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  • 1.
    Allsopp, Benjamin
    et al.
    Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Johnson, Simon
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Baistow, Ian
    Solar Capture Technologies, UK.
    Sanderson, Gavin
    Solar Capture Technologies, UK.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Bingham, Paul
    Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Towards improved cover glasses for photovoltaic devices2020Inngår i: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 28, s. 1187-1206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For the solar energy industry to increase its competitiveness, there is a global drive to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) module assembly is material-demanding, and the cover glass constitutes a significant proportion of the cost. Currently, 3-mm-thick glass is the predominant cover material for PV modules, accounting for 10%–25% of the total cost. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of cover glasses for PV modules and present our recent results for improvement of the glass. These improvements were demonstrated in terms of mechanical, chemical and optical properties by optimizing the glass composition, including addition of novel dopants, to produce cover glasses that can provide (i) enhanced UV protection of polymeric PV module components, potentially increasing module service lifetimes; (ii) re-emission of a proportion of the absorbed UV photon energy as visible photons capable of being absorbed by the solar cells, thereby increasing PV module efficiencies and (iii) successful laboratory-scale demonstration of proof of concept, with increases of 1%–6% in Isc and 1%–8% in Ipm. Improvements in both chemical and crack resistance of the cover glass were also achieved through modest chemical reformulation, highlighting what may be achievable within existing manufacturing technology constraints. © 2020 The Authors.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Andersson Trojer, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Germany; .
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Flinders University, Australia.
    Bergenholtz, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Elastic strain-hardening and shear-thickening exhibited by thermoreversible physical hydrogels based on poly(alkylene oxide)-grafted hyaluronic acid or carboxymethylcellulose2020Inngår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 22, nr 26, s. 14579-14590Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of strongly elastic physical gels based on poly(alkylene oxide)-grafted hyaluronan or carboxymethylcellulose, exhibiting both shear-thickening and strain-hardening have been studied using rheometry and explained using a slightly different interpretation of the transient network theory. The graft copolymers were prepared by a quantitative coupling reaction. Their aqueous solutions displayed a thermoreversible continuous transition from Newtonian fluid to viscoelastic solid which could be controlled by the reaction conditions. The evolution of all material properties of the gel could be categorized into two distinct temperature regimes with a fast evolution at low temperatures followed by a slow evolution at high temperatures. The activation energy of the zero shear viscosity and the relaxation time of the graft inside the interconnecting microdomains were almost identical to each other in both temperature regimes. This suggests that the number of microdomains remained approximately constant whereas the aggregation number inside the microdomains increased according to the binodal curve of the thermosensitive graft.

  • 3.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Aarhaug, Thor
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Bacquart, Thomas
    NPL, UK.
    Morris, Abigail
    NPL, UK.
    Bartlett, Sam
    NPL, UK.
    Wagner, Lisa
    Linde GmbH, Germany.
    Blondeel, Clair
    Air Liquide, France.
    Gozlan, Bruno
    Air Liquide, France.
    Lescornez, Yann
    Air Liquide, France.
    Chramosta, Nathalie
    Air Liquide, France.
    Spitta, Christian
    ZBT, Germany.
    Basset, Etienne
    Research Center ENGIE LAB CRIGEN, France.
    Nouvelot, Quentin
    Research Center ENGIE LAB CRIGEN, France.
    Rizand, Mathilde
    Research Center ENGIE LAB CRIGEN, France.
    Strategies for the sampling of hydrogen at refuelling stations for purity assessment2021Inngår i: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 46, nr 70, s. 34839-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen delivered at hydrogen refuelling station must be compliant with requirements stated in different standards which require specialized sampling device and personnel to operate it. Currently, different strategies are implemented in different parts of the world and these strategies have already been used to perform 100s of hydrogen fuel sampling in USA, EU and Japan. However, these strategies have never been compared on a large systematic study. The purpose of this paper is to describe and compare the different strategies for sampling hydrogen at the nozzle and summarize the key aspects of all the existing hydrogen fuel sampling including discussion on material compatibility with the impurities that must be assessed. This review highlights the fact it is currently difficult to evaluate the impact or the difference these strategies would have on the hydrogen fuel quality assessment. Therefore, comparative sampling studies are required to evaluate the equivalence between the different sampling strategies. This is the first step to support the standardization of hydrogen fuel sampling and to identify future research and development area for hydrogen fuel sampling. © 2021 The Authors

  • 4.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Bohlen, Haleh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    de Krom, Iris
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Heikens, Dita
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    van Wijk, Janneke
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Hydrogen purity analysis: Suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds2020Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14687-2 standard sets requirements for the purity of the hydrogen that is delivered at refuelling stations. These specifications cover a wide range of impurities and include challenging measurements, mainly due to the very low levels of the required detection limits and the need for "total" measurements (total hydrocarbons, total sulphur compounds, halogenated compounds). Most of the compounds belonging to the species are organic. Thermal desorption often coupled with gas chromatography is a common speciation method used to determine the content of organic impurities. However, no existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal to trap all possible impurities; depending on the sorbents and the sampling volume, some compounds may irreversibly adsorb or may break through. It is therefore necessary to evaluate sorbents for the compounds targeted at the level required. In this study, the suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping organic impurities in hydrogen was investigated. Suitable sorbents were selected based on a literature review of suitable sorbent materials. Short-term stability studies for compounds among hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and sulphurcompounds on the selected sorbents have then been performed for storage periods of two weeks since this is the period typically required to complete the collection, transport and analysis of hydrogen samples. The study clearly shows that the method is promising for total species, even through the results show that not all of the compounds belonging to the three total species to be analysed when performing hydrogen purity analysis can be quantified on one unique sorbent. A multibed sorbent consisting of Tenax TA (weak), Carboxen 1003 (medium), Carbograph 1 (strong) is shown to be a versatile sorbent suitable for the three "total species"; only a few compounds from each family would need to be analysed using other analytical methods. This method proposed here for total species will not only provide a sum of concentrations, but also an identification of which compound(s) is/are actually present in the hydrogen.

  • 5.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Comparison of different models to calculate the viscosity of biogas and biomethane in order to accurately measure flow rates for conformity assessment2021Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id 1660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents an optimised method to correct flow rates measured with a LFE flowmeter pre-set on methane while used for gas mixtures of unknown composition at the time of the measurement. The method requires the correction of the flow rate using a factor based on the viscosity of the gas mixtures once the composition is accurately known. The method has several different possible applications inclusive for the sampling of biogas and biomethane onto sorbent tubes for conformity assessment for the determination of siloxanes, terpenes and VOC in general. Five models for the calculation of the viscosity of the gas mixtures were compared and the models were used for ten binary mixtures and four multi-component mixtures. The results of the evaluation of the different models showed that the correction method using the viscosity of the mixtures calculated with the model of Reichenberg and Carr showed the smallest biases for binary mixtures. For multi-component mixtures, the best results were obtained when using the models of Lucas and Carr. 

  • 6.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Moore, Niamh
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Development and evaluation of a novel analyser for ISO14687 hydrogen purity analysis2020Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 31, nr 7, artikkel-id 075010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Standards ISO14687 and EN17124 set stringent limits for numerous gaseous impurities and particulates that may damage the fuel cell system in a hydrogen vehicle, as it is highly sensitive to the presence of even very low levels of impurities. However, performing the whole set of analyses is both technically challenging and time-consuming for any laboratory and will require a combination of several analytical techniques or instruments. In this study, we discussed the selection of analytical techniques for hydrogen purity testing in order to optimize the CAPEX (capital expenditure) and OPEX (operational expenditure), while ensuring the quality of the results and the compliance of the analytical methods with ISO21087. Among the individual impurities to be analysed in ISO14687, spectroscopy techniques are suitable for ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, formic acid, oxygen and water. Spectroscopy techniques are even suitable for some impurities belonging to the three total species such as hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen chloride and methane. However, helium and argon, which are monoatomic, do not exhibit response in the infrared region. Therefore, any spectroscopic analysis method must be completed by another method in order to simultaneously analyse all individual gaseous impurities from ISO14687. In this study, we constructed and demonstrated the feasibility of an instrument composed of a gas chromatograph having three columns (two packed columns and a PLOT (Porous Layer Open Tubular) column and two detectors (FID and TCD) coupled in parallel to two OFCEAS instruments using reference gas mixtures. Finally, we also proposed an extended configuration that will allow performing the whole set of analyses for gaseous species from ISO14687

  • 7.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Adrien, Herve
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    El Masri, Ahmad
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Lestremau, Francois
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Robinson, Tim
    Waverton Analytics Ltd, UK.
    Analytical methods for the determination of oil carryover from CNG/biomethane refueling stations recovered in a solvent2020Inngår i: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 10, nr 20, s. 11907-11917Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle gas is often compressed to about 200 bar at the refueling station prior to charging to the vehicle's tank. If a high amount of oil is carried over to the gas, it may cause damage to the vehicles; it is therefore necessary to accurately measure oil carryover. In this paper, three analytical methods for accurate quantification of the oil content are presented whereby two methods are based on gas chromatography and one on FTIR. To better evaluate the level of complexity of the matrix, 10 different compressor oils in use at different refueling stations were initially collected and analysed with GC and FTIR to identify their analytical traces. The GC traces could be divided into three different profiles: oils exhibiting some well resolved peaks, oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks with some dominant peaks on top of the hump and oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks. After selection of three oils; one oil from each type, the three methods were evaluated with regards to the detection and quantification limits, the working range, precision, trueness and robustness. The evaluation of the three measurement methods demonstrated that any of these three methods presented were suitable for the quantification of compressor oil for samples. The FTIR method and the GC/MS method both resulted in measurement uncertainties close to 20% rel. while the GC/FID method resulted in a higher measurement uncertainty (U = 30% rel.).

