrogen service ×65 pipeline steel. The cracking susceptibility of this steel grade has been evaluated at 100 bar H2 using slow strain rate testing, Constant strain testing and fracture toughness measurements. Accompanying hydrogen permeation tests under pressure provide diffusion data and elucidate the discussion. Exposures were carried out in dry or wet H2 and with or without H2S contamination at levels representative of biogas. The results underline that the impact of dry or wet hydrogen on this grade are moderate. The presence of traces of H2S together with humidity could risk seriously degrading the mechanical performance of the ×65 steel grade. © 2023 The Authors

  • 43.
    Meroufel, Abdelkader
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Gordon, Andrew
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Cathodic protection shielding of coated buried pipeline2023In: Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, ISSN 1945-9645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 2000s, the concept of cathodic protection (CP) shielding was first raised in open literature and remains debated between coatings professionals. The mechanism of CP shielding, and its understanding continue to be studied for different coatings with different approaches and using various techniques. From the CP shielding factors to the assessment methods, the published literature merits a deep analysis to capture the established knowledge and identify the research gaps to further tackle the issue for reliable coated buried structures. A holistic approach to this topic seems necessary where coatings ageing, cathodic protection, electrochemistry, and transport processes should be considered. In the first part of the present review, the recent works related to the understanding of CP shielding, coatings properties were considered before discussing the mechanisms involved underneath coatings. Transport phenomena and their relationship with cathodic protection performance in the presence of chemical and microbiological processes are discussed in the second part. Finally, CP shielding assessment methods and modeling works are presented and discussed from different perspectives. 

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  • 44.
    Moya Nunez, Alice
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Börjesson, Eric
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Kinnunen, Hanna
    Valmet Technologies Oy, Finland.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Influence of PbCl2 and KCl salt mixture on high temperature corrosion of alloy 6252024In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 358, article id 130196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aggressive corrosion can occur when firing waste or bio-based fuels, due to the presence of high concentrations of heavy metals, alkali metals, and chlorides. These deleterious compounds deposit on furnace walls and can form mixtures that can rapidly accelerate corrosion. The effect of salts containing lead had not been studied extensively at temperatures lower than 400 °C in nickel-based materials. This study investigates the effect of the individual salts PbCl2 and KCl and their mixture on the high temperature corrosion of alloy 625 at 340 °C and 380 °C. Samples of alloy 625 were covered with individual salts or a salt mixture and exposed to high temperatures in an atmosphere of synthetic air, 20-vol% H2O, and 100 ppm HCl. The results show that the presence of individual salts does not induce observable corrosion attack on alloy 625 after 168 h at any tested temperature. The salt mixture did cause a severe corrosion attack at 380 °C, observed after 24 h of exposure. It is suggested that the salt mixture induces the formation of lead chromates that may prevent or disrupt the formation of a protective chromia scale. It is believed that a key part of the mechanism is the formation of eutectic melts by the interaction of the scale with the salt mixture. Thermodynamic equilibria calculations show that the first melting temperature of PbCl2 and KCl salt mixture after reaction with oxygen can be as low as about 382 °C, and even lower (357 °C) if chromates are present. 

