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  • 1.
    Aadland, Reidun C.
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Akarri, Salem
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Torsæter, Ole
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    A core flood and microfluidics investigation of nanocellulose as a chemical additive to water flooding for eor2020In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 1296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)- oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (T-CNFs) were tested as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents through core floods and microfluidic experiments. Both particles were mixed with low salinity water (LSW). The core floods were grouped into three parts based on the research objectives. In Part 1, secondary core flood using CNCs was compared to regular water flooding at fixed conditions, by reusing the same core plug to maintain the same pore structure. CNCs produced 5.8% of original oil in place (OOIP) more oil than LSW. For Part 2, the effect of injection scheme, temperature, and rock wettability was investigated using CNCs. The same trend was observed for the secondary floods, with CNCs performing better than their parallel experiment using LSW. Furthermore, the particles seemed to perform better under mixed-wet conditions. Additional oil (2.9–15.7% of OOIP) was produced when CNCs were injected as a tertiary EOR agent, with more incremental oil produced at high temperature. In the final part, the effect of particle type was studied. T-CNFs produced significantly more oil compared to CNCs. However, the injection of T-CNF particles resulted in a steep increase in pressure, which never stabilized. Furthermore, a filter cake was observed at the core face after the experiment was completed. Microfluidic experiments showed that both T-CNF and CNC nanofluids led to a better sweep efficiency compared to low salinity water flooding. T- CNF particles showed the ability to enhance the oil recovery by breaking up events and reducing the trapping efficiency of the porous medium. A higher flow rate resulted in lower oil recovery factors and higher remaining oil connectivity. Contact angle and interfacial tension measurements were conducted to understand the oil recovery mechanisms. CNCs altered the interfacial tension the most, while T-CNFs had the largest effect on the contact angle. However, the changes were not significant enough for them to be considered primary EOR mechanisms.

  • 2.
    Aaen, Ragnhild
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Lehtonen, Mari
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Mikkonen, Kirsi
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Combining cellulose nanofibrils and galactoglucomannans for enhanced stabilization of future food emulsions2021In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 28, no 16, p. 10485-10500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wood-derived cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) or galactoglucomannans (GGM) for emulsion stabilization may be a way to obtain new environmentally friendly emulsifiers. Both have previously been shown to act as emulsifiers, offering physical, and in the case of GGM, oxidative stability to the emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using highly charged (1352 ± 5 µmol/g) CNFs prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation, or a coarser commercial CNF, less charged (≈ 70 µmol/g) quality (Exilva forte), and the physical emulsion stability was evaluated by use of droplet size distributions, micrographs and visual appearance. The highly charged, finely fibrillated CNFs stabilized the emulsions more effectively than the coarser, lower charged CNFs, probably due to higher electrostatic repulsions between the fibrils, and a higher surface coverage of the oil droplets due to thinner fibrils. At a constant CNF/oil ratio, the lowest CNF and oil concentration of 0.01 wt % CNFs and 5 wt % oil gave the most stable emulsion, with good stability toward coalescence, but not towards creaming. GGM (0.5 or 1.0 wt %) stabilized emulsions (5 wt % oil) showed no creaming behavior, but a clear bimodal distribution with some destabilization over the storage time of 1 month. Combinations of CNFs and GGM for stabilization of emulsions with 5 wt % oil, provided good stability towards creaming and a slower emulsion destabilization than for GGM alone. GGM could also improve the stability towards oxidation by delaying the initiation of lipid oxidation. Use of CNFs and combinations of GGM and CNFs can thus be away to obtain stable emulsions, such as mayonnaise and beverage emulsions. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 3.
    Abdelaziz, Omar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Capanema, Ewellyn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ajao, Olumoye
    Canmet ENERGY, Canada.
    Kristensen, Tove
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Benali, Marzouk
    Canmet ENERGY, Canada.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    A Rapid and Tunable Approach for the Fractionation of Technical Kraft Lignin2023In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, E-ISSN 2283-9216, Vol. 99, p. 67-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the heterogeneity of technical lignin is essential to obtain predictable and high-performance polymeric materials that are suitable for high-value applications. Organic solvents with different polarities and solubilities can be used to fractionate lignin and reduce the complexity and diversity of its chemical structure. Among the various solvents and solvent mixtures, acetone-water mixtures offer an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly means of lignin fractionation. In the present study, temperature-induced acetone-water fractionation was investigated to refine the properties of a technical softwood Kraft lignin, i.e., LignoBoost™ lignin. Relatively mild operating conditions were tested, namely, temperatures of 70-110°C and autogenous pressure. A factorial experimental design was developed using the Design-Expert® software, and three factors (temperature, time, and acetone concentration) were investigated. It was found that temperature-induced fractionation could increase lignin homogeneity and maintain high lignin solubilization with a short processing time (<1 h). It was also possible to tune the properties of the soluble lignin fraction (yield and weight-average molecular weight) based on the factorial models developed. The techno-economic evaluation confirmed the commercial viability of this fractionation process. 

  • 4.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanocellulose-Based Hybrid Materials for UV Blocking and Mechanically Robust Barriers2020In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, E-ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 2245-2254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocellulose (NC)-based hybrid coatings and films containing CeO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) to impart UV screening and hardness properties, respectively, were prepared by solvent casting. The NC film-forming component (75 wt % of the overall solids) was composed entirely of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or of CNCs combined with cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). Zeta potential measurements indicated that the four NP types (CNC, CNF, CeO2, and SiO2) were stably dispersed in water and negatively charged at pH values between 6 and 9. The combination of NPs within this pH range ensured uniform formulations and homogeneous coatings and films, which blocked UV light, the extent of which depended on film thickness and CeO2 NP content, while maintaining good transparency in the visible spectrum (∼80%). The addition of a low amount of CNFs (1%) reduced the film hardness, but this effect was compensated by the addition of SiO2 NPs. Chiral nematic self-assembly was observed in the mixed NC film; however, this ordering was disrupted by the addition of the oxide NPs. The roughness of the hybrid coatings was reduced by the inclusion of oxide NPs into the NC matrix perhaps because the spherical oxide NPs were able to pack into the spaces between cellulose fibrils. We envision these hybrid coatings and films in barrier applications, photovoltaics, cosmetic formulations, such as sunscreens, and for the care and maintenance of wood and glass surfaces, or other surfaces that require a smooth, hard, and transparent finish and protection from UV damage.

  • 5.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. EPFL, Switzerland.
    Kubat, Mikaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Kotov, Nikolay
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, C Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nizamov, Rustem
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Nyberg, Mikael
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Miettunen, Kati
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Guerreiro, Maria Pita
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Isolation of Mixed Compositions of Cellulose Nanocrystals, Microcrystalline Cellulose, and Lignin Nanoparticles from Wood Pulps2023In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 8, no 24, p. 21474-21484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a circular economy perspective, one-pot strategies for the isolation of cellulose nanomaterials at a high yield and with multifunctional properties are attractive. Here, the effects of lignin content (bleached vs unbleached softwood kraft pulp) and sulfuric acid concentration on the properties of crystalline lignocellulose isolates and their films are explored. Hydrolysis at 58 wt % sulfuric acid resulted in both cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and microcrystalline cellulose at a relatively high yield (>55%), whereas hydrolysis at 64 wt % gave CNCs at a lower yield (<20%). CNCs from 58 wt % hydrolysis were more polydisperse and had a higher average aspect ratio (1.5-2×), a lower surface charge (2×), and a higher shear viscosity (100-1000×). Hydrolysis of unbleached pulp additionally yielded spherical nanoparticles (NPs) that were <50 nm in diameter and identified as lignin by nanoscale Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and IR imaging. Chiral nematic self-organization was observed in films from CNCs isolated at 64 wt % but not from the more heterogeneous CNC qualities produced at 58 wt %. All films degraded to some extent under simulated sunlight trials, but these effects were less pronounced in lignin-NP-containing films, suggesting a protective feature, but the hemicellulose content and CNC crystallinity may be implicated as well. Finally, heterogeneous CNC compositions obtained at a high yield and with improved resource efficiency are suggested for specific nanocellulose uses, for instance, as thickeners or reinforcing fillers, representing a step toward the development of application-tailored CNC grades. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 6.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Mijlkovic, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Malafronte, Loredana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Cellulose nanocrystal/low methoxyl pectin gels produced by internal ionotropic gelation.2021In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 260, article id 117345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biotechnological applications of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) continue to grow due to their sustainable nature, impressive mechanical, rheological, and emulsifying properties, upscaled production capacity, and compatibility with other materials, such as protein and polysaccharides. In this study, hydrogels from CNCs and pectin, a plant cell wall polysaccharide broadly used in food and pharma, were produced by calcium ion-mediated internal ionotropic gelation (IG). In the absence of pectin, a minimum of 4 wt% CNC was needed to produce self-supporting gels by internal IG, whereas the addition of pectin at 0.5 wt% enabled hydrogel formation at CNC contents as low as 0.5 wt%. Experimental data indicate that CNCs and pectin interact to give robust and self-supporting hydrogels at solid contents below 2.5 %. Potential applications of these gels could be as carriers for controlled release, scaffolds for cell growth, or wherever else distinct and porous network morphologies are required.