  • 8.
    Artiach, Gonzalo
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Carracedo, Miguel
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Plunde, Oscar
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wheelock, Craig E
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Thul, Silke
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Franco-Cereceda, Anders
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Laguna-Fernandez, Andres
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Arnardottir, Hildur
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bäck, Magnus
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease Aortic Valve Disease through the Resolvin E1 and ChemR23 Axis.2020Inngår i: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 142, s. 776-789Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Aortic valve stenosis (AVS), which is the most common valvular heart disease, causes a progressive narrowing of the aortic valve as a consequence of thickening and calcification of the aortic valve leaflets. The beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in cardiovascular prevention have been recently demonstrated in a large randomized controlled trial. In addition, n-3 PUFA serve as the substrate for the synthesis of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), which are known by their potent beneficial anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving and tissue-modifying properties in cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of n-3 PUFA and SPMs on AVS have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to identify the role of n-3 PUFA-derived SPMs in relation to the development of AVS. Methods: Lipidomic and transcriptomic analyses were performed in human tricuspid aortic valves. Apoe-/- mice and wire injury in C57BL/6J mice were used as models for mechanistic studies. Results: We found that n-3 PUFA incorporation into human stenotic aortic valves was higher in non-calcified regions compared with calcified regions. LC-MS-MS based lipid mediator lipidomics identified that the n-3 PUFA-derived SPM resolvin E1 (RvE1) was dysregulated in calcified regions and acted as a calcification inhibitor. Apoe-/- mice expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans Fat-1 transgene (Fat-1tgxApoe-/-), which enables the endogenous synthesis of n-3 PUFA, increased valvular n-3 PUFA content, exhibited reduced valve calcification, lower aortic valve leaflet area, increased M2 macrophage polarization and improved echocardiographic parameters. Finally, abrogation of the RvE1 receptor ChemR23 enhanced disease progression, and the beneficial effects of Fat-1tg were abolished in the absence of ChemR23. Conclusions: n-3 PUFA-derived RvE1 and its receptor ChemR23 emerge as a key axis in the inhibition of AVS progression, and may represent a novel potential therapeutic opportunity to be evaluated in patients with AVS.

  • 9.
    Bachinger, Angelika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Lindkvist, K
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    The morphology of ABS with phosphorus-based flame-retardants and its influence on the impact performance2021Inngår i: Abstract Book of FRPM21, 2021, s. 86-87Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Halogen-free flame-retardants (HFFRs) have a pronounced effect on the impact performance of ABS. The addition of flame-retardant (FR) particles may interfere with the morphology of ABS or introduce weak spots into the plastic. The present work studies the morphology of ABS with phosphorus-based flame-retardant systems and sets it in relation to their respective impact performance with the aim of identifying mechanisms influencing the impact performance and revealing possibilities to overcome this issue.

  • 10.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The challenge of predicting spinnability: Investigating benefits of adding lignin to cellulose solutions in air-gap spinning2021Inngår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 138, nr 26, artikkel-id 50629Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the underlying mechanism for improved spinnability when mixing lignin and cellulose in solution was investigated. Co-processing of lignin and cellulose has previously been identified as a potential route for production of inexpensive and bio-based carbon fibers. The molecular order of cellulose contributes to the strength of the fibers and the high carbon content of lignin improves the yield during conversion to carbon fibers. The current work presents an additional benefit of combining lignin and cellulose; solutions that contain both lignin and cellulose could be air-gap spun at substantially higher draw ratios than pure cellulose solutions, that is, lignin improved the spinnability. Fibers were spun from solutions containing different ratios of lignin, from 0 to 70 wt%, and the critical draw ratio was determined at various temperatures of solution. The observations were followed by characterization of the solutions with shear and elongational viscosity and surface tension, but none of these methods could explain the beneficial effect of lignin on the spinnability. However, by measuring the take-up force it was found that lignin seems to stabilize against diameter fluctuations during spinning, and plausible explanations are discussed

  • 11.
    Beurey, Claire
    et al.
    Air Liquide Paris Innovation Campus, France .
    Gozlan, Bruno
    Air Liquide Paris Innovation Campus, France .
    Carré, Martine
    Air Liquide Paris Innovation Campus, France .
    Bacquart, Thomas
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Morris, Abigail
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Moore, Niamh
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Meuzelaar, Heleen
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Rojo, Andres
    Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Review and Survey of Methods for Analysis of Impurities in Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Vehicles According to ISO 14687:20192021Inngår i: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 615149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaseous hydrogen for fuel cell electric vehicles must meet quality standards such as ISO 14687:2019 which contains maximal control thresholds for several impurities which could damage the fuel cells or the infrastructure. A review of analytical techniques for impurities analysis has already been carried out by Murugan et al. in 2014. Similarly, this document intends to review the sampling of hydrogen and the available analytical methods, together with a survey of laboratories performing the analysis of hydrogen about the techniques being used. Most impurities are addressed, however some of them are challenging, especially the halogenated compounds since only some halogenated compounds are covered, not all of them. The analysis of impurities following ISO 14687:2019 remains expensive and complex, enhancing the need for further research in this area. Novel and promising analyzers have been developed which need to be validated according to ISO 21087:2019 requirements.  © 2021 Beurey, Gozlan, Carré, Bacquart, Morris, Moore, Arrhenius, Meuzelaar, Persijn, Rojo and Murugan.

  • 12.
    Cheregi, Otilia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Engelbrektsson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Andersson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Ekendahl, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Godhe, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Spetea, Cornelia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marine microalgae for outdoor biomass production—A laboratory study simulating seasonal light and temperature for the west coast of Sweden2021Inngår i: Physiologia Plantarum, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 173, nr 2, s. 543-554Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At Nordic latitudes, year-round outdoor cultivation of microalgae is debatable due to seasonal variations in productivity. Shall the same species/strains be used throughout the year, or shall seasonal-adapted ones be used? To elucidate this, a laboratory study was performed where two out of 167 marine microalgal strains were selected for intended cultivation at the west coast of Sweden. The two local strains belong to Nannochloropsis granulata (Ng) and Skeletonema marinoi (Sm142). They were cultivated in photobioreactors and compared in conditions simulating variations in light and temperature of a year divided into three growth seasons (spring, summer and winter). The strains grew similarly well in summer (and also in spring), but Ng produced more biomass (0.225 vs. 0.066 g DW L−1 day−1) which was more energy rich (25.0 vs. 16.6 MJ kg−1 DW). In winter, Sm142 grew faster and produced more biomass (0.017 vs. 0.007 g DW L−1 day−1), having similar energy to the other seasons. The higher energy of the Ng biomass is attributed to a higher lipid content (40 vs. 16% in summer). The biomass of both strains was richest in proteins (65%) in spring. In all seasons, Sm142 was more effective in removing phosphorus from the cultivation medium (6.58 vs. 4.14 mg L−1 day−1 in summer), whereas Ng was more effective in removing nitrogen only in summer (55.0 vs. 30.8 mg L−1 day−1). Our results suggest that, depending on the purpose, either the same or different local species can be cultivated, and are relevant when designing outdoor studies. © 2021 The Authors. 

  • 13.
    Cheregi, Otilia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pinder, Matthew I.M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Shaikh, Kashif Mohd
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats X.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Engelbrektsson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Strömberg, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Ekendahl, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Kourtchenko, Olga
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Godhe, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Töpel, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Spetea, Cornelia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Transcriptome analysis reveals insights into adaptive responses of two marine microalgae species to Nordic seasons2023Inngår i: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, artikkel-id 103222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in algae-based biomass produced outdoors in natural and industrial settings for biotechnological applications. To predict the yield and biochemical composition of the biomass, it is important to understand how the transcriptome of species and strains of interest is affected by seasonal changes. Here we studied the effects of Nordic winter and summer on the transcriptome of two phytoplankton species, namely the diatom Skeletonema marinoi (Sm) and the eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis granulata (Ng), recently identified as potentially important for biomass production on the west coast of Sweden. Cultures were grown in photobioreactors in simulated Nordic summer and winter, and the gene expression in two phases was quantified by Illumina RNA-sequencing. Five paired comparisons were made among the four conditions. Sm was overall more responsive to seasons since 70 % of the total transcriptome (14,783 genes) showed differential expression in at least one comparison as compared to 1.6 % (1403 genes) for Ng. For both species, we observed larger differences between the seasons than between the phases of the same season. In summer phase 1, Sm cells focused on photosynthesis and polysaccharide biosynthesis. Nitrate assimilation and recycling of intracellular nitrogen for protein biosynthesis were more active in summer phase 2 and throughout winter. Lipid catabolism was upregulated in winter relative to summer to supply carbon for respiration. Ng favored lipid accumulation in summer, while in winter activated different lipid remodeling pathways as compared to Sm. To cope with winter, Ng upregulated breakdown and transport of carbohydrates for energy production. Taken together, our transcriptome data reveal insights into adaptive seasonal responses of Sm and Ng important for biotechnological applications on the west coast of Sweden, but more work is required to decipher the molecular mechanisms behind these responses.

