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  • 1.
    Abbas, S.
    et al.
    Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan.
    Imtiaz-ud-Din,
    Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan.
    Mehmood, M.
    Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan.
    Raheel, A.
    Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan.
    Ayub, Rabia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Zahid, M.
    Higher Education Department Govt. of the Punjab, Pakistan.
    Tahir, M. N.
    University of Sargodha, Pakistan.
    Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Bioactive Ferrocenyl Substituted Hydrazones2021Inngår i: Russian journal of coordination chemistry, ISSN 1070-3284, E-ISSN 1608-3318, Vol. 47, nr 12, s. 891-902Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of ferrocenyl substituted hydrazones (I–VII) derived from ferrocene carboxaldehyde and substituted hydrazides have been prepared and characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and crystallographic studies. The single-crystal X-ray analysis for III·0.5H2O·0.5CH3CN (CIF file CCDC no. 1968937) further authenticates the structural motif of the synthesized compounds. The C(11) of ferrocene carboxaldehyde is linked with N(1) of the hydrazide moiety with a bond length of 1.283(5) Å, confirming the binding of the two structural units present in the final product. They were preliminarily screened for their antimicrobial activity and demonstrate good results. The free radical scavenging activity for the compounds (III, IV) has been found to be more than 90% when compared with the ascorbic acid. The total antioxidant capacity and total reducing power assays for VI show significant activity whereas the data for the other compounds are also encouraging. Quantum chemical calculations at the DFT level predict that compound II is the softest while VII is the hardest within the series, resultantly II can be used as a synthon for further chemical reactions.

  • 2. Acevedo, F.
    et al.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Castillo, Maria del Pilar 
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Cuevas, R.
    Diez, M.C.
    Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the Chilean white-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor2011Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 185, nr 1, s. 212-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The degradation of three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Kirk medium by Anthracophyllum discolor, a white-rot fungus isolated from the forest of southern Chile, was evaluated. In addition, the removal efficiency of three-, four- and five-ring PAHs in contaminated soil bioaugmented with A. discolor in the absence and presence of indigenous soil microorganisms was investigated. Production of lignin-degrading enzymes and PAH mineralization in the soil were also determined. A. discolor was able to degrade PAHs in Kirk medium with the highest removal occurring in a PAH mixture, suggesting synergistic effects between PAHs or possible cometabolism. A high removal capability for phenanthrene (62%), anthracene (73%), fluoranthene (54%), pyrene (60%) and benzo(a)pyrene (75%) was observed in autoclaved soil inoculated with A. discolor in the absence of indigenous microorganisms, associated with the production of manganese peroxidase (MnP). The metabolites found in the PAH degradation were anthraquinone, phthalic acid, 4-hydroxy-9-fluorenone, 9-fluorenone and 4,5-dihydropyrene. A. discolor was able to mineralize 9% of the phenanthrene. In non-autoclaved soil, the inoculation with A. discolor did not improve the removal efficiency of PAHs. Suitable conditions must be found to promote a successful fungal bioaugmentation in non-autoclaved soils. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  • 3. Acevedo, F.
    et al.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Castillo, Maria del Pilar 
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Gonzalez, M.E.
    Cea, M.
    Gianfreda, L.
    Diez, M.C.
    Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by free and nanoclay-immobilized manganese peroxidase from Anthracophyllum discolor2010Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 80, nr 3, s. 271-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced by Anthracophyllum discolor, a Chilean white rot fungus, was immobilized on nanoclay obtained from volcanic soil and its ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared with the free enzyme was evaluated. At the same time, nanoclay characterization was performed.Nanoclay characterization by transmission electronic microscopy showed a particle average size smaller than 100nm. The isoelectric points (IEP) of nanoclay and MnP from A. discolor were 7.0 and 3.7, respectively, as determined by micro electrophoresis migration and preparative isoelectric focusing. Results indicated that 75% of the enzyme was immobilized on the nanoclay through physical adsorption. As compared to the free enzyme, immobilized MnP from A. discolor achieved an improved stability to temperature and pH. The activation energy (Ea) value for immobilized MnP (51.9kJmol -1) was higher than that of the free MnP (34.4kJmol -1).The immobilized enzyme was able to degrade pyrene (>86%), anthracene (>65%), alone or in mixture, and to a less extent fluoranthene (<15.2%) and phenanthrene (<8.6%). Compared to free MnP from A. discolor, the enzyme immobilized on nanoclay enhanced the enzymatic transformation of anthracene in soil.Overall results indicate that nanoclay, a carrier of natural origin, is a suitable support material for MnP immobilization. In addition, immobilized MnP shows an increased stability to high temperature, pH and time storage, as well as an enhanced PAHs degradation efficiency in soil. All these characteristics may suggest the possible use of nanoclay-immobilized MnP from A. discolor as a valuable option for in situ bioremediation purposes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 4. Acevedo, F.