  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Hedmer, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden.
    KÃ¥redal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    77 Aerosolized Particulate Matter from Fragmentation of Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Concrete2023In: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, Vol. 67, no Supplement_1, p. i94-i95Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ahmed, Fareed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ding, Penghui
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Warczak, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Grimoldi, Andrea
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Manufacturing Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) Electrocatalytic Sheets for Large-Scale H2O2 Production2022In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 2100316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Producing thick films of conducting polymers by a low-cost manufacturing technique would enable new applications. However, removing huge solvent volume from diluted suspension or dispersion (1–3 wt%) in which conducting polymers are typically obtained is a true manufacturing challenge. In this work, a procedure is proposed to quickly remove water from the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) suspension. The PEDOT:PSS suspension is first flocculated with 1 m H2SO4 transforming PEDOT nanoparticles (≈50–500 nm) into soft microparticles. A filtration process inspired by pulp dewatering in a paper machine on a wire mesh with apertures dimension between 60 µm and 0.5 mm leads to thick free-standing films (≈0.5 mm). Wire mesh clogging that hinders dewatering (known as dead-end filtration) is overcome by adding to the flocculated PEDOT:PSS dispersion carbon fibers that aggregate and form efficient water channels. Moreover, this enables fast formation of thick layers under simple atmospheric pressure filtration, thus making the process truly scalable. Thick freestanding PEDOT films thus obtained are used as electrocatalysts for efficient reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide, a promising green chemical and fuel. The inhomogeneity of the films does not affect their electrochemical function. © 2021 The Authors. 

  • 9.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    de Meatza, Iratxe
    CIDETEC, Spain.
    Kvasha, Andriy
    CIDETEC, Spain.
    Garcia-Calvo, Oihane
    CIDETEC, Spain.
    Ahmed, Istaq
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Sweden.
    Sgroi, Mauro Francesco
    C.R.F. S.C.p.A, Italy.
    Giuliano, Mattia
    C.R.F. S.C.p.A, Italy.
    Dotoli, Matteo
    C.R.F. S.C.p.A, Italy.
    Dumitrescu, Mihaela-Aneta
    Faam Research Center, Italy.
    Jahn, Marcus
    AIT, Austria.
    Zhang, Ningxin
    AIT, Austria.
    Progress in solid-state high voltage lithium-ion battery electrolytes2021In: Advances in Applied Energy, ISSN 2666-7924, Vol. 4, article id 100070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing high specific energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is of vital importance to boost the production of efficient electric vehicles able to meet the customers’ expectation related to the electric range of the vehicle. One possible pathway to high specific energy is to increase the operating voltage of the Li-ion cell. Cathode materials enabling operation above 4.2 V are available. The stability of the positive electrode-electrolyte interface is still the main bottleneck to develop high voltage cells. Moreover, important research efforts are devoted to the substitution of graphite anodes with Li metal: this would improve the energy density of the cell dramatically. The use of metallic lithium is prevented by the dendrite growth during charge, with consequent safety problems. To suppress the formation of dendrites solid-state electrolytes are considered the most promising approach. For these reasons the present review summarizes the most recent research efforts in the field of high voltage solid-state electrolytes for high energy density Li-ion cells.

  • 10.
    Ali, A.
    et al.
    Malmö University, Sweden; Speximo AB, Sweden.
    Ringstad, L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health.
    Skedung, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Falkman, P.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Wahlgren, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Engblom, J.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Tactile friction of topical creams and emulsions: Friction measurements on excised skin and VitroSkin® using ForceBoard™2022In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 615, article id 121502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tactile perception can be investigated through ex vivo friction measurements using a so–called ForceBoard™, providing objective assessments and savings in time and money, compared to a subjective human panel. In this work we aim to compare excised skin versus VitroSkin® as model substrates for tactile friction measurements. A further aim is to detect possible differences between traditional surfactant-based creams, and a particle-stabilized (Pickering) cream and investigate how the different substrates affect the results obtained. It was found that the difference in tactile friction between excised skin and VitroSkin® was small on untreated substrates. When topical creams were applied, the same trends were observed for both substrates, although the frictional variation over time relates to the difference in surface structure between the two substrates. The results also confirmed that there is a difference between starch-based Pickering formulations and surfactant-based creams after application, indicating that the latter is greasier than Pickering cream. It was also shown that the tactile friction of Pickering emulsions was consistently high even with high amounts of oil, indicating a non-greasy, and non-sticky formulation. The characteristics of starch-stabilized Pickering formulations make them promising candidates in the development of surfactant-free topical formulations with unique tactile properties. © 2022 The Authors

  • 11.
    Ali, A
    et al.
    Malmö University, Sweden; Speximo AB, Sweden.
    Skedung, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Burleigh, S
    Lund University, SWeden.
    Lavant, E
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Ringstad, L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Anderson, CD
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Wahlgren, M
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Engblom, J
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Relationship between sensorial and physical characteristics of topical creams: A comparative study on effects of excipients2022In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 613, article id 121370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rising consumer demands for safer, more natural, and sustainable topical products have led to increased interest in finding alternative excipients, while retaining functionality and cosmetic appeal. Particle-stabilized Pickering creams have emerged as possible alternatives to replace traditional surfactant-stabilized creams and are thus one of the focuses in this study. The aim of this paper was to study relationships between sensorial characteristics and physical properties to understand how different excipients affect these aspects, comparing one starch particle–stabilized and three surfactant-stabilized formulations. A human panel was used to evaluate sensorial perception, while physical properties were deduced by rheology and tactile friction, together with in vivo and ex vivo skin hydration measurements. The results show that sensorial attributes related to the application phase can be predicted with rheology, while afterfeel attributes can be predicted with tactile friction studies. Differences in rheological and sensory properties among surfactant-based creams could mainly be attributed to the type of emollients used, presence of thickeners and surfactant composition. Differences between surfactant-based creams and a Pickering cream were more evident in relation to the afterfeel perception. Presence of starch particles in the residual film on skin results in high tactile friction and low perception of residual coating, stickiness, greasiness, and slipperiness in sensorial afterfeel. © 2021 The Authors

  • 12.
    Al-Rekabi, Zeinab
    et al.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Dondi, Camilla
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Faruqui, Nilofar
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Siddiqui, Nazia S.
    University College London, UK; Kingston Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK.
    Elowsson, Linda
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund university, Sweden.
    Kåredal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mudway, Ian
    Imperial College, UK; National institute of health protection, UK; Asthma UK, UK.
    Larsson-Callerfelt, Anna-Karin
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Shaw, Michael
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK; University College London, UK.
    Uncovering the cytotoxic effects of air pollution with multi-modal imaging of in vitro respiratory models2023In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 221426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annually, an estimated seven million deaths are linked to exposure to airborne pollutants. Despite extensive epidemiological evidence supporting clear associations between poor air quality and a range of short- and long-term health effects, there are considerable gaps in our understanding of the specific mechanisms by which pollutant exposure induces adverse biological responses at the cellular and tissue levels. The development of more complex, predictive, in vitro respiratory models, including two- and three-dimensional cell cultures, spheroids, organoids and tissue cultures, along with more realistic aerosol exposure systems, offers new opportunities to investigate the cytotoxic effects of airborne particulates under controlled laboratory conditions. Parallel advances in high-resolution microscopy have resulted in a range of in vitro imaging tools capable of visualizing and analysing biological systems across unprecedented scales of length, time and complexity. This article considers state-of-the-art in vitro respiratory models and aerosol exposure systems and how they can be interrogated using high-resolution microscopy techniques to investigate cell-pollutant interactions, from the uptake and trafficking of particles to structural and functional modification of subcellular organelles and cells. These data can provide a mechanistic basis from which to advance our understanding of the health effects of airborne particulate pollution and develop improved mitigation measures. 