  • 14.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Johansson, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Leirset, Ingebjørg
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Björn, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Agrenius, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Characterization and Antibacterial Properties of Autoclaved Carboxylated Wood Nanocellulose.2021Inngår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 22, nr 7, s. 2779-2789Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were obtained by applying a chemical pretreatment consisting of autoclaving the pulp fibers in sodium hydroxide, combined with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl-mediated oxidation. Three levels of sodium hypochlorite were applied (2.5, 3.8, and 6.0 mmol/g) to obtain CNF qualities (CNF_2.5, CNF_3.8, and CNF_6.0) with varying content of carboxyl groups, that is, 1036, 1285, and 1593 μmol/g cellulose. The cytotoxicity and skin irritation potential (indirect tests) of the CNFs were determined according to standardized in vitro testing for medical devices. We here demonstrate that autoclaving (121 °C, 20 min), which was used to sterilize the gels, caused a modification of the CNF characteristics. This was confirmed by a reduction in the viscosity of the gels, a morphological change of the nanofibrils, by an increase of the ultraviolet-visible absorbance maxima at 250 nm, reduction of the absolute zeta potential, and by an increase in aldehyde content and reducing sugars after autoclaving. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering complemented an extensive characterization of the CNF gels, before and after autoclaving. The antibacterial properties of autoclaved carboxylated CNFs were demonstrated in vitro (bacterial survival and swimming assays) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Importantly, a mouse in vivo surgical-site infection model on S. aureus revealed that CNF_3.8 showed pronounced antibacterial effect and performed as good as the antiseptic Prontosan wound gel.

  • 15.
    Danyliv, Olesia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Strach, Michel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nechyporchuk, Oleksandr
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Nypelö, Tiina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Martinelli, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Self-Standing, Robust Membranes Made of Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs) and a Protic Ionic Liquid: Toward Sustainable Electrolytes for Fuel Cells2021Inngår i: ACS Applied Energy Materials, E-ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 4, nr 7, s. 6474-6485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy-conversion devices based on the phenomenon of proton conduction, for example, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), require low cost and sustainable electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and good mechanical properties under anhydrous conditions and at temperatures up to 150 °C. Biopolymers possess an intrinsic thermomechanical stability but an insufficient proton conductivity in the dry state, which however may be imparted by a protic ionic liquid (PIL). This work presents the preparation and properties of composite membranes made of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and a PIL. The membranes are thermally stable and display an ionic conductivity within the range 10-4-10-3 S/cm for temperatures between 120 and 160 °C. Moreover, the analysis of the biopolymer's apparent dimensions at nanoscale reveals a dependence of the CNCs' defects, twisting, and aggregation in the presence of the PIL. Preliminary tests using a simple fuel cell setup demonstrate a response of the membranes to the inlet of H2 gas, with a generation of electrical current. These findings provide a solid groundwork for further development and future studies of biopolymer/PIL electrolytes for energy applications. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 16.
    Dejke, Valter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Eng, Matthias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Charnley, Josephine
    Lusstech, UK.
    Lussey, David
    Lusstech, UK.
    Lussey, Chris
    Lusstech, UK.
    Development of prototype low-cost qtss™ wearable flexible more enviro-friendly pressure, shear, and friction sensors for dynamic prosthetic fit monitoring2021Inngår i: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, nr 11, artikkel-id 3764Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a current healthcare need for improved prosthetic socket fit provision for the masses using low-cost and simple to manufacture sensors that can measure pressure, shear, and friction. There is also a need to address society’s increasing concerns regarding the environmental impact of electronics and IoT devices. Prototype thin, low-cost, and low-weight pressure, shear, and loss of friction sensors have been developed and assembled for trans-femoral amputees. These flexible and conformable sensors are simple to manufacture and utilize more enviro-friendly novel magnetite-based QTSS™ (Quantum Technology Supersensor™) quantum materials. They have undergone some initial tests on flat and curved surfaces in a pilot amputee trial, which are presented in this paper. These initial findings indicate that the prototype pressure sensor strip is capable of measuring pressure both on flat and curved socket surfaces in a pilot amputee trial. They have also demonstrated that the prototype shear sensor can indicate increasing shear forces, the resultant direction of the shear forces, and loss of friction/slippage events. Further testing, amputee trials, and ongoing optimization is continuing as part of the SocketSense project to assist prosthetic comfort and fit. © 2021 by the authors

  • 17.
    Delli Santi, Maria Giulia
    et al.
    CNR-INO, Italy; LENS, Italy.
    Bartalini, Saverio
    CNR-INO, Italy; LENS, Italy; ppqSense Srl, Italy.
    Cancio, Pablo
    CNR-INO, Italy; LENS, Italy; ppqSense Srl, Italy.
    Galli, Iacopo
    CNR-INO, Italy; LENS, Italy; ppqSense Srl, Italy.
    Giusfredi, Giovanni
    CNR-INO, Italy; ppqSense Srl, Italy.
    Haraldsson, Conny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Mazzotti, Davide
    CNR-INO, Italy; LENS, Italy; ppqSense Srl, Italy.
    Pesonen, Antto
    Neste Corp, Sweden.
    De Natale, Paolo
    CNR-INO, Italy; LENS, Italy; ppqSense Srl, Italy.
    Biogenic Fraction Determination in Fuel Blends by Laser-Based 14CO2 Detection2021Inngår i: Advanced Photonics Research, ISSN 2699-9293, Vol. 2, nr 3, artikkel-id 2000069Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A widespread use of biofuels is a key recommendation of the Paris Agreement and leading international organizations. It is an important step to mitigate the global warming effects due to greenhouse-gas emissions from fossil oils. To this aim, an analytical technique sufficiently cheap and compact, to foster its widespread adoption, is necessary. Herein, it is shown that a compact, laser-based spectrometer is suitable to replace the few established techniques, which have been used to quantify the biofraction in fuel blends, so far. Measurements of the biogenic fraction in different fuel samples are reported, with a precision of 1% in the whole range (0?100%) of possible blends, confirming a performance comparable to the best existing technique. An onsite-deployable saturated-absorption cavity ring-down (SCAR) spectrometer is used. The results demonstrate the potential of laser-based instrumentation to do the accurate and precise measurements required for the certification of biogenic content of any hydrocarbon-based material. Worldwide adoption of such laser-based technology for biofraction certification can significantly boost the market of biofuels and can prove to be a disruptive methodology for assessing the biogenic content in plastics and polymeric materials.

  • 18.
    El Seoud, Omar
    et al.
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Kostag, Marc
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Malek, Naved
    Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, India.
    Cellulose Regeneration and Chemical Recycling: Closing the “Cellulose Gap” Using Environmentally Benign Solvents2020Inngår i: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 305, nr 4, artikkel-id 1900832Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies to mitigate the expected “cellulose gap” include increased use of wood cellulose, fabric reuse, and recycling. Ionic liquids (ILs) are employed for cellulose physical dissolution and shaping in different forms. This review focuses on the regeneration of dissolved cellulose as nanoparticles, membranes, nonwoven materials, and fibers. The solvents employed in these applications include ILs and alkali solutions without and with additives. Cellulose fibers obtained via the carbonate and carbamate processes are included. Chemical recycling (CR) of polycotton (cellulose plus poly(ethylene terephthalate)) is addressed because depending on the recycling approach employed, this process is akin to regeneration. The strategies investigated in CR include preferential dissolution or depolymerization of one component of the blend, and separation of both components using ILs. It is hoped that this review focuses the attention on the potential applications of regenerated cellulose from its solutions and contributes to the important environmental issue of recycling of used materials.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Viktor
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson Trojer, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Vavra, Szilvia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hulander, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordstierna, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Formulation of polyphthalaldehyde microcapsules for immediate UV-light triggered release2020Inngår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 579, s. 645-653Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Triggered release from responsive drug reservoirs activated by remote stimuli is desired in a range of fields. Critical bottlenecks are cost-efficient formulation avenues applicable for industrial scale-up, viable triggers and immediate release rather than continuous release upon activation. UV-sensitive microcapsules based on self-immolating polymers in combination with thin shells and morphological weak spots should allow for immediate triggered release. Polyphthalaldehyde-based microcapsules were prepared using several variations of the internal phase separation route. In addition, a fluorescence microscopy method was developed to study both the microcapsule morphology and the triggered release in-situ. The microcapsule formation was driven by the surface activity of the stabilizer, effectively lowering the high polymer-water interfacial tension, which is in sharp contrast to conventional encapsulation systems. Contrary to previous findings, a core–shell morphology was obtained via slow emulsion-to-suspension transformation. Rapid transformation captured intermediate inverted core–shell structures. The capsules were highly sensitive to both acid- and UV-mediated triggers, leading to an unzipping and rupturing of the shell that released the core content. Poly(methacrylic acid)-stabilized microcapsules displayed immediate UV-triggered release provided by their stimuli-sensitive blueberry morphology. Both capsules in aqueous and dry environment started to lose their core content after less than one minute of UV light exposure.