    et al.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Castillo, Maria del Pilar 
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rubilar, O.
    Lienqueo, M.E.
    Tortella, G.
    Diez, M.C.
    A practical culture technique for enhanced production of manganese peroxidase by Anthracophyllum discolor Sp42011Inngår i: Brazilian archives of biology and technology, ISSN 1516-8913, E-ISSN 1678-4324, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 1175-1186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, different growth conditions of Anthracophyllum discolor Sp4 including the effect of agitation, additions of lignocellulosic support, inducer and surfactant were evaluated on the MnP production in Kirk medium using a culture system made up of the tubes containing the glass bead. The highest MnP production (1,354 U/L on day 13) was obtained when the medium was supplemented with wheat grain and 0.25 mM MnSO 4 as inducer, under static conditions at 30°C. Two isoenzymes were purified (35 and 38 kDa respectively). MnP presented a maximal activity in the pH range between 4.5 and 5.5, a relatively high temperature tolerance (50°C) and a high catalytic activity for 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and hydrogen peroxide.

  • 5.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion.
    Jafri, Yawer
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sustainable aviation fuels – Options for negative emissions and high carbon efficiency2023Inngår i: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 125, artikkel-id 103886Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigating the climate impact from aviation remains one of the tougher challenges in adapting society to fulfill stated climate targets. Long-range aviation cannot be electrified for the foreseeable future and the effects of combusting fuel at high altitude increase the climate impact compared to emissions of green-house gasses only, which further limits the range of sustainable fuel alternatives. We investigate seven different pathways for producing aviation biofuels coupled with either bio-energy carbon capture and storage (BECCS), or bio-energy carbon capture and utilization (BECCU). Both options allow for increased efficiency regarding utilization of feedstock carbon. Our analysis uses process-level carbon- and energy balances, with carbon efficiency, climate impact and levelized cost of production (LCOP) as primary performance indicators. The results show that CCS can achieve a negative carbon footprint for four out of the seven pathways, at a lower cost of GHG reduction than the base process option. Conversely, as a consequence of the electricity-intensive CO2 upgrading process, the CCU option shows less encouraging results with higher production costs, carbon footprints and costs of GHG reduction. Overall, pathways with large amounts of vented CO2, e.g., gasification of black liquor or bark, as well as fermentation of forest residues, reach a low GHG reduction cost for the CCS option. These are also pathways with a larger feedstock and corresponding production potential. Our results enable a differentiated comparison of the suitability of various alternatives for BECCS or BECCU in combination with aviation biofuel production. By quantifying the relative strengths and weaknesses of BECCS and BECCU and by highlighting cost, climate and carbon-efficient pathways, these results can be a source of support for both policymakers and the industry. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 6.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion.
    Berg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Olsson, Henrik
    Karlsson, Lars-Evert
    Wärtsilä Sweden AB. Sweden.