  • 13.
    Amiandamhen, Stephen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Adl-Zarrabi, Bijan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yin, Haiyan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Recycling sawmilling wood chips, biomass combustion residues, and tyre fibres into cement-bonded composites: Properties of composites and life cycle analysis2021In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 297, article id 123781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the properties and sustainability of cement-bonded composites containing industrial residues such as wood chips, tyre fibres and biomass combustion residues, i.e. bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA). The effect of cement-to-raw material (wood/tyre fibre) ratio (C/RM) and the aggregate content (BA and FA) on thermal and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and life cycle analysis (LCA) were also conducted. The results revealed that as the aggregate content increased in wood composites, the mechanical properties also increased. The mean thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of tyre composite samples were 0.37 W/mK and 1.2 MJ/m3K respectively, while the respective values for wood composite samples were 0.29 W/mK and 0.81 MJ/m3K. SEM analysis showed adequate bonding between wood/tyre fibres and cement matrix. LCA revealed that the materials share of the total primary energy use was about 60% for all analysed composites. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 14.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Aulin, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Nevo, Yuval
    Melodea Ltd, Israel.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Electrochromic Displays Screen Printed on Transparent Nanocellulose-Based Substrates2023In: Advanced Photonics Research, ISSN 2699-9293, article id 2200012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing of electronic devices via printing techniques is often considered to be an environmentally friendly approach, partially due to the efficient utilization of materials. Traditionally, printed electronic components (e.g., sensors, transistors, and displays) are relying on flexible substrates based on plastic materials; this is especially true in electronic display applications where, most of the times, a transparent carrier is required in order to enable presentation of the display content. However, plastic-based substrates are often ruled out in end user scenarios striving toward sustainability. Paper substrates based on ordinary cellulose fibers can potentially replace plastic substrates, but the opaqueness limits the range of applications where they can be used. Herein, electrochromic displays that are manufactured, via screen printing, directly on state-of-the-art fully transparent substrates based on nanocellulose are presented. Several different nanocellulose-based substrates, based on either nanofibrillated or nanocrystalline cellulose, are manufactured and evaluated as substrates for the manufacturing of electrochromic displays, and the optical and electrical switching performances of the resulting display devices are reported and compared. The reported devices do not require the use of metals and/or transparent conductive oxides, thereby providing a sustainable all-printed electrochromic display technology.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Chavan, Swapnil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Toxicology.
    Cotgreave, Ian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Toxicology.
    In Silico Prediction of Eye Irritation Using Hansen Solubility Parameters and Predicted pKa Values2023In: ATLA (Alternatives to Laboratory Animals), ISSN 0261-1929, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 204-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An in silico method has been developed that permits the binary differentiation between pure liquids causing serious eye damage or eye irritation, and pure liquids with no need for such classification, according to the UN GHS system. The method is based on the finding that the Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) of a liquid are collectively important predictors for eye irritation. Thus, by applying a two-tier approach in which in silico predicted pKa values (firstly) and a trained model based solely on in silico-predicted HSP data (secondly) were used, we have developed, and validated, a fully in silico approach for predicting the outcome of a Draize test (in terms of UN GHS Cat. 1/Cat. 2A/Cat. 2B or UN GHS No Cat.) with high validation set performance (sensitivity = 0.846, specificity = 0.818, balanced accuracy = 0.832) using SMILES only. The method is applicable to pure non-ionic liquids with molecular weight below 500 g/mol, fewer than six hydrogen bond donors (e.g. nitrogen–hydrogen or oxygen–hydrogen bonds) and fewer than eleven hydrogen bond acceptors (e.g. nitrogen or oxygen atoms). Due to its fully in silico characteristics, this method can be applied to pure liquids that are still at the desktop design stage and not yet in production.

  • 16.
    Anusuyadevi, Prasaanth
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shanker, Ravi
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Cui, Yuxiao
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Riazanova, Anastasia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Svagan, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Photoresponsive and Polarization-Sensitive Structural Colors from Cellulose/Liquid Crystal Nanophotonic Structures2021In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 33, no 36, article id 2101519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) possess the ability to form helical periodic structures that generate structural colors. Due to the helicity, such self-assembled cellulose structures preferentially reflect left-handed circularly polarized light of certain colors, while they remain transparent to right-handed circularly polarized light. This study shows that combination with a liquid crystal enables modulation of the optical response to obtain light reflection of both handedness but with reversed spectral profiles. As a result, the nanophotonic systems provide vibrant structural colors that are tunable via the incident light polarization. The results are attributed to the liquid crystal aligning on the CNC/glucose film, to form a birefringent layer that twists the incident light polarization before interaction with the chiral cellulose nanocomposite. Using a photoresponsive liquid crystal, this effect can further be turned off by exposure to UV light, which switches the nematic liquid crystal into a nonbirefringent isotropic phase. The study highlights the potential of hybrid cellulose systems to create self-assembled yet advanced photoresponsive and polarization-tunable nanophotonics. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 17.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Ilona
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Rohm, Harald
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Almli, Valerie
    Nofima AS, Norway.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Consumer associations about other buyers of suboptimal food – And what it means for food waste avoidance actions2020In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 80, article id 103808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One approach to tackling the imminent sustainability problem of food waste is to sell suboptimal food which otherwise might be wasted. However, understanding how the action of buying price-reduced suboptimal food is influenced by the fact that the consumer purchases it publicly while observed by others is yet unexplored. The present research investigates which associations consumers form when they see other consumers purchasing suboptimal foods. In an online experimental survey, consumers of five European countries checked every word that applied (CATA) from a set of items that described what choosing a food item told them about an acquaintance they met in the store in terms of his or her traits. The food item was optimal or suboptimal, fresh or packaged food, and presented with a communication that either underlined a budget saving benefit or a contribution to avoiding food waste. Results show that consumers of suboptimal products are regarded as economic and thrifty, as well as frugal and environmentally concerned. The associations with consumers of optimal products are more diverse, and include both positive and negative wordings, ranging from successful to fussy and inattentive. Consumers’ own level of environmental concerns and value consciousness explain the degree to which they perceive another consumer to have similar traits, revealing that consumers project their own traits on others. Findings imply that stores offering suboptimal food should present and communicate the items in line with the characteristics of the store's target group, and that suboptimal food choices can trigger positive associations. 

  • 18.
    Asta, Nadia
    et al.
    KTH Royal institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Reid, Michael S.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH Royal institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The Use of Model Cellulose Materials for Studying Molecular Interactions at Cellulose Interfaces2023In: ACS Macro Letters, E-ISSN 2161-1653, Vol. 12, p. 1530-1535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite extensive research on biobased and fiber-based materials, fundamental questions regarding the molecular processes governing fiber-fiber interactions remain unanswered. In this study, we introduce a method to examine and clarify molecular interactions within fiber-fiber joints using precisely characterized model materials, i.e., regenerated cellulose gel beads with nanometer-smooth surfaces. By physically modifying these materials and drying them together to create model joints, we can investigate the mechanisms responsible for joining cellulose surfaces and how this affects adhesion in both dry and wet states through precise separation measurements. The findings reveal a subtle balance in the joint formation, influencing the development of nanometer-sized structures at the contact zone and likely inducing built-in stresses in the interphase. This research illustrates how model materials can be tailored to control interactions between cellulose-rich surfaces, laying the groundwork for future high-resolution studies aimed at creating stiff, ductile, and/or tough joints between cellulose surfaces and to allow for the design of high-performance biobased materials. 