  • 20.
    Greco, Ines
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Molchanova, Natalia
    Roskilde University, Denmark; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Holmedal, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Jenssen, Håvard
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Hummel, Bernard D
    Zoetis Inc, USA.
    Watts, Jeffrey L
    Zoetis Inc, USA.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Hansen, Paul R
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. Cawthron Institute, New Zealand; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Correlation between hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity and systemic in vivo toxicity of synthetic antimicrobial peptides.2020Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 13206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of non-standard toxicity models is a hurdle in the early development of antimicrobial peptides towards clinical applications. Herein we report an extensive in vitro and in vivo toxicity study of a library of 24 peptide-based antimicrobials with narrow spectrum activity towards veterinary pathogens. The haemolytic activity of the compounds was evaluated against four different species and the relative sensitivity against the compounds was highest for canine erythrocytes, intermediate for rat and human cells and lowest for bovine cells. Selected peptides were additionally evaluated against HeLa, HaCaT and HepG2 cells which showed increased stability towards the peptides. Therapeutic indexes of 50-500 suggest significant cellular selectivity in comparison to bacterial cells. Three peptides were administered to rats in intravenous acute dose toxicity studies up to 2-8 × MIC. None of the injected compounds induced any systemic toxic effects in vivo at the concentrations employed illustrating that the correlation between the different assays is not obvious. This work sheds light on the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of this class of promising compounds and provides insights into the relationship between the different toxicity models often employed in different manners to evaluate the toxicity of novel bioactive compounds in general.

  • 21.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. Tongji University, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Yan, Zhiguo
    Tongji University, China.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Theoretical and numerical study on mass flow rates of smoke exhausted from short vertical shafts in naturally ventilated urban road tunnel fires2021Inngår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, artikkel-id 103782Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on the mass flow rate of the buoyancy-driven gases exhausted from the shaft in naturally ventilated urban road tunnel fires. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations are performed. The model to predict the mass flow rate of the incoming smoke exhausted by the nearest shaft is developed by considering that the smoke is exhausted along the four sides of the shaft separately. Based on the heat balance between the incoming smoke exhausted and the total gas flow exhausted, the model to estimate the total mass flow rate exhausted from the shaft (both smoke and entrained air) is also established. Meanwhile, a series of numerical simulation in a naturally ventilated tunnel considering the heat release rate (HRR), the shaft height, shaft length and width, shaft location was carried out. The simulation results show that the shaft height has a limited contribution to the mass flow rate of the incoming smoke exhausted while a larger shaft cross-sectional area shows a favorable performance in exhausting the smoke. Further, the air entrainment into the shaft increases with both the shaft height and shaft cross-sectional area. Comparisons of the mass flow rates of the incoming smoke and the total mass flow rates exhausted between simple calculations and simulations are made, showing that the simple models perform well. Further, it is found that there exist two regimes for the total mass flow rate corresponding to different smoke modes in the shaft (complete plug-holing, plug-holing and without plug-holing), which is caused by the different driven forces in the shaft. The outcomes of this work could provide some guidance for the design of vertical shaft and smoke control in naturally ventilated tunnel in urban area.

  • 22.
    Guo, Zengwei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Tam, Pui
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanostructured micro particles as a low-cost and sustainable catalyst in the recycling of PET fiber waste by the glycolysis method2021Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 126, s. 559-566Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro particles were synthesized by coating nanosized Mg-Al double oxides onto Fe3O4 micro particles. The formed hierarchical structure gave Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro particles a high active surface area, which enabled these micro particles to work efficiently as a catalyst in the glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The bis(hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) yield reached above 80 mol% in the presence of 0.5 wt% of Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro catalyst in the reaction system within 90 min at 240 °C. After the reaction, Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro catalyst was easily retrieved by a magnetic decantation and can be repetitively used for two times with a high catalytic efficiency. After that, the deactivated Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro catalyst can be regenerated by heat treatment. The regenerated Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro catalyst displays a comparable catalytic performance as that of the virgin catalyst. In addition, the Mg-Al double oxides and Fe3O4 micro particles are low-cost and environmentally benign. Therefore, the Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro catalyst may contribute to an economically and environmentally improved large-scale circular recycling of PET fiber waste. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 23.
    Guo, Zingwei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Circular recycling of polyester textile waste using a sustainable catalyst2021Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 283, artikkel-id 124579Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A tremendous amount of polyester textile waste is discarded every year, which has caused a serious problem for the environment. In this study, the feasibility of circular recycling of polyester textile waste is investigated through a glycolysis process in the presence of environmentally friendly Mg–Al double oxides pellets as catalyst. Even though the catalytic performance of Mg–Al double oxides pellets is slightly lower than their granules at 240 °C, pellets were used as they benefit from a good recyclability. The pellet catalysts could be cycled three times without losing structural integrity or catalytic activity in the glycolysis of (poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET)). However, to restore the catalytic activity after three cycles, the catalyst was regenerated through a heat treatment after the glycolysis reaction. After that the catalyst showed a comparable catalytic activity as that of virgin catalyst. In the glycolysis process, the monomer bis(hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) is generated and recovered. The molar yield of BHET was in the reaction over 80 mol%. From the recovered BHET, regenerated PET (r-PET) with an intrinsic viscosity (IV) of 0.67 was synthesized. The r-PET showed a very good spinnability in the melt spinning test. The quality of the obtained r-PET fibers was comparable to virgin PET fibers. 

  • 24.
    Herzberg, Moshe
    et al.
    Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Eliahu, Sarai
    Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
    Bodin, Lovisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Agrenius, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Zlotkin, Amir
    DisperseBio Ltd, Israel.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Efficient prevention of marine biofilm formation employing a surface-grafted repellent marine peptide2021Inngår i: ACS Applied Bio Materials, E-ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 3360-3373Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Creation of surfaces resistant to the formation of microbial biofilms via biomimicry has been heralded as a promising strategy to protect a range of different materials ranging from boat hulls to medical devices and surgical instruments. In our current study, we describe the successful transfer of a highly effective natural marine biofilm inhibitor to the 2D surface format. A series of cyclic peptides inspired by the natural equinatoxin II protein produced by Beadlet anemone (Actinia equine) have been evaluated for their ability to inhibit the formation of a mixed marine microbial consortium on polyamide reverse osmosis membranes. In solution, the peptides are shown to effectively inhibit settlement and biofilm formation in a nontoxic manner down to 1 nM concentrations. In addition, our study also illustrates how the peptides can be applied to disperse already established biofilms. Attachment of a hydrophobic palmitic acid tail generates a peptide suited for strong noncovalent surface interactions and allows the generation of stable noncovalent coatings. These adsorbed peptides remain attached to the surface at significant shear stress and also remain active, effectively preventing the biofilm formation over 24 h. Finally, the covalent attachment of the peptides to an acrylate surface was also evaluated and the prepared coatings display a remarkable ability to prevent surface colonization at surface loadings of 55 ng/cm2 over 48 h. The ability to retain the nontoxic antibiofilm activity, documented in solution, in the covalent 2D-format is unprecedented, and this natural peptide motif displays high potential in several material application areas.

  • 25.
    Hutchinson, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Granskog, Viktor
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    von Kieseritzky, Johanna
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Alfort, Henrik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Arner, Marianne
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Highly Customizable Bone Fracture Fixation through the Marriage of Composites and Screws2021Inngår i: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 31, nr 41, artikkel-id 2105187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) metal plates provide exceptional support for unstable bone fractures; however, they often result in debilitating soft-tissue adhesions and their rigid shape cannot be easily customized by surgeons. In this work, a surgically feasible ORIF methodology, called AdhFix, is developed by combining screws with polymer/hydroxyapatite composites, which are applied and shaped in situ before being rapidly cured on demand via high-energy visible-light-induced thiol–ene coupling chemistry. The method is developed on porcine metacarpals with transverse and multifragmented fractures, resulting in strong and stable fixations with a bending rigidity of 0.28 (0.03) N m2 and a maximum load before break of 220 (15) N. Evaluations on human cadaver hands with proximal phalanx fractures show that AdhFix withstands the forces from finger flexing exercises, while short- and long-term in vivo rat femur fracture models show that AdhFix successfully supports bone healing without degradation, adverse effects, or soft-tissue adhesions. This procedure represents a radical new approach to fracture fixation, which grants surgeons unparalleled customizability and does not result in soft-tissue adhesions. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 26.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Cavanagh, J. P.
    Amicoat A/S, Norway; UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Stensen, W.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Mortensen, B.
    Amicoat A/S, Norway.
    Svendsen, J. -S
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway; Amicoat A/S, Norway.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    In vitro and in vivo antibacterial properties of peptide AMC-109 impregnated wound dressings and gels2021Inngår i: Journal of Antibiotics, ISSN 0021-8820, E-ISSN 1881-1469, Vol. 74, s. 337-345Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is a promising class of molecules for a variety of antimicrobial applications. Several hurdles must be passed before effective systemic infection therapies with AMPs can be achieved, but the path to effective topical treatment of skin, nail, and soft tissue infections appears less challenging to navigate. Skin and soft tissue infection is closely coupled to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and represents a major burden to the healthcare system. The present study evaluates the promising synthetic cationic AMP mimic, AMC-109, for treatment of skin infections in vivo. The compound is evaluated both in impregnated cotton wound dressings and in a gel formulation against skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus. Both the ability to prevent colonization and formation of an infection, as well as eradicate an ongoing infection in vivo with a high bacterial load, were evaluated. The present work demonstrates that AMC-109 displays a significantly higher antibacterial activity with up to a seven-log reduction in bacterial loads compared to current clinical standard therapy; Altargo cream (1% retapamulin) and Fucidin cream (2% fusidic acid) in the in vivo wound models. It is thus concluded that AMC-109 represents a promising entry in the development of new and effective remedies for various skin infections. © 2021, The Author(s)