  • 45.
    Mölmen, Live
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fast, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Eriksson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Contact resistance measurement methods for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates and power terminals2023In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 555, article id 232341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrical contact resistance is a key parameter for optimising both the bipolar plate of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the electrical contact of the power terminal of the stack. The contact resistance is affected by the conductivity, roughness, and hardness of the two contacting surfaces. Here, new, application-specific contact resistance measurement methods are proposed for both the stack power terminal, and the bipolar plate. The proposed methods are compared to methods from references as well as standards, and it is concluded that the uncertainty of the measurements can be reduced by changing the measurement setup, and that the influence of probe resistance on measurement results can be eliminated. Furthermore, the effect of different accelerated durability tests on the contact resistance of the power terminal is examined both on test coupons and on a prototype screw connection with an electroless NiP and an electroplated NiSn coatings. As expected, the NiSn coupons gives lower contact resistance after ageing as compared to the NiP. However, the increase in contact resistance seen on coupons after ageing is not observed on the prototype screw connection. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 46.
    Nagels, Maarten
    et al.
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Verhoeven, Brent
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Larché, Nicolas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Dewil, Raf
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Rossi, Barbara
    KU Leuven, Belgium; University of Oxford,UK.
    Comparative life cycle cost assessment of (lean) duplex stainless steel in wastewater treatment environments2022In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 306, article id 114375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some unit operations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), such as settling tanks and pipes for aeration or sludge transfer, are composed of austenitic stainless steel (EN 1.4307 or EN 1.4404) instead of galvanised or painted carbon steel to reduce the maintenance costs. The sensitivity to pitting and crevice corrosion of austenitic grades in certain WWTP environments has also led to the use of duplex grades. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the maintenance of piping systems (WWTPs) and its effect on their life cycle environmental impacts and costs (LCC) for both austenitic and duplex stainless steel grades. The final objective is to aid grade selection for piping in a WWTP environment. The considered functional unit (FU) is a complete piping system. Conventional austenitic stainless steel grades (e.g., EN 1.4404) are studied alongside duplex ones (e.g., EN 1.4362 and EN 1.4462). The calculated environmental impacts are the Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Primary Energy Demand (PED). The production, manufacturing, transport, use including maintenance activities, and end-of-life (burdens and credits) phases are included in the life cycle assessment (LCA). The maintenance activities consist of the required replacements of stainless steel piping during the lifespan of the WWTP. Thus, the service lives of the pipes included in the considered WWTP environment are determined based on long-term corrosion prediction models (power law), which predict the evolution of pit or crevice depth as a function of time. The model parameters are estimated based on own experimental results, supplemented by the existing literature. The corrosion rates determine the number and frequency of replacements, i.e., define the different scenarios of maintenance. The LCA, LCC and corrosion prediction models are then combined into a user-friendly tool, which can be used in industry for an appropriate grade selection for pipes in a WWTP environment. The tool includes several degrees of freedom such as piping distribution, water pressure, chloride content, replacement criteria, etc. The results show that using duplex stainless steel grade EN 1.4462 leads to lower GWP and PED at the end of the WWTP's service life of 40 years. This is mainly due to multiple replacements of the system's parts in wastewater with high levels of chloride (>3000 ppm) if more conventional austenitic stainless steel alloys such as EN 1.4404 are used. Leaner duplex stainless steel grades were also included in this LCC assessment. The duplex grade EN 1.4062 showed the lowest total LCC, thanks to its leaner chemical composition (i.e., lower nickel content) combined with good localized corrosion resistance.

  • 47.
    Nagels, Maarten
    et al.
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Verhoeven, Brent
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Larché, Nicolas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Dewil, Raf
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Rossi, Barbara
    KU Leuven, Belgium; University of Oxford, UK.
    Corrosion behaviour of lean duplex stainless steel in advanced oxidation process (AOP) based wastewater treatment plants2022In: Engineering Failure Analysis, ISSN 1350-6307, E-ISSN 1873-1961, Vol. 136, article id 106170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion of lean duplex stainless steel alloys is examined when applied as a construction material in advanced oxidation processes. Both electrochemical and immersion experiments have been carried out when subjecting wastewater to ozone or Fenton oxidation. The electrochemical experiments suggest that the presence of dissolved ozone at the levels tested does not result in an increased pitting susceptibility for none of the alloys included in the research. However, the application of Fenton reagents induces pitting corrosion to the studied lean duplex alloys. The immersion experiments highlight that crevice corrosion occurs during wastewater treatment with both ozone and Fenton reagents. 