  • 19.
    Attias, Noam
    et al.
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Danai, Ofer
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Tarazi, Ezri
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Ezov, Nirit
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Pereman, Idan
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Grobman, Yasha
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Mycelium bio-composites in industrial design and architecture: Comparative review and experimental analysis2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 246, article id 119037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent convergence of biotechnological and design tools has stimulated an emergence of new design practices utilizing natural mechanisms to program matter in a bottom-up approach. In this paper, the fibrous network of mycelium—the vegetative part of fungi—is employed to produce sustainable alternatives for synthetic foams. Current research on mycelium-based materials lacks essential details regarding material compositions, incubation conditions, and fabrication methods. The paper presents the results of ongoing research on employing mycelium to provide cleaner architecture and design products with sustainable lifecycles. The paper opens with a critical review of current projects, products, and scientific literature using mycelium in design and architecture. In the second section, material properties of varied fungi-substrate compositions and fabrication methods are evaluated and compared through changes in essential chemical parameters during fermentation, visual impression, water absorbency, and compression strength tests. Then, potential architecture and design implications related to the material properties are discussed. Results indicate a clear correlation between fungi, substrate, mold properties, and incubation conditions on final material characteristics, depicting a clear effect on material density, water absorbency, and the compressive strength of the final bio-composite. Finally, two primary case studies demonstrate implications for mycelium-based composites for circular design and architectural applications. The study shows that in order to produce desirable designs and performance within an inclusive circular approach, parameters such as material composition and fabrication conditions should be considered according to the target function of the final product throughout the design process.

  • 20.
    Attias, Noam
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Livne, Achia
    Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    State of the art, recent advances, and challenges in the field of fungal mycelium materials: a snapshot of the 2021 Mini Meeting2021In: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology, ISSN 2054-3085, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material development based on fungal mycelium is a fast-rising field of study as researchers, industry, and society actively search for new sustainable materials to address contemporary material challenges. The compelling potential of fungal mycelium materials is currently being explored in relation to various applications, including construction, packaging, “meatless” meat, and leather-like textiles. Here, we highlight the discussions and outcomes from a recent 1-day conference on the topic of fungal mycelium materials (“Fungal Mycelium Materials Mini Meeting”), where a group of researchers from diverse academic disciplines met to discuss the current state of the art, their visions for the future of the material, and thoughts on the challenges surrounding widescale implementation. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 21.
    Attias, Noam
    et al.
    Israel Institute of Technology, Israel.
    Reid, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mijowska, Sylwia
    Israel Institute of Technology, Israel.
    Dobryden, Illia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Pokroy, Boaz
    Israel Institute of Technology, Israel.
    Grobman, Yasha
    Israel Institute of Technology, Israel.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Biofabrication of Nanocellulose–Mycelium Hybrid Materials2021In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 2000196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy material alternatives based on renewable resources and sustainable technologies have the potential to disrupt the environmentally damaging production and consumption practices established throughout the modern industrial era. In this study, a mycelium–nanocellulose biocomposite with hybrid properties is produced by the agitated liquid culture of a white-rot fungus (Trametes ochracea) with nanocellulose (NC) comprised as part of the culture media. Mycelial development proceeds via the formation of pellets, where NC is enriched in the pellets and depleted from the surrounding liquid media. Micrometer-scale NC elements become engulfed in mycelium, whereas it is hypothesized that the nanometer-scale fraction becomes integrated within the hyphal cell wall, such that all NC in the system is essentially surface-modified by mycelium. The NC confers mechanical strength to films processed from the biocomposite, whereas the mycelium screens typical cellulose–water interactions, giving fibrous slurries that dewater faster and films that exhibit significantly improved wet resistance in comparison to pure NC films. The mycelium–nanocellulose biocomposites are processable in the ways familiar to papermaking and are suggested for diverse applications, including packaging, filtration, and hygiene products.

  • 22.
    Azega, R. K.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden .
    Haque, Mazharul
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Qi
    Smoltek Hydrogen AB, Sweden.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Enoksson, Peter
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Enoaviatech AB, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Per
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of plasma treatment on electrochemical performance of lignin-based carbon fibers2023In: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1572-6657, Vol. 946, article id 117723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The abundant and renewable nature of lignin obtained from wood renders it as a sustainable carbon resource for energy storage applications. However, their environmentally unfavorable processing conditions and limited energy storage performance prohibit the use of lignin-based carbon materials' use as supercapacitor electrodes. The material's properties require advancement to overcome the limitation of low specific capacitances. In this study, we report on the impact on the electrochemical performance of inherently hydrophobic lignin-based carbon fibers (LCF) by subjecting them to a mild plasma treatment. The electrode’s capacitance was thus increased by 20%, with better rate capability and energy-power performance (11 Wh/kg and 0.8 kW/kg) in the KOH electrolyte. The quantified improvements were attributed to the capacitive functional groups, and enhanced surface wettability, which increased ion accessibility to active surface area improving charge-transfer ability to the surface with more additional functional groups. Remarkably, the selected plasma conditions introduced mostly desirable functional groups that limited any parasitic faradaic reactions prone to affect the device's long-term cycling stability and self-discharge characteristics. Furthermore, the impact of different inherent and introduced oxygen surface functional groups, including COO−, COH, CO, and CO, on the capacitive performance of these fibers at different device conditions (such as cycling and electrochemical activation) was investigated in different aqueous electrolytes. To ensure environmental favorability, the electrospinning of lignin fibers was conducted using a high molecular fraction of lignin without the inclusion of any fossil-based co-spinning polymers.

  • 23.
    Babi, Mouhanad
    et al.
    McMaster University, Canada.
    Palermo, Anthony
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Fatona, Ayodele
    McMaster University, Canada.
    Jarvis, Victoria
    McMaster Analytical X-ray Diffraction Facility, Canada.
    Nayak, Akanksha
    McMaster University, Canada.
    Cranston, Emily
    University of British Colombia, USA.
    Moran-Mirabal, Jose
    McMaster University, Canada.
    Visualization of nanostructural dislocations in microcrystalline cellulose fibrils through super-resolution fluorescence microscopy2021In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 27, no S1, p. 854-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Battestini Vives, Mariona
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Abdelaziz, Omar
    Lund University.
    Thuvander, Johan
    Lund University.
    Arkell, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University.
    Lipnizki, Frank
    Lund University.
    Recovery and Characterization of Low-Molecular-Weight Lignin from Ultrafiltered Kraft Black Liquor2022In: 10th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference / [ed] Atte Virtanen, Helsinki, 2022, p. 218-219Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft lignin is an aromatic polymer found in black liquor, a side stream of the kraft pulping industry.Usually, lignin is burned in the recovery boiler of the pulp mill as a fuel for energy generation. However,lignin has great potential as a raw material for the production of fossil-free fuels, chemicals, andmaterials. Membrane filtration has been studied in the last decades as a key separation method torecover lignin from black liquor. Further studies to concentrate lignin using membrane filtration arerequired, as well as characterization of the resulting lignin fractions for the development of moleculartailored lignin-based applications.

    In the present work, nanofiltration (NF) was used to concentrate and recover the low-molecularweightlignin obtained from the permeate of ultrafiltration of kraft black liquor. The concentration wasperformed using a NF090801 polymeric NF membrane (SolSep) with a molecular weight cut-off of 350Da. A transmembrane pressure of 25 bar and 50 °C during the filtration increased the lignin contentfrom 27 to 52 g/l, whereas a transmembrane pressure of 15 bar and 70 °C gave an increase from 18 to45 g/l in lignin content. The lignin fraction recovered in the retentate of the NF step was analyzed bysize-exclusion chromatography to ascertain the molecular weight of the lignin. Moreover, Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were carried out to evaluate thethermal properties and functionalities of the obtained fractions.