  • 27.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Simsa, Robin
    VERIGRAFT AB, Sweden.
    Bogestål, Yalda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Jenndahl, Lachmi
    VERIGRAFT AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson-Hedberg, Tobias
    VERIGRAFT AB, Sweden.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Strehl, Raimund
    VERIGRAFT AB, Sweden.
    Österberg, Klas
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Individualized tissue-engineered veins as vascular grafts: a proof of concept study in pig.2021Inngår i: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, ISSN 1932-6254, E-ISSN 1932-7005, Vol. 15, nr 10, s. 818-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Personalized tissue engineered vascular grafts are a promising advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) alternative to autologous or synthetic vascular grafts utilized in blood vessel bypass or replacement surgery. We hypothesized that an individualized tissue engineered vein (P-TEV) would make the body recognize the transplanted blood vessel as autologous, decrease the risk of rejection and thereby avoid lifelong treatment with immune suppressant medication as is standard with allogenic organ transplantation. To individualize blood vessels, we decellularized vena cava from six deceased donor pigs and tested them for cellular removal and histological integrity. A solution with peripheral blood from the recipient pigs was used for individualized reconditioning in a perfusion bioreactor for seven days prior to transplantation. To evaluate safety and functionality of the individualized vascular graft in vivo, we transplanted reconditioned porcine vena cava into six pigs and analyzed histology and patency of the graft at different time points, with three pigs at the final endpoint 4-5 weeks after surgery. Our results showed that the P-TEV was fully patent in all animals, did not induce any occlusion or stenosis formation and we did not find any signs of rejection. The P-TEV showed rapid recellularization in vivo with the luminal surface covered with endothelial cells. In summary, the results indicate that P-TEV is functional and have potential for use as clinical transplant grafts. 

  • 28.
    Hüffmeier, Johannes
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Lundman, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    von Elern, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    TRIM AND BALLAST OPTIMISATION FOR A TANKER BASED ON MACHINE LEARNING: Big-data Analysis of Existing Data for Improved Environmental Performance and Ship Efficiency2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tank ships sail a large share of their time in ballast conditions, depending on their trading patterns up to half of the time at sea.The aim of this project use case is to test the usage of machine learning and big data approaches based on existing historical ship operation data to improve energy efficiency on ballast trips. Founded on the analysis, guidelines on how to improve the energy efficiency of ships can be made by collecting real-time operational data.The energy needed to propel a vessel is largely dependent on the total weight of it and of the speed it is operated at. Substantial savings in energy consumption and correspondingly to reduced fuel costs as well as to reduced emissions can be achieved by either lowering the speed or optimising the load taken onboard.Ships are normally designed for optimal operation at one single or a few defined load conditions. By analysing off-design conditions (such as partial load, slower speed, and ballast conditions), significant improvements in efficiency can be obtained. Figures achieved by different means range typically from 10 to 40 percent by improving the crew’s methods to load and operate the vessels, increasing resistance and delivered power [1]. Looking at operational regimes of tankers, the crews can only to a limited degree adjust the operational conditions for the loaded voyages when on hire, while when sailing off-hire or in ballast voyages allows for certain flexibility.Building on a grey machine learning model with an underlying hydrodynamic model of the vessel, the data analysis provides a guidance to the mariners on summer ballast conditions that allow for fuel savings. The conditions derived by the model have been demonstrated by the shipping operator in full scale trials. Based on the analysis made, summer ballast conditions imply a reduction in fuel consumption in the range of 10-14% on the feasible trips.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Jarenmark, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Ito, Shosuke
    Fujita Health University, Japan.
    Wakamatsu, Kazumasa
    Fujita Health University, Japan.
    Lindgren, John
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Chemical evaluation of eumelanin maturation by tof-sims and alkaline peroxide oxidation hplc analysis2021Inngår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikkel-id 161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Residual melanins have been detected in multimillion-year-old animal body fossils; how-ever, confident identification and characterization of these natural pigments remain challenging due to loss of chemical signatures during diagenesis. Here, we simulate this post-burial process through artificial maturation experiments using three synthetic and one natural eumelanin exposed to mild (100◦C/100 bar) and harsh (250◦C/200 bar) environmental conditions, followed by chemical analysis employing alkaline hydrogen peroxide oxidation (AHPO) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Our results show that AHPO is sensitive to changes in the melanin molecular structure already during mild heat and pressure treatment (resulting, e.g., in increased C-C cross-linking), whereas harsh maturation leads to extensive loss of eumelanin-specific chemical markers. In contrast, negative-ion ToF-SIMS spectra are considerably less affected by mild maturation conditions, and eumelanin-specific features remain even after harsh treatment. Detailed analysis of ToF-SIMS spectra acquired prior to experimental treatment revealed significant differences between the investigated eumelanins. However, systematic spectral changes upon maturation reduced these dissimilarities, indicating that intense heat and pressure treatment leads to the formation of a com-mon, partially degraded, eumelanin molecular structure. Our findings elucidate the complementary nature of AHPO and ToF-SIMS during chemical characterization of eumelanin traces in fossilized organismal remains. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 30.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Idström, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    Alkhagen, Mårten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Cellulosic nonwovens produced via efficient solution blowing technique2020Inngår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 137, nr 5, artikkel-id 48339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for nonwoven materials has increased during the last few years and is expected to increase further due to its use in a broad range of new application areas. Today, the majority of nonwovens are from petroleum-based resources but there is a desideratum to develop sustainable and competitive materials from renewable feedstock. In this work, renewable nonwovens are produced by solution blowing of dissolved cellulose using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) as solvent. Properties of cellulose solutions and process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, air pressure, and distance to collector, are evaluated in respect to spinnability and material structural properties. Nonwovens with fiber diameters mainly in the micrometer range were successfully produced and it was shown that high temperature or low flow rate resulted in thinner fibers. The produced materials were stiffer (higher effective stress and lower strain) compared to commercial polypropylene nonwoven. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Applied Polymer Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 48339. © 2019 The Authors.

  • 31.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Viklund, Linnea
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Alkhagen, Mårten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tailoring the physical characteristics of solution blown cellulosic nonwovens by various post-treatments2021Inngår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 682-695Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonwovens are increasing in demand due to their versatility which enables use in a broad range of applications. Most nonwovens are still produced from fossil-based resources and there is thus a need to develop competitive materials from renewable feedstock. In this work, nonwovens are produced from cellulose via a direct solution blowing method. 

  • 32.
    Kieseritzky, Johanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Alfort, Henrik
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Granskog, Viktor
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Biomedical Bonding AB, Sweden.
    Hutchinson, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Bogestål, Yalda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Arner, Marianne
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Biomedical Bonding AB, Sweden.
    DendroPrime as an adhesion barrier on fracture fixation plates: an experimental study in rabbits2020Inngår i: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume, ISSN 1753-1934, E-ISSN 2043-6289, Vol. 45, nr 7, s. 742-747Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the anti-adhesional effect of a new thiol-ene-based coating in a rabbit model. In 12 New Zealand white rabbits, the periosteum and cortex of the proximal phalanx of the second toe of both hind paws was scratched. Stainless steel plates were fixated with screws. One plate was coated with DendroPrime and the other left bare. The non-operated second toes of both hind paws of an additional four rabbits served as controls. Seven weeks after surgery, the soft tissue adhesion to the plates was evaluated macroscopically, and joint mobility was measured biomechanically. Toe joint mobility was about 20% greater and statistically significant in specimens with coated plates compared with the bare plates. Soft tissue overgrowth and, in some cases, synovitis or adhesions between the plate and the tendon were observed on all bare plates but not on any of the coated plates. We conclude that the thiol-ene-based coating can improve joint mobility by about 20%. This material has a potential to reduce adhesion around plates in fracture surgery. © The Author(s) 2020.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 33.
    Kittikorn, Thorsak
    et al.
    Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Chaiwong, Wantani
    Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Stromberg, Emma
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Moriana Torro, Rosana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Ek, Monika
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Enhancement of interfacial adhesion and engineering properties of polyvinyl alcohol/polylactic acid laminate films filled with modified microfibrillated cellulose2020Inngår i: Journal of plastic film & sheeting (Print), ISSN 8756-0879, E-ISSN 1530-8014, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 368-390Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work was done to improve the interfacial adhesion and engineering performance of polyvinyl alcohol/polylactic acid laminate film by altering the polyvinyl alcohol phase surface properties via incorporating microfibrillated cellulose modified by propionylation. Incorporating the modified microfibrillated cellulose into polyvinyl alcohol film improved adhesion between film layers during the laminating process. Improved peel strength and tensile properties confirmed that modified microfibrillated cellulose can produce better bonding between polyvinyl alcohol and polylactic acid via mechanical interlocking and cohesive forces at the film interface. Modified microfibrillated cellulose (3 wt%) increased the peel strength by 40% comparing with the neat polyvinyl alcohol/polylactic acid laminate film.The reduction of both moisture absorption and diffusion rate of the modified microfibrillated cellulose–polyvinyl alcohol/polylactic acid to 20 and 23%, respectively, also indicated that the modified microfibrillated cellulose could inhibit moisture permeation across the film. This was because the modified microfibrillated cellulose is hydrophobic. Furthermore, the addition of modified microfibrillated cellulose also increased the decomposition temperature of the laminate film up to 10% as observed at 20% of remaining weight, while the storage modulus substantially increasing to 72% relative to the neat laminate film.The superior interfacial adhesion between the polylactic acid and modified microfibrillated cellulose–polyvinyl alcohol layers, observed by scanning electron microscopy, confirmed the improved compatibility between the polyvinyl alcohol and polylactic acid phases. © The Author(s) 2020.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Kostag, Marc
    et al.
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    El Seoud, Omar
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Engineering of sustainable biomaterial composites from cellulose and silk fibroin: Fundamentals and applications2021Inngår i: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 167, s. 687-718Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This review addresses composites prepared from cellulose (Cel) and silk fibroin (SF) to generate multifunctional, biocompatible, biodegradable materials such as fibers, films and scaffolds for tissue engineering. First, we discuss briefly the molecular structures of Cel and SF. Their structural features explain why certain solvents, e.g., ionic liquids, inorganic electrolyte solutions dissolve both biopolymers. We discuss the mechanisms of Cel dissolution because in many cases they also apply to (much less studied) SF dissolution. Subsequently, we discuss the fabrication and characterization of Cel/SF composite biomaterials. We show how the composition of these materials beneficially affects their mechanical properties, compared to those of the precursor biopolymers. We also show that Cel/SF materials are excellent and versatile candidates for biomedical applications because of the inherent biocompatibility of their components.