  • 48.
    Nazarov, A
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Petrunin, M.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Maksaeva, L.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Yurasova, T.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Traverso, P.
    CNR-IAS, Italy.
    Marshakov, A.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Vapour phase deposition of thin siloxane coatings on the iron surface. The impact of the layer structure and oxygen adsorption on corrosion stability2021In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 1217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism of iron corrosion protection by thin siloxane films was clarified. Quartz crystal microbalance technique (QCM) was applied to control the vapour phase deposition of alkoxysilanes and the formation of thin siloxane films. It was shown that the addition of water vapour increased the thickness of the grafted siloxane films. Crystal-like films spontaneously grow to 10–16 monolayers at 100% RH of Ar flow due to the catalytic effect of the surface. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Auger spectroscopies analysed the thin siloxane films and Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) showed the formation of iron-siloxane bonds passivating the iron surface. The films showed high hydrophobicity and corrosion inhibition in humid air contaminated by sulphur dioxide. Thick films were less ordered, hydrophilic and accelerated the corrosion of iron. For corrosion protection, the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere is extremely important. In a wet Ar atmosphere, contaminated by sulphur dioxide, the surfaces are not stable and quickly corroded. Oxygen adsorption stabilizes the surface oxide film that correspondingly preserves the anchoring iron-siloxane bonds and enables corrosion protection by the coating. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 49.
    Nazarov, Andrei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Helbert, Varvara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Scanning Kelvin Probe for Detection in Steel of Locations Enriched by Hydrogen and Prone to Cracking2023In: Corrosion and Materials Degradation, ISSN 2624-5558, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 158-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen, due to corrosion processes, can degrade high strength steels (HSS) through embrittlement and stress corrosion cracking mechanisms. Scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) mapping of surface potential was applied, to visualize the locations with an increased subsurface concentration of hydrogen in mild steel and martensitic HSS. This work can help to determine the reasons behind hydrogen localization in a steel microstructure, leading to embrittlement and hydrogen-assisted cracking. Cathodic charging was used to insert hydrogen, which decreased the steel potential. Hydrogen effusion in air passivates steel, increasing the potential of HSS and mild steel. The passivation of steels was monitored depending on different conditions of cathodic pre-charging and the amount of absorbed hydrogen. The SKP could determine the area of diffusible hydrogen and the area of cracks. In addition, low potential locations linked to the hydrogen trapped in the deformed HSS microstructure were also determined, which delayed the steel passivation. Mild steel showed a uniform potential distribution related to interstitial hydrogen, without potential extremes attributed to locally accumulated hydrogen. Thus, SKP sensing can detect locations containing increased concentrations of hydrogen and sensitive to steel cracking.

  • 50.
    Nazarov, Andrei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Scanning Kelvin Probe Investigation of High-Strength Steel Surface after Impact of Hydrogen and Tensile Strain2020In: Corrosion and Materials Degradation, E-ISSN 2624-5558, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen in combination with mechanical stress can lead to rapid degradation of high-strength steels through environmentally assisted cracking mechanisms. The scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) was applied to automotive martensitic steel grade MS1500 in order to detect local reactivity of the surface after hydrogen uptake and tensile deformation. Hydrogen and stress distribution in microstructures can be characterized by SKP indirectly measuring the potential drop in the surface oxide. Thus, the links between electron work function, oxide condition, and subsurface accumulation of hydrogen and stress have to be investigated. It was shown that plastic strain can mechanically break down the oxide film creating active (low potential) locations. Hydrogen effusion from the steel bulk, after cathodic charging in aqueous electrolyte, reduced the surface oxide and also decreased potential. It was shown that surface re-oxidation was delayed as a function of the current density and duration of cathodic hydrogen pre-charging. Thus, potential evolution during exposure in air can characterize the relative amount of subsurface hydrogen. SKP mapping of martensitic microstructure with locally developed residual stress and accumulated hydrogen displayed the lowest potential.

123 1 - 50 of 107
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