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  • 25.
    Ben Tobin, Aarti
    et al.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Hildenbrand, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Miljkovic, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bolus rheology and ease of swallowing of particulated semi-solid foods as evaluated by an elderly panel2020In: Food & Function, ISSN 2042-6496, E-ISSN 2042-650X, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 8648-8658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preparation of a bolus is a complex process with both food comminution and degree of lubrication with saliva playing an important role in a safe swallow. Swallowing disorders i.e. dysphagia, are especially present among the elderly population and often lead to choking and further health complications. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between the perception of ease of swallowing in the elderly and the rheological parameters of particulated foods, using broccoli purees as a model system. Particulated foods can be described as a concentrated dispersion of plant particles in a fluid phase. The effect of the fluid phase (Newtonian vs. shear thinning) and dispersed phase (plant particles with different size distribution and morphology) on the rheological properties of simulated boli was studied by characterising shear viscosity, viscoelasticity, yield stress, extensional viscosity and cohesiveness. Ease of swallowing and mouthfeel were evaluated by a semi trained healthy elderly panel (n = 19, aged 61 to 81). Ease of swallowing was correlated with the presence of yield stress and extensional viscosity in the bolus, characteristic of boli with xanthan gum as the fluid phase. Although the properties of the fluid phase played a dominant role in the ease of swallowing, compared to the dispersed phase, both components played a role in the rheological properties of the bolus and the perception of ease of swallowing by the elderly panel. These results provide insights into the design of personalised foods for populations with specific needs such as those suffering from swallowing disorders.

  • 26.
    Bengtsson, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Kakkonen, Markus
    Fibrobotics Oy, Finland.
    Tanhuanpää, Olli
    Fibrobotics Oy, Finland.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health.
    Sedin, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Continuous Stabilization and Carbonization of a Lignin-Cellulose Precursor to Carbon Fiber2022In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 7, no 19, p. 16793-16802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for carbon fibers (CFs) based on renewable raw materials as the reinforcing fiber in composites for lightweight applications is growing. Lignin-cellulose precursor fibers (PFs) are a promising alternative, but so far, there is limited knowledge of how to continuously convert these PFs under industrial-like conditions into CFs. Continuous conversion is vital for the industrial production of CFs. In this work, we have compared the continuous conversion of lignin-cellulose PFs (50 wt % softwood kraft lignin and 50 wt % dissolving-grade kraft pulp) with batchwise conversion. The PFs were successfully stabilized and carbonized continuously over a total time of 1.0-1.5 h, comparable to the industrial production of CFs from polyacrylonitrile. CFs derived continuously at 1000 °C with a relative stretch of-10% (fiber contraction) had a conversion yield of 29 wt %, a diameter of 12-15 μm, a Young's modulus of 46-51 GPa, and a tensile strength of 710-920 MPa. In comparison, CFs obtained at 1000 °C via batchwise conversion (12-15 μm diameter) with a relative stretch of 0% and a conversion time of 7 h (due to the low heating and cooling rates) had a higher conversion yield of 34 wt %, a higher Young's modulus (63-67 GPa) but a similar tensile strength (800-920 MPa). This suggests that the Young's modulus can be improved by the optimization of the fiber tension, residence time, and temperature profile during continuous conversion, while a higher tensile strength can be achieved by reducing the fiber diameter as it minimizes the risk of critical defects. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 27.
    Bengtsson, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Hecht, Pascale
    Sommertune, Jens
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sedin, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health.
    Carbon Fibers from Lignin-Cellulose Precursors: Effect of Carbonization Conditions2020In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 8, no 17, p. 6826-6833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon fibers (CFs) are gaining increasing importance in lightweight composites, but their high price and reliance on fossil-based raw materials stress the need for renewable and cost-efficient alternatives. Kraft lignin and cellulose are renewable macromolecules available in high quantities, making them interesting candidates for CF production. Dry-jet wet spun precursor fibers (PFs) from a 70/30 w/w blend of softwood kraft lignin (SKL) and fully bleached softwood kraft pulp (KP) were converted into CFs under fixation. The focus was to investigate the effect of carbonization temperature and time on the CF structure and properties. Reducing the carbonization time from 708 to 24 min had no significant impact on the tensile properties. Increasing the carbonization temperature from 600 to 800 °C resulted in a large increase in the carbon content and tensile properties, suggesting that this is a critical region during carbonization of SKL:KP PFs. The highest Young's modulus (77 GPa) was obtained after carbonization at 1600 °C, explained by the gradual transition from amorphous to nanocrystalline graphite observed by Raman spectroscopy. On the other hand, the highest tensile strength (1050 MPa) was achieved at 1000 °C, a decrease being observed thereafter, which may be explained by an increase in radial heterogeneity.

  • 28.
    Bengtsson, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Landmér, Alice
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Norberg, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Yu, Shun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sedin, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Carbon Fibers from Wet-Spun Cellulose-Lignin Precursors Using the Cold Alkali Process2022In: Fibers, ISSN 2079-6439, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been extensive research into the development of cheaper and more sustainable carbon fiber (CF) precursors, and air-gap-spun cellulose-lignin precursors have gained considerable attention where ionic liquids have been used for the co-dissolution of cellulose and lignin. However, ionic liquids are expensive and difficult to recycle. In the present work, an aqueous solvent system, cold alkali, was used to prepare cellulose-lignin CF precursors by wet spinning solutions containing co-dissolved dissolving-grade kraft pulp and softwood kraft lignin. Precursors containing up to 30 wt% lignin were successfully spun using two different coagulation bath compositions, where one of them introduced a flame retardant into the precursor to increase the CF conversion yield. The precursors were converted to CFs via batchwise and continuous conversion. The precursor and conversion conditions had a significant effect on the conversion yield (12–44 wt%), the Young’s modulus (33–77 GPa), and the tensile strength (0.48–1.17 GPa), while the precursor morphology was preserved. Structural characterization of the precursors and CFs showed that a more oriented and crystalline precursor gave a more ordered CF structure with higher tensile properties. The continuous conversion trials highlighted the importance of tension control to increase the mechanical properties of the CFs. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 29.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Bengtsson, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ulmefors, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Sedin, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Preventing fiber-fiber adhesion of lignin-cellulose precursors and carbon fibers with spin finish application2023In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion of fibers within a spun tow, including carbon fibers and precursors, is undesirable as it may interrupt the manufacturing process and entail inferior fiber properties. In this work, softwood kraft lignin was used together with a dissolving pulp to spin carbon fiber precursors. Lignin-cellulose precursors have previously been found to be prone to fiber fusion, both post-spinning and during carbon fiber conversion. In this study, the efficiency of applying different kinds of spin finishes, with respect to rendering separable precursors and carbon fibers, has been investigated. It was found that applying a cationic surfactant, and to a similar extent a nonionic surfactant, resulted in well separated lignin-cellulose precursor tows. Furthermore, the fiber separability after carbon fiber conversion was evaluated, and notably, precursors treated with a silicone-based spin finish generated the most well-separated carbon fibers. The underlying mechanism of fiber fusion post-spinning and converted carbon fibers is discussed. 