  • 35.
    Krebs, Alice
    et al.
    University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Wilks, Martin F.
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    van Vugt-Lussenburg, Barbara Medea Alice
    BioDetection Systems BV, The Netherlands.
    Terron, Andrea
    European Food Safety Authority, Italy.
    Steger-Hartmann, Thomas
    Bayer AG, Germany.
    Rüegg, Joëlle
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rovida, Costanza
    University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Luijten, Mirjam
    RIVM National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, The Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Leite, Sofia Batista
    JCR European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Kustermann, Stefan
    Roche Innovation Center, Switzerland.
    Kamp, Hennicke G.
    BASF SE, Germany.
    Hoeng, Julia C.
    Philip Morris, Switzerland.
    Hewitt, Philip G.
    Merck KGaA, Germany.
    Herzler, Matthias
    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Germany.
    Hengstler, Jan Georg
    Technical University of Dortmund, Germany.
    Heinonen, Tuula
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Härtung, Thomas
    Johns Hopkins University, USA.
    Hardy, Barry
    Edelweiss Connect GmbH, Switzerland.
    Gantner, Florian
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Germany.
    Fritsche, Ellen
    IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Germany.
    Fant, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Dunkern, Torsten R.
    Grünenthal GmbH, Germany.
    Busquet, Francois
    Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Braeuning, Albert
    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Germany.
    Bondarenko, Olesja M.
    National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Estonia.
    Bennekou, Susanne Hougaard
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Leist, Marcel
    University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Template for the description of cell-based toxicological test methods to allow evaluation and regulatory use of the data2019Inngår i: Altex, ISSN 1868-596X, E-ISSN 1868-8551, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 682-699Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Only few cell-based test methods are described by Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guidelines or other regulatory references (e.g., the European Pharmacopoeia). The majority of toxicity tests still falls into the category of non-guideline methods. Data from these tests may nevertheless be used to support regulatory decisions or to guide strategies to assess compounds (e.g., drugs, agrochemicals) during research and development if they fulfill basic requirements concerning their relevance, reproducibility and predictivity. Only a method description of sufficient clarity and detail allows interpretation and use of the data. To guide regulators faced with increasing amounts of data from non-guideline studies, the OECD formulated Guidance Document 211 (GD211) on method documentation for the purpose of safety assessment. As GD211 is targeted mainly at regulators, it leaves scientists less familiar with regulation uncertain as to what level of detail is required and how individual questions should be answered. Moreover, little attention was given to the description of the test system (i.e., cell culture) and the steps leading to it being established in the guidance. To address these issues, an annotated toxicity test method template (ToxTemp) was developed (i) to fulfill all requirements of GD211, (ii) to guide the user concerning the types of answers and detail of information required, (iii) to include acceptance criteria for test elements, and (iv) to define the cells sufficiently and transparently. The fully annotated ToxTemp is provided here, together with reference to a database containing exemplary descriptions of more than 20 cell-based tests.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Erratum
  • 36.
    Kundrát, Martin
    et al.
    University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik, Slovakia.
    Rich, Thomas
    Melbourne Museum, Australia.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Vickers-Rich, Patricia
    Swinburne University of Technology, Australia; Monash University, Australia.
    Chiappe, Luis
    Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, USA.
    Kear, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A polar dinosaur feather assemblage from Australia2020Inngår i: Gondwana Research, ISSN 1342-937X, E-ISSN 1878-0571, Vol. 80, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exceptionally preserved Mesozoic feathered dinosaur fossils (including birds) are famous, but recognized from only very few localities worldwide, and are especially rare in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we report an assemblage of non-avian and avian dinosaur feathers from an Early Cretaceous polar (around 70°S) environment in what is now southeastern Australia. The recovered remains incorporate small (10–30 mm long) basal paravian-like tufted body feathers, open-vaned contour feathers, and asymmetrical bird-like wing feathers that possess high-angled barbs with possible remnants of barbicels — amongst the geologically oldest observed to date. Such morphological diversity augments scant skeletal evidence for a range of insulated non-avian theropods and birds inhabiting extreme southern high-latitude settings during the Mesozoic. Although some of these fossil feathers exhibit what may be residual patterning, most are uniformly toned and preserve rod-shaped microbodies, as well as densely-packed microbody imprints on the barbules that are structurally consistent with eumelanosomes. Geochemical analysis detected no identifiable residual biomolecules, which we suspect were lost via hydrolysis and oxidization during diagenesis and weathering. Nevertheless, an originally dark pigmentation can be reasonably inferred from these melanic traces, which like the coloured feathers of modern birds, might have facilitated crypsis, visual communication and/or thermoregulation in a cold polar habitat. 

  • 37.
    Labriere, Chrostophe
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Elumalai, Vijayaragavan
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Staffansson, Jannie
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Cervin, Gunnar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Le Norcy, Tiffany
    University Bretagne-Sud, France.
    Denardou, Hugo
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Réhel, Karine Vallée
    University Bretagne-Sud, France.
    Moodie, Lindon W.K.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hellio, Claire
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Pavia, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hansen, Jørn H.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Phidianidine A and synthetic analogues as naturally inspired marine antifoulants2020Inngår i: Journal of Natural Products, ISSN 0163-3864, E-ISSN 1520-6025, Vol. 83, nr 11, s. 3413-3423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stationary and slow-moving marine organisms regularly employ a natural product chemical defense to prevent being colonized by marine micro- and macroorganisms. While these natural antifoulants can be structurally diverse, they often display highly conserved chemistries and physicochemical properties, suggesting a natural marine antifouling pharmacophore. In our current report, we investigate the marine natural product phidianidine A, which displays several chemical properties found in highly potent marine antifoulants. Phidianidine A and synthetic analogues were screened against the settlement and metamorphosis of Amphibalanus improvisus cyprids, and several of the compounds displayed inhibitory activities at low micromolar concentrations with IC50 values down to 0.7 μg/mL observed. The settlement study highlights that phidianidine A is a potent natural antifoulant and that the scaffold can be tuned to generate simpler and improved synthetic analogues. The bioactivity is closely linked to the size of the compound and to its basicity. The study also illustrates that active analogues can be prepared in the absence of the natural constrained 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring. A synthetic lead analogue of phidianidine A was incorporated in a coating and included in antifouling field trials, where it was shown that the coating induced potent inhibition of marine bacteria and microalgae settlement.

  • 38.
    Landberg, G.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonasson, E.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, A.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fitzpatrick, P.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Isakson, P.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, E.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svanström, A.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rafnsdottir, S.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, E.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, D.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosendahl, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Ranji, P.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gregersson, P.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Y.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Ståhlberg, A.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Characterization of cell-free breast cancer patient-derived scaffolds using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry data and RNA sequencing data2020Inngår i: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 31, artikkel-id 105860Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Patient-derived scaffolds (PDSs) generated from primary breast cancer tumors can be used to model the tumor microenvironment in vitro. Patient-derived scaffolds are generated by repeated detergent washing, removing all cells. Here, we analyzed the protein composition of 15 decellularized PDSs using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. One hundred forty-three proteins were detected and their relative abundance was calculated using a reference sample generated from all PDSs. We performed heatmap analysis of all the detected proteins to display their expression patterns across different PDSs together with pathway enrichment analysis to reveal which processes that were connected to PDS protein composition. This protein dataset together with clinical information is useful to investigators studying the microenvironment of breast cancers. Further, after repopulating PDSs with either MCF7 or MDA-MB-231 cells, we quantified their gene expression profiles using RNA sequencing. These data were also compared to cells cultured in conventional 2D conditions, as well as to cells cultured as xenografts in immune-deficient mice. We investigated the overlap of genes regulated between these different culture conditions and performed pathway enrichment analysis of genes regulated by both PDS and xenograft cultures compared to 2D in both cell lines to describe common processes associated with both culture conditions. Apart from our described analyses of these systems, these data are useful when comparing different experimental model systems. Downstream data analyses and interpretations can be found in the research article “Patient-derived scaffolds uncover breast cancer promoting properties of the microenvironment” [1]. © 2020 The Authors

  • 39.
    Landberg, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fitzpatrick, Paul
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Isakson, Pauline
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Emma
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Joakim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Erik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svanström, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rafnsdottir, Svanheidur
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Emma
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Annna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosendahl, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Ranji, Parmida
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gregersson, Pernilla
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Ylva
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Ståhlberg, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Patient-derived scaffolds uncover breast cancer promoting properties of the microenvironment2020Inngår i: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 235, artikkel-id 119705Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tumor cells interact with the microenvironment that specifically supports and promotes tumor development. Key components in the tumor environment have been linked to various aggressive cancer features and can further influence the presence of subpopulations of cancer cells with specific functions, including cancer stem cells and migratory cells. To model and further understand the influence of specific microenvironments we have developed an experimental platform using cell-free patient-derived scaffolds (PDSs) from primary breast cancers infiltrated with standardized breast cancer cell lines. This PDS culture system induced a series of orchestrated changes in differentiation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness and proliferation of the cancer cell population, where an increased cancer stem cell pool was confirmed using functional assays. Furthermore, global gene expression profiling showed that PDS cultures were similar to xenograft cultures. Mass spectrometry analyses of cell-free PDSs identified subgroups based on their protein composition that were linked to clinical properties, including tumor grade. Finally, we observed that an induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes in cancer cells growing on the PDSs were significantly associated with clinical disease recurrences in breast cancer patients. Patient-derived scaffolds thus mimics in vivo-like growth conditions and uncovers unique information about the malignancy-inducing properties of tumor microenvironment. © 2019 The Authors

  • 40.
    Leiva, Maria Carmen
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Garre, Elena
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svanström, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bogestål, Yalda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ståhlberg, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Landberg, Göran
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Breast cancer patient-derived scaffolds as a tool to monitor chemotherapy responses in human tumor microenvironments.2021Inngår i: Journal of Cellular Physiology, ISSN 0021-9541, E-ISSN 1097-4652, Vol. 236, nr 6, s. 4709-4724Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease where the tumor microenvironment, including extracellular components, plays a crucial role in tumor progression, potentially modulating treatment response. Different approaches have been used to develop three-dimensional models able to recapitulate the complexity of the extracellular matrix. Here, we use cell-free patient-derived scaffolds (PDSs) generated from breast cancer samples that were recellularized with cancer cell lines as an in vivo-like culture system for drug testing. We show that PDS cultured MCF7 cancer cells increased their resistance against the front-line chemotherapy drugs 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and paclitaxel in comparison to traditional two-dimensional cell cultures. The gene expression of the environmentally adapted cancer cells was modulated in different ways depending on the drug and the concentration used. High doses of doxorubicin reduced cancer stem cell features, whereas 5-fluorouracil increased stemness and decreased the proliferative phenotype. By using PDSs repopulated with other breast cancer cell lines, T-47D and MDA-MB-231, we observed both general and cell line specific drug responses. In summary, PDSs can be used to examine the extracellular matrix influence on cancer drug responses and for testing novel compounds in in vivo-like microenvironments.

  • 41.
    Loren, Anders
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Engelhart, Karin
    Bredberg, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Emanuelsson, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Bestämning av biocidspridning vid sanering av bottenfärg från fritidsbåtar2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Spridning av biocider från sanering av båtbottenfärg bestämdes experimentellt genom  att sanera båtar med sex olika metoder och mäta den spridda andelen bottenfärg.  Metoderna är vanligt förekommande i fritidsbåtshamnar och utförs vanligen av  båtägaren, dessutom utvärderades fackmannamässig blästring. Resultaten från de  olika  scenariona visar att det går att utföra sanering med många av de vanliga  metoderna slipning, skrapning, gelupplösning samt blästring och uppnå insamling av  mer än 98 % av färgen. Metoderna skiljer sig åt i andelen spridd färg men även i  svårighetsgrad i utförande samt hur robust de kan utföras med bibehållen låg spridning.  Faktorer som utförande, båt och färgtyp varierar stort vid implementering på det svenska båtbeståndet, vilket ger att det sannolikt är viktigare med rätt  riskminskningsmetoder än att rangordna saneringsmetoderna. Metoder som bildar torra  små partiklar vid borttagande av färgen är känsliga för att dessa färgpartiklar sprids  med vinden. Beräkningar av partiklars vindtransport visar att de partikelstorlekar som  bildas vid tex slipning och skrapning med lätthet kan spridas utanför en skyddande  marktäckning till den yttre miljön. Spridningen i ett sådant saneringsfall kan vara  mycket högt och kan i det närmaste bli fullständig om inte skyddsåtgärder vidtas.  Hantering av denna risk bör göras genom att, såsom i vissa av de utförda  experimenten, samla in partiklarna med sug, ha kontroll över vindhastigheten samt  kravställa utförandet, alternativt förbjuda metodiken.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Lu, X.
    et al.
    Nynas AB, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Soenen, H.
    Nynas NV, Belgium.
    Blom, J.
    Antwerp University, Belgium.
    Makowska, M.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Oxidative aging of bitumen: a structural and chemical investigation2022Inngår i: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 1091-1106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxidative aging of bitumen was investigated chemically and structurally using SARA analysis, TOF-SIMS and AFM. Typical wax-containing and non-waxy bitumen samples were selected. Short- and long-term aging tests were conducted under standard conditions, and at prolonged aging times. For both the wax-containing and non-waxy bitumen, aging significantly decreases the aromatic fraction and at the same time increase the content of resins and asphaltenes. AFM shows bee-like structures on the wax-containing bitumen surface, and these structures change when the binder is aged. The bee structures are fewer but larger after a prolonged PAV. For the non-waxy bitumen, no structures were observed, even not after a severe PAV aging that increased the content of asphaltenes significantly. This implies that asphaltenes are most likely not responsible for the formation of bee structures. By TOF-SIMS, the non-waxy bitumen surface did not show structures, neither in the virgin state nor after the severe oxidative aging, further supporting that asphaltenes do not directly result in structure formation. For the wax-containing bitumen, TOF-SIMS shows aliphatics-enriched structures, which generally become larger after oxidative aging.

  • 43.
    Lu, Xiaohu
    et al.
    Nynas AB, Sweden.
    Soenen, Hilde
    Nynas NV, Belgium.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Pipintakos, Georgios
    University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Analysis of asphaltenes and maltenes before and after long-term aging of bitumen2021Inngår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 304, artikkel-id 121426Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Asphaltenes and maltenes of bitumen before and after aging are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), time of flight - secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). It has been shown that bitumen differs in terms of wax. After fractionation, more wax is found in the maltenes compared to the bitumen, and this is even more evident when bitumen is aged. For one bitumen, asphaltenes from the virgin binder do not contain carbonyls, which all fall into the maltenes. After bitumen aging, a large part of the carbonyl and sulfoxide signals is shifted to the asphaltenes. Differences in aromaticity are also evidenced as asphaltenes > bitumen > maltenes. TOF-SIMS shows that maltenes are close to the bitumen, but asphaltenes are more different. Also, maltenes are relatively unaffected by aging while larger differences are found in the asphaltenes between the virgin and aged binders. By GPC, a large molecular weight fraction of bitumen is shown as main part of the asphaltenes. However, asphaltenes also contain low molecular weight molecules that overlap with maltenes. Upon bitumen aging, some low molecular weight compounds may become part of asphaltenes, making the average molecular weight of the asphaltenes lower.

  • 44.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    et al.
    Trollboken AB, Sweden.
    Krysell, Mikael
    Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, Sweden.
    Sahlin, Eskil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Näykki, Teemu
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Uncertainty from sampling: A Nordtest Handbook for sampling planners onsampling quality assurance and uncertainty estimation2020Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This handbook provides practical guidance on sampling uncertainty estimation in theNordtest TR handbook format. The handbook is an extract of, and based on theprinciples, methods and text of the Eurachem Guide Estimation of measurementuncertainty arising from sampling. The Eurachem guide is more extensive and providesdetails on theory and additional examples. In 2019 Eurachem published a revisededition and therefore also the Nordtest handbook is revised.

    The major changes in this second edition are:

    • the possible use of an unbalanced design is mentioned in Section 6 to estimatesampling uncertainty more cost-effectively;• a detailed discussion in Section 7 on uncertainty contributions included andneglected using the experimental designs in this handbook;• introduction in Section 9.6 using log-transformed data and an uncertainty factor,FU, to handle expanded uncertainties of more than 30 %;• a recommended software, RANOVA (in Excel), to be used for ANOVAcalculations;• updates to definitions and references to reflect current.