  • 30.
    Benselfelt, T.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Kummer, N.
    Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland; ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Nordenström, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Nyström, G.
    Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland; ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Wågberg, L.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The Colloidal Properties of Nanocellulose2023In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 16, no 8, p. e202201955-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocelluloses are anisotropic nanoparticles of semicrystalline assemblies of glucan polymers. They have great potential as renewable building blocks in the materials platform of a more sustainable society. As a result, the research on nanocellulose has grown exponentially over the last decades. To fully utilize the properties of nanocelluloses, a fundamental understanding of their colloidal behavior is necessary. As elongated particles with dimensions in a critical nanosize range, their colloidal properties are complex, with several behaviors not covered by classical theories. In this comprehensive Review, we describe the most prominent colloidal behaviors of nanocellulose by combining experimental data and theoretical descriptions. We discuss the preparation and characterization of nanocellulose dispersions, how they form networks at low concentrations, how classical theories cannot describe their behavior, and how they interact with other colloids. We then show examples of how scientists can use this fundamental knowledge to control the assembly of nanocellulose into new materials with exceptional properties. We hope aspiring and established researchers will use this Review as a guide. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 31.
    Bergendal, E.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gutfreund, P.
    Institute Laue-Langevin, France.
    Pilkington, G. A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campbell, R. A.
    Institute Laue-Langevin, France; University of Manchester,UK.
    Müller-Buschbaum, P.
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Holt, S. A.
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Australia.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tuneable interfacial surfactant aggregates mimic lyotropic phases and facilitate large scale nanopatterning2021In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 371-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown that the air-liquid interface can be made to display the same rich curvature phenomena as common lyotropic liquid crystal systems. Through mixing an insoluble, naturally occurring, branched fatty acid, with an unbranched fatty acid of the same length, systematic variation in the packing constraints at the air-water interface could be obtained. The combination of atomic force microscopy and neutron reflectometry is used to demonstrate that the water surface exhibits significant tuneable topography. By systematic variation of the two fatty acid proportions, ordered arrays of monodisperse spherical caps, cylindrical sections, and a mesh phase are all observed, as well as the expected lamellar structure. The tuneable deformability of the air-water interface permits this hitherto unexplored topological diversity, which is analogous to the phase elaboration displayed by amphiphiles in solution. It offers a wealth of novel possibilities for the tailoring of nanostructure

  • 32.
    Bergendal, Erik
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campbell, Rchard
    Institut Laue-Langevin, France; University of Manchester, UK.
    Pilkington, Gerorgia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Müller-Buschbaum, Peter
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    3D texturing of the air-water interface by biomimetic self-assembly2020In: Nanoscale Horizons, ISSN 2055-6764, E-ISSN 2055-6756, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 839-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple, insoluble monolayer of fatty acid is shown to induce 3D nanotexturing of the air-water interface. This advance has been achieved through the study of monolayers of a methyl-branched long chain fatty acid, analogous to those found on the surface of hair and wool, directly at the air-water interface. Specular neutron reflectometry combined with AFM probing of deposited monolayers shows pronounced 3D surface domains, which are absent for unbranched analogues and are attributed to hydrocarbon packing constraints. The resulting surface topographies of the water far exceed the height perturbation that can be explained by the presence of capillary waves of a free liquid surface. These have hitherto been considered the only source of perturbation of the flatness of a planar water interface under gravity in the absence of topographical features from the presence of extended, globular or particulate matter. This amounts to a paradigm shift in the study of interfacial films and opens the possibility of 3D texturing of the air-water interface.

  • 33.
    Berglund, L. A.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindström, Tom S. C.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Oliaei, Erfan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Eco-friendly high-strength composites based on hot-pressed lignocellulose microfibrils or fibers2021In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 1899-1910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unbleached lignocellulosic wood fiber materials of low porosity are of great interest as eco-friendly load-bearing materials because their yield is much higher than that for “pure” wood cellulosics. The difference between comparable materials based on lignocellulose fibers or nanocellulose is investigated. The structure, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture sorption, and optical properties of films based on fibers or microfibrillated lignocellulose (MFLC) were characterized as a function of lignin content, and the environmental impact was compared. The modulus and tensile strength of comparable fiber and MFLC films (≈25% porosity) increased up to an optimum lignin content (11−17%) and then decreased at a very high lignin content. Hot-pressed MFLC films with little porosity showed excellent properties, 230−260 MPa strength, 17−20 GPa modulus, and 81 MPa wet strength. The mechanical property values of hot-pressed wood fibers with 25% porosity were also as high as 154 MPa strength and 13.2 GPa modulus, which are higher than those of comparable materials reported in the literature. Because hot-pressed lignocellulose fibers can be readily recycled and show low cumulative energy demand, they are candidates for semistructural engineering materials. MFLC is of great interest for coatings, films, adhesives, and as additives or in high-technology applications. 

  • 34.
    Blinkhorn, Victoria
    et al.
    Liverpool John Moores University, UK.
    Lyons, Minna
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Hörlin, Elizabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Almond, Louise
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    The relationship between narcissism and acceptance of violence revealed through a game designed to induce social ostracism2021In: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 161, no 3, p. 261-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that social exclusion may provoke aggression, especially in those who exhibit high levels of sensitivity to rejection, which has been related to aspects of narcissism. Few studies have investigated how individuals with high levels of narcissism react to social exclusion. In two experiments, we created and tested the effectiveness of a new game, Cyberpass, and investigated whether exclusion in this game increased positive attitudes toward violence in participants with high levels of narcissism. Cyberpass was effective in influencing feelings of lack of acceptance, and feelings of exclusion. Narcissism was correlated with less boredom and stronger feelings of rejection in the exclusion condition in Cyberpass. The Entitlement/Exploitativeness facet of narcissism was correlated with higher acceptance of violence in the exclusion condition. Results indicate that narcissistic individuals may be more supportive of violence after social exclusion but in order to experience this, they may require more explicit cues of ostracism.

  • 35.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Crocetti, Roberto
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, August
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ben Osmane, Zakaria
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF A CONNECTION FOR CLT STRUCTURES2023In: Proceedings of the 2023 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), Oslo, Norway, 2023, p. 1154-1159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although building systems made of cross-laminated timber (CLT) have become common in Sweden in the past 20 years and they have developed rapidly during the same period, steps remain to be taken to simplify the assembly of such systems, especially at construction sites. Current construction methods, however, remain labour-intensive and thus show room for improvement.

    This paper describes a novel connection for the assembly of building elements made of CLT. Simple and inexpensive, the connection is fairly insensitive to manufacturing tolerances and enables rapid, more efficient construction than the connections for CLT structures currently used. Test results show the excellent strength and stiffness of the connection, which also allows the replacement of numerous fasteners, including nails and screws, with only a single steel rod. 

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  • 36.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Framtidens resurseffektiva KL-trä – en spaning2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) for house construction is a product that was developed in Central Europe in the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study is to collaboratively explore proposals for how a more efficient CLT product can be designed for the future. The goal is to produce a basis for development and generate a consensus around the issue. There is an awareness of the environmental factors that affect design with CLT. In addition, an increased demand for wood in the building sector has resulted in a dynamic mindset to replace concrete with CLT. Increased use of forest raw materials, global warming and reduced access via restrictions in forestry raise questions such as: What raw materials will we have in the future? Which tree species will be available? How large will the supply of raw materials be? The resulting material has been analysed based on the different perspectives represented by the stakeholder groups in the value chain for building with CLT. The report concludes with project ideas that emerged during the work on the feasibility study.

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    Framtidens resurseffektiva KL-trä – en spaning
  • 37.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Formstabilitet i underlägg för dukning2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a coaster intended for table setting has been investigated regarding shape stability in relation to the surrounding climate. The coaster was made up of paper, some of which was printed, and a fibreboard that was bonded together.

    Symmetry in a construction is desirable for high shape stability, which is known since before. The fact that the surfaces have a similar moisture absorption contributes to the symmetry. Boards that have a harder surface than the opposite should be sanded so that both surfaces of the board have a similar moisture absorption. The orientation of the components in a laminate can reduce or increase the asymmetry if the surfaces have different moisture absorption capacity. Symmetrical construction as well as symmetrical moisture absorption are beneficial for high shape stability.

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  • 38.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Influence of different pressing parameters on urea-formaldehyde adhesive-bond strength in laminated veneer products2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between contact pressure, temperature, hardener content and pressing time fixed at different levels and the strength of the UF adhesive bond, in order to develop a model to predicting the bonding strength. Bond strength was measured with the Adhesive Bonding Evaluation System, and a linear model for predicting adhesive bond strength using four independent variables was developed (R2 = 0.75). The strongest parameter was pressing time, followed by hardener content and temperature, all of which explained variation in bond strength at the same level. Pressure had no significant influence on the bond strength.