    The overall purpose of this handbook is to provide a set of tools for calculation andcontrol of the sampling uncertainty of the sampling procedure. It is the intention tomake these tools and the understanding of their use available outside the world ofanalytical chemistry, although the basic principles applied originate from analyticalchemistry. We hope that this is achieved but if not, please recall that statistics generallyseem to be more complicated than it actually is…

  • 45.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Örnemark, Ulf
    Emendo dokumentgranskning, Sweden.
    Metodvalidering : Handbok för laboratoriet: utgåva 42020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Mahlapuu, Margit
    et al.
    Promore Pharma AB, Sweden.
    Björn, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Ekblom, Jonas
    Promore Pharma AB, Sweden.
    Antimicrobial peptides as therapeutic agents: opportunities and challenges.2020Inngår i: Critical reviews in biotechnology, ISSN 0738-8551, E-ISSN 1549-7801, Vol. 40, nr 7, s. 978-992Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of microbial resistance to conventional antibiotics has accelerated efforts to find anti-infectives with a novel mode-of-action, which are less prone to bacterial resistance. Intense nonclinical and clinical research is today ongoing to evaluate antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as potential next-generation antibiotics. Currently, multiple AMPs are assessed in late-stage clinical trials, not only as novel anti-infective drugs, but also as innovative product candidates for immunomodulation, promotion of wound healing, and prevention of post-operative scars. The efforts to translate AMP-based research findings into pharmaceutical product candidates are expected to accelerate in coming years due to technological advancements in multiple areas, including an improved understanding of the mechanism-of-action of AMPs, smart formulation strategies, and advanced chemical synthesis protocols. At the same time, it is recognized that cytotoxicity, low metabolic stability due to sensitivity to proteolytic degradation, and limited oral bioavailability are some of the key weaknesses of AMPs. Furthermore, the pricing and reimbursement environment for new antimicrobial products remains as a major barrier to the commercialization of AMPs.

  • 47.
    Martin-Bertelsen, Birte
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erika
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Hedlund, Artur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Stigsson, Lars
    KIRAM AB, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Revisiting the dissolution of cellulose in NaOH as "Seen" by X-rays2020Inngår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikkel-id 342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cotton production is reaching a global limit, leading to a growing demand for bio-based textile fibers produced by other means. Textile fibers based on regenerated cellulose from wood holds great potential, but in order to produce fibers, the components need to be dissolved in suitable solvents. Furthermore, the dissolution process of cellulose is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the dissolution state of microcrystalline cellulose in aqueous NaOH by using primarily scattering methods. Contrary to previous findings, this study indicated that cellulose concentrations of up to 2 wt % are completely molecularly dissolved in 8 wt % NaOH. Scattering data furthermore revealed the presence of semi-flexible cylinders with stiff segments. In order to improve the dissolution capability of NaOH, the effects of different additives have been of interest. In this study, scattering data indicated that the addition of ZnO decreased the formation of aggregates, while the addition of PEG did not improve the dissolution properties significantly, although preliminary NMR data did suggest a weak attraction between PEG and cellulose. Overall, this study sheds further light on the dissolution of cellulose in NaOH and highlights the use of scattering methods to assess solvent quality. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 48.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    André, Alann
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Juntikka, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Tränkle, T.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sott, Richard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Chemical recycling of End-of-Life wind turbine blades by solvolysis/HTL2020Inngår i: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, IOP Publishing Ltd , 2020, Vol. 942, nr 1, artikkel-id 012013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this contribution is to highlight the challenges of chemical recycling of End-of-Life glass fiber composite (GFRP) waste from wind turbine blades utilizing solvolysis/HTL (hydrothermal liquefaction) methods based on subcritical water as solvent. A multitude of investigations have been published during the years regarding solvolysis of newly produced composite laminates and known thermoset composition (epoxy, polyester, and vinyl ester). However, a real wind turbine blade is more complex and constitutes of thermosets, thermoplastics, and other materials such as balsa wood. It is a very challenging task to separate these materials from each other within the wind turbine blade structure, so the premise for recycling is a mixed waste stream where little is known about the chemical composition. In the present study, the solvolysis process for GFRPs based on sub/supercritical water at 250-370 C and 100-170 bar process conditions with catalyst (acid and base) and additives (alcohols and glycols) was studied and optimized. The samples used are representative for End-of-Life wind turbine blades. The aim is therefore to investigate if it is possible to develop a general process that can accept all material constituents in a real wind turbine blade, resulting in recycled glass fibers and a hydrocarbon fraction that can be used as a refinery feedstock.

  • 49.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Juntikka, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Sott, Richard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Tränkle, Tanja
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Kemisk återvinning av glasfiberkomposit från vindturbinblad2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utmaning är här nu - vi står inför en helt ny ström av kompositavfall från uttjänta vindturbinblad. Huvudmålet för detta projekt har varit att undersöka möjligheten att utveckla en kemisk återvinningsprocess för uttjänta vindturbinblad. Dessutom har Sveriges problematik med avseende på hantering av framtida avfallströmmar från vindturbinblad undersökts.Målet har varit att utveckla en solvolysprocess som kan användas på samtliga material i ett vindturbinblad dvs härdplastglasfiberkomposit (epoxi- och polyesterhärdplast och glasfiber), termoplaster (PET, PVC, PU) och balsaträ. Efter en screening av olika alternativa solvolyssystem har en tvåstegsprocess med glykol, alkohol och vatten optimerats (T 270-330 C, P<170 bar, 16-20 timmar). Från ett epoxibaserat vindturbinblad (ca 20-30% epoxiplast och ca 60-70% glasfiber) innehållande balsaträ erhölls produktströmmarna 15 vikt% olja och 65 vikt% glasfiber samt 13 vikt% pappersmassafraktion (räknat på bladvikt). För en möjlig ekonomisk lönsam kemisk återvinningsprocess måste högvärdiga slutprodukter genereras från vindturbinbladen. Vår bedömning är att oljan är den mest värdefulla produkten trots det låga utbytet. Produktoljan som har liknade kemisksammansättning som fossil olja (väte/kol kvot, H/C 1.5) har potential att ersätta fossil olja som ingångs material i raffinaderier och bidra till att framtida s.k. plastreturraffinaderier utvecklas. På detta sätt skulle vi kunna recirkulera kolväten vilket minskar uttaget av ny fossil olja och bidrar till minskad klimatpåverkan. Rekovind har också undersökt återvinnings problematiken runt hantering av vindturbinblad historiskt och estimerat framtida materialströmmar i Sverige. Eftersom installation av vindturbiner tog fart under 1990- och 2000-talet och den beräknade livslängden var 20-25 år, är behovet av lösningar för hantering av nedmonterade blad akut. I Sverige förväntas ca 1000-blad att behöva tas ur bruk mellan 2020-2025. Historiskt har det inte varit många nedmonteringar och dessa har hanterats med olika lösningar: renovering och andrahandsmarknad, förbränning och deponi. Vanligtvis upphandlas en återvinningslösning med en entreprenör och beroende på vilket land återvinningen sker i bestämmer vilket alternativ som praktiseras. Då det inte finns något producentansvar idag är det ägaren av vindkraftverket som ansvarar för återvinningen. (Bilaga 2 rapport: Circular economy and the management of end-of-life wind turbine blades) Under projektets gång har projektidén och resultat kommunicerats och diskuterats med industrin dvs bladtillverkare, vindkraftägare samt återvinnings- och kemisk industri. Vår tolkning av dessa möten är att intresset och viljan finns hos alla aktörer i värdekedjan för att samverka mot mer cirkulära lösningar för en hållbar vindkraft. Däremot saknas den ekonomiska potential för att utveckla de avancerade kemiska processerna då de är energikrävande och de återvunna slutprodukterna är idag dyrare än nytillverkad glasfiber resp. fossil olja.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 50.
    Monte, Joana
    et al.
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Ribeiro, Claudia
    A4F Algae for Future, Portugal.
    Parreira, Celina
    A4F Algae for Future, Portugal.
    Costa, Luis
    A4F Algae for Future, Portugal.
    Brive, Lena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Casal, Susana
    Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
    Brazinha, Carla
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Crespo, Jaoa
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Biorefinery of Dunaliella salina: Sustainable recovery of carotenoids, polar lipids and glycerol2020Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 297, artikkel-id 122509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dunaliella salina is well-known for its high content in carotenoids and glycerol. Nevertheless, Dunaliella salina has also a high content in lipids, including polar lipids, which are suitable for nutraceutical/cosmeceutical applications. This work proposes a sustainable process to maximise the potential of Dunaliella salina for the production of distinct fractions of carotenoids, glycerol, polar lipids and proteins, which may contribute to improve the revenues of the microalgae industry. In this work, extraction with non-hazardous solvents and organic solvent nanofiltration are integrated, in order to obtain added-value products and glycerol. Also, aiming to separate carotenoids from glycerides, a saponification process is proposed. High overall recoveries were obtained for carotenoids (85%), glycerol (86%), polar lipids (94%) and proteins (95%). In order to evaluate the profitability of the proposed biorefinery, an economic assessment was accomplished. Both CAPEX and OPEX (Capital and Operating expenditure) were calculated, likewise the Return of Investment (ROI).

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