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  • 39.
    Breijaert, T. C.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Daniel, G.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hedlund, D.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kessler, V. G.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Seisenbaeva, G. A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Self-assembly of ferria – nanocellulose composite fibres2022In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 291, article id 119560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An environmentally benign synthesis of a magnetically responsive carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibril-based material is reported. Applied experimental conditions lead to the in-situ formation of magnetite nanoparticles with primary particle sizes of 2.0–4.0 nm or secondary particles of 3.6–16.4 nm depending on whether nucleation occurred between individual carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibrils, or on exposed fibril surfaces. The increase in magnetite particle size on the cellulose fibril surfaces was attributed to Ostwald ripening, while the small particles formed within the carboxymethyl cellulose aggregates were presumably due to steric interactions. The magnetite nanoparticles were capable of coordinating to carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibrils to form large “fibre-like” assemblies. The confinement of small particles within aggregates of reductive cellulose molecules was most likely responsible for excellent conservation of magnetic characteristics on storage of this material. The possibility for using the material in drug delivery applications with release rate controlled by daylight illumination is presented. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 40.
    Brischke, C.
    et al.
    University of Goettingen, Germany.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Suttie, Ed
    Building Research Establishment, UK.
    Modeling the material resistance of wood—part 2: Validation and optimization of the meyer-veltrup model2021In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service life planning with timber requires reliable models for quantifying the effects of exposure-related parameters and the material-inherent resistance of wood against biotic agents. The Meyer-Veltrup model was the first attempt to account for inherent protective properties and the wetting ability of wood to quantify resistance of wood in a quantitative manner. Based on test data on brown, white, and soft rot as well as moisture dynamics, the decay rates of different untreated wood species were predicted relative to the reference species of Norway spruce (Picea abies). The present study aimed to validate and optimize the resistance model for a wider range of wood species including very durable species, thermally and chemically modified wood, and preservative treated wood. The general model structure was shown to also be suitable for highly durable materials, but previously defined maximum thresholds had to be adjusted (i.e., maximum values of factors accounting for wetting ability and inherent protective properties) to 18 instead of 5 compared to Norway spruce. As expected, both the enlarged span in durability and the use of numerous and partly very divergent data sources (i.e., test methods, test locations, and types of data presentation) led to a decrease in the predictive power of the model compared to the original. In addition to the need to enlarge the database quantity and improve its quality, in particular for treated wood, it might be advantageous to use separate models for untreated and treated wood as long as the effect of additional impact variables (e.g., treatment quality) can be accounted for. Nevertheless, the adapted Meyer-Veltrup model will serve as an instrument to quantify material resistance for a wide range of wood-based materials as an input for comprehensive service life prediction software. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 41.
    Brischke, C.
    et al.
    University of Goettingen, Germany.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Suttie, Ed
    Building Research Establishment, UK.
    Modelling the material resistance of wood—Part 3: Relative resistance in above and in ground situations—Results of a global survey2021In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Durability-based designs with timber require reliable information about the wood properties and how they affect its performance under variable exposure conditions. This study aimed at utilizing a material resistance model (Part 2 of this publication) based on a dose–response approach for predicting the relative decay rates in above-ground situations. Laboratory and field test data were, for the first time, surveyed globally and used to determine material-specific resistance dose values, which were correlated to decay rates. In addition, laboratory indicators were used to adapt the material resistance model to in-ground exposure. The relationship between decay rates in-and above-ground, the predictive power of laboratory indicators to predict such decay rates, and a method for implementing both in a service life prediction tool, were established based on 195 hardwoods, 29 softwoods, 19 modified timbers, and 41 preservative-treated timbers. © 2021 by the authors..

  • 42.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Borras, M.
    LEITAT Technological Center, Spain.
    Belaineh Yilma, Dagmawi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Martinez-Crespiera, S.
    LEITAT Technological Center, Spain.
    Aulin, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nanocellulose based carbon ink and its application in electrochromic displays and supercapacitors2021In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 045011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional electronics have been highlighted as a very unsustainable technology; hazardous wastes are produced both during their manufacturing but also, due to their limited recyclability, during their end of life cycle (e.g. disposal in landfill). In recent years additive manufacturing processes (i.e. screen printing) have attracted significant interest as a more sustainable approach to electronic manufacturing (printed electronics). Despite the field of printed electronics addressing some of the issues related to the manufacturing of electronics, many components and inks are still considered hazardous to the environment and are difficult to recycle. Here we present the development of a low environmental impact carbon ink based on a non-hazardous solvent and a cellulosic matrix (nanocellulose) and its implementation in electrochromic displays (ECDs) and supercapacitors. As part of the reported work, a different protocol for mixing carbon and cellulose nanofibrils (rotation mixing and high shear force mixing), nanocellulose of different grades and different carbon: nanocellulose ratios were investigated and optimized. The rheology profiles of the different inks showed good shear thinning properties, demonstrating their suitability for screen-printing technology. The printability of the developed inks was excellent and in line with those of reference commercial carbon inks. Despite the lower electrical conductivity (400 S m-1 for the developed carbon ink compared to 1000 S m-1 for the commercial inks), which may be explained by their difference in composition (carbon content, density and carbon derived nature) compared to the commercial carbon, the developed ink functioned adequately as the counter electrode in all screen-printed ECDs and even allowed for improved supercapacitors compared to those utilizing commercial carbon inks. In this sense, the supercapacitors incorporating the developed carbon ink in the current collector layer had an average capacitance = 97.4 mF cm-2 compared to the commercial carbon ink average capacitance = 61.6 mF cm-2. The ink development reported herein provides a step towards more sustainable printed green electronics. © 2021 The Author(s).

  • 43.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Lay, M
    Linköping University, Sweden; Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Germany.
    Jain, K
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Francon, H
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Say, Mehmet
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Belaineh Yilma, Dagmawi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Wang, Xin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Wågberg, L
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Engquist, I
    Linköping University, Sweden; .
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Berggren, M
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nanocellulose and PEDOT:PSS composites and their applications2023In: Polymer Reviews, ISSN 1558-3724, no 2, p. 437-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for achieving sustainable technologies has encouraged research on renewable and biodegradable materials for novel products that are clean, green, and environmentally friendly. Nanocellulose (NC) has many attractive properties such as high mechanical strength and flexibility, large specific surface area, in addition to possessing good wet stability and resistance to tough chemical environments. NC has also been shown to easily integrate with other materials to form composites. By combining it with conductive and electroactive materials, many of the advantageous properties of NC can be transferred to the resulting composites. Conductive polymers, in particular poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), have been successfully combined with cellulose derivatives where suspensions of NC particles and colloids of PEDOT:PSS are made to interact at a molecular level. Alternatively, different polymerization techniques have been used to coat the cellulose fibrils. When processed in liquid form, the resulting mixture can be used as a conductive ink. This review outlines the preparation of NC/PEDOT:PSS composites and their fabrication in the form of electronic nanopapers, filaments, and conductive aerogels. We also discuss the molecular interaction between NC and PEDOT:PSS and the factors that affect the bonding properties. Finally, we address their potential applications in energy storage and harvesting, sensors, actuators, and bioelectronics. © 2022 The Author(s). 

  • 44.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Larsson, P Tomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Changes in the cellulose fiber wall supramolecular structure during the initial stages of chemical treatments of wood evaluated by NMR and X-ray scattering2021In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 28, p. 3951-3965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of initial stages of pulping of spruce, resembling prehydrolysis and alkaline cooking was studied using CP/MAS 13C-NMR, X-ray scattering, FSP and carbohydrate composition in order to study the impact of the pre-treatments on the fiber wall nanostructure. Removal of fiber wall components, hemicellulose and lignin, increased the fiber wall porosity and induced cellulose fibril aggregation. The effect of temperature and pH in the treatment on cellulose fibril aggregate size appears to be secondary. It is the removal of hemicellulose that has a profound effect on the supramolecular structure of the cellulose fiber wall. As the amount of hemicellulose dissolved from wood increases, the fibril aggregate size determined by NMR increases as well, ranging from 16 to 28 nm. Specifically, a good correlation between the amount of glucomannan in the fiber wall and the fibril aggregate size is seen. The lower the amount of glucomannan, the larger the aggregate size. Glucomannan thus seems to prevent aggregation as it acts as a very efficient spacer between fibrils. Elemental fibril size determined by NMR, was quite similar for all samples, ranging from 3.6 to 4.1 nm. By combining measurement methods, a more well-resolved picture of the structural changes occurring during was obtained. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 45.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Analysis of entrapped and free liquor to gain new insights into kraft pulping2021In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 28, p. 2403-2418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of our knowledge on kraft pulping comes from studies on dissolved lignin in the freely drainable black liquor and isolated residual lignin in pulp. However, entrapped liquor in the delignified chips has been shown to differ significantly from the free liquor. The present study has compared three liquor fractions: free, lumen and fiber wall liquor. The free liquor was obtained by draining the delignified chips, the lumen liquor was separated by centrifugation and the fiber wall liquor by subsequent leaching. The liquor in the fiber wall had the lowest concentration of lignin and hydrosulfide ions and the highest concentration of monovalent cations. The dissolved lignin in the fiber wall liquor had the highest molar mass and the highest content of xylan. The highest concentration of dissolved lignin was in the liquor filling the lumen cavities. The lignin in the free liquor had the lowest molar mass and the lowest content of lignin structures containing β-O-4 linkages and aliphatic hydroxyl groups. The lowest mass transfer rate of dissolved lignin was from the lumen liquor to the free liquor probably restricted by the tortuosity of the chip. 

  • 46.
    Bågenholm-Ruuth, Edvin
    et al.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Sanchis-Sebastiá, Miguel
    ShareTex AB, Sweden.
    Hollinger, Nadine
    MoRe Research Örnsköldsvik AB, Sweden.
    Teleman, Anita
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Wallberg, Ola
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Transforming post-consumer cotton waste textiles into viscose staple fiber using hydrated zinc chloride2023In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of cellulose-based waste textiles are generated every year, yet little is done to recycle this waste. Alternatives such as fiber-to-fiber recycling, where a significant part of the value of the waste textiles is recovered, are attractive possibilities. In this study, we have investigated the viability of using hydrated zinc chloride (ZnCl2·4H2O) as a solvent and swelling agent to convert cotton waste textiles (the most abundant cellulose-based waste textile) into a dissolving pulp that can be used as raw material for the production and spinning of viscose fibers. The solvent produced an accessible dissolving pulp and exhibited excellent recyclability, maintaining good dissolving power even after repeated recycling. The dissolving pulp was subsequently used to produce viscose dope, a spinning solution which was spun and cut into viscose staple fibers. The viscose dope exhibited good properties (moderate filter clogging value and gamma number), and the resulting staple fibers were strong and of good quality (high linear density, elongation, and tenacity). These results illustrate the potential of using hydrated zinc chloride for the production of viscose grade dissolving pulp from cotton waste textiles. 

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  • 47.
    Béland, Marie-Claude
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Exploring How Material Demonstrators Accelerate the Transition to a Circular Bioeconomy2023In: diid disegno industriale industrial design, E-ISSN 2785-2245, no 79, p. 44-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking ideas to market can be a long, iterative, and complex process. When dealing with new bio-based materials, under-standing factors that help bridge the lab-to-market gap and how materials are selected for new product development have the potential to speed up the transition to a circular bioeconomy. This article defines abstract and conceptual material demonstrators and explores how they support the innovation process in different ways. Nine roles are iden-tified, including how material demonstrators contribute to generating and expressing new ideas, enable a shared understanding of technology, support the discovery of market value and the visualization of potential applications as well as helping to articulate internal and external strategies and communications. Abstract and conceptual material dem-onstrators are exemplified with both technology-driven and market-driven bio-based materials used in packaging.

  • 48.
    Callegaro, Luca
    et al.
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    D'Elia, Vincenzo
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Marzano, Martina
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Tran, Ngoc
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Ortolano, Massimo
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Kučera, Jan
    CMI Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Pierz, Klaus
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Bauer, Stephan
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kruskopf, Mattias
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Yin, Yeyef
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Pimsut, Yaowaret
    NIMT National Institute of Metrology, Thailand.
    Schopfer, Felicien
    LNE Laboratoire National de métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    Thévenot, Oliver
    LNE Laboratoire National de métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    Jeanneret, Blaise
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Overney, Frederec
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Cedergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Manninen, Antti
    VTT Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus VTT Oy, Finland.
    Nissilä, Jaani
    VTT Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus VTT Oy, Finland.
    Michon, Adrien
    CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France.
    Sawatdiaree, Sivinee
    NIMT National Institute of Metrology, Thailand.
    Chae, Dong Hun
    KRISS Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Republic of Korea.
    The EMPIR Project GIQS: Graphene Impedance Quantum Standard2020In: 2020 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), 2020, p. 1-2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GIQS: Graphene Impedance Quantum Standard is a Joint Research Project of the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR). The project objective is to combine novel digital impedance measurement bridges with graphene-based ac quantum Hall resistance standards in a simplified cryogenic environment, to achieve simple, user-friendly quantum impedance standards suitable for primary realisation of impedance units in national metrology institutes, calibration centers, and the industry.

  • 49.
    Campodoni, E.
    et al.
    CNR National Research Council, Italy.
    Montanari, M.
    CNR National Research Council, Italy.
    Dozio, S. M.
    CNR National Research Council, Italy.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Panseri, S.
    CNR National Research Council, Italy.
    Montesi, M.
    CNR National Research Council, Italy.
    Tampieri, A.
    CNR National Research Council, Italy.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Sandri, M.
    CNR National Research Council, Italy.
    Blending gelatin and cellulose nanofibrils: Biocomposites with tunable degradability and mechanical behavior2020In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 10, no 6, article id 1219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies show how biomaterial properties like stiffness, mechanical stimulation and surface topography can influence cellular functions and direct stem cell differentiation. In this work, two different natural materials, gelatin (Gel) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), were combined to design suitable 3D porous biocomposites for soft-tissue engineering. Gel was selected for its well-assessed high biomimicry that it shares with collagen, from which it derives, while the CNFs were chosen as structural reinforcement because of their exceptional mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Three different compositions of Gel and CNFs, i.e., with weight ratios of 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75, were studied. The biocomposites were morphologically characterized and their total-and macro-porosity assessed, proving their suitability for cell colonization. In general, the pores were larger and more isotropic in the biocomposites compared to the pure materials. The influence of freeze-casting and dehydrothermal treatment (DHT) on mechanical properties, the absorption ability and the shape retention were evaluated. Higher content of CNFs gave higher swelling, and this was attributed to the pore structure. Cross-linking between CNFs and Gel using DHT was confirmed. The Young’s modulus increased significantly by adding the CNFs to Gel with a linear relationship with respect to the CNF amounts. Finally, the biocomposites were characterized in vitro by testing cell colonization and growth through a quantitative cell viability analysis performed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Additionally, the cell viability analysis was performed by the means of a Live/Dead test with Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). All the biocomposites had higher cytocompatibility compared to the pure materials, Gel and CNFs. © 2020 by the authors. 

  • 50.
    Carlström, Ingeborg
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Rashad, Ahmad
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Campodoni, Elisabetta
    National Research Council of Italy, Italy.
    Sandri, Monica
    National Research Council of Italy, Italy.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Bolstad, Anne
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Mustafa, Kamal
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Cross-linked gelatin-nanocellulose scaffolds for bone tissue engineering2020In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 264, article id 127326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood-based cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) have, in addition to high specific surface area and high surface reactivity, ability to mimic nanostructured collagen in bone extracellular matrix. These properties make CNFs promising materials for bone tissue engineering (BTE). The CNFs degrade slowly in vivo. By blending and cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with CNFs, scaffolds were produced with tuned degradation rate and enhanced mechanical properties, more suitable for BTE applications. This in vitro study aimed to examine initial biological responses of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to cross-linked Gel-CNF scaffolds. The scaffolds were fabricated from 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-oxidized CNF blended with Gel and cross-linked either by dehydrothermal treatment (DHT) or by a combination of hexamethylenediamine, genipin, and DHT. CNF scaffolds without cross-linking served as control. The produced scaffolds supported cell attachment, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation. However, the early cell attachment after 1 day and the expression of RUNX2 and SPP1 genes after 7 days were highest in the CNF scaffolds. The results suggest that cross-linked Gel-CNF are cytocompatible and holds potential for BTE applications. 

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