    Niinipuu, Mirva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Biologisk metanisering av syngas från förgasning och pyrolys - lovande koncept mot implementering2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological methanation of syngas from pyrolysis and gasification – promising concepts for implementation The need for increased biogas production is significant, and in the EU, there are plans for a substantial expansion in the coming years through the RePowerEU initiative. Part of the increase will come from the expansion of conventional digestion technology, where organic materials such as food waste, manure, and crop residues are used for biogas production. However, to meet the future increased demand, it is also necessary to utilize more difficult-to-digest substrates, such as biomass rich in lignocellulose, for biogas production. This could be forest residues such as branches and tops, sawdust, or bark. This type of substrates cannot be used in a conventional digestion process, and other technology chains are therefore required to convert such biomass into biomethane. This can be done by first converting the biomass into syngas through a thermochemical process such as gasification or pyrolysis. This is followed by a methanation process where the syngas is converted into biogas, and finally, the gas is upgraded to reach biomethane quality. These types of technology chains are not currently available on a commercial scale, but they have been demonstrated, for example, through the Gobigas project, where gasification was followed by catalytic methanation for biomethane production. As full-scale implementation of catalytic methanation of bio-syngas has not yet been achieved, thereis a need to develop alternative conversion technologies that can more cost-effectively achieve the methanation of woody biomass. One possible opportunity for to this is to apply biological methanation instead of a catalytic process. A biological process comes with several advantages, including a greater ability to handle contaminants, higher selectivity in the conversion of syngas, and operation at relatively low temperature and pressure, which simplifies material selection and reactor design. RISE, together with its partners, are developing a concept based on biological methanation of syngas. This project has examined the biological process's ability to handle contaminants in syngas through continuous experiments in carrier-filled trickle bed reactors with an active volume of 5 liters. The process's ability to handle and break down contaminants is an important parameter that can affect and simplify the design of the gas cleaning that occurs after gasification or pyrolysis. Another aspect of the project has been to put the experimental results into context at the concept and system level. Different production techniques for syngas have been mapped out, which could be combined with biological methanation. Based on the mapping, three types of plants have been selected for more detailed analyses of techno-economics, carbon footprint, and opportunities for increased carbon efficiency. The methanation experiments lasted for 552 days, and overall, it was a stable process with high turnover of syngas and high methane production over a long time. There have been some operational disturbances, mainly related to the supply of gas to the process (i.e. delivery of gas cylinders). However, biochemical inhibition or disturbances have been rare, demonstrating a high robustness for biological methanation of syngas. The breakdown of contaminants has been excellent in the process, with levels decreasing below the detection limit. At the same time, as contaminants have been continuously added to the process, microbiology has been able to maintain high turnover of hydrogen and carbon monoxide to methane. The specific methane production was high both during the reference period without contaminants and during the experimental periods with added contaminants. During long periods, the specific methane production has been around 4 L CH4/Lbed volume /day, which is about 4 times higher than our previously achieved results. The transition to thermophilic temperature and using carriers with higher effective surface area has contributed to this increase. During the project, three types of plants have been selected for more detailed analysis: 1) Gasification with Cortus process, which generates a relatively clean syngas with minimal purification needs before biological methanation. There is no need for co-location with a heating plant, but it is an advantage if there is access to the district heating network to sell waste heat. 2) Gasification with Bioshares' concept, where the gasifier is integrated into a larger cogeneration plant and where the produced syngas is purified with an RME-scrubber before biological methanation. Co-location with a larger cogeneration plant provides interesting synergies and integration opportunities, but also sets the boundaries for where the plants can be located. 3) Slow pyrolysis according to Envigas' concept, where the primary product is biochar and where the produced syngas is seen as a by-product. The syngas contains some impurities but generally requires no other purification than cooling to the right temperature (condensing out tars) before being added to biological methanation. This type of plant differs from plant types 1-2 in that the syngas formed is not the primary product, and the syngas has a relatively low energy value compared to the others. Syngas from plant types 2 and 3 contains some hydrocarbons (C1-C3) that are considered inert over the methanation step and therefore do not negatively affect the process. This means that heavier hydrocarbons do not need to be removed upstream, which would likely have been required with catalytic methanation. This leads to a higher system efficiency, and the need for reactor capacity for biological methanation decreases since there is less gas to be processed (more of the end-product consists of hydrocarbons already formed during the thermochemical conversion upstream). For all plant types, downstream of the methanation step, there is a need for further gas purification and upgrading. During the upgrading step carbon dioxide is separated to reach the product specification required by the end user. If long distance distribution is required a final process step consisting of a liquefaction plant for the production of liquid biogas (LBG) can be added to the concept. As another option, the systems can be supplemented with treatment of the carbon dioxide flow out of the upgrading plant, where the flow is processed by drying, compression, and cooling to produce liquid carbon dioxide. For plant type 2, where benzene is present in the syngas, this gas is expected to be separated with relatively high precision in the system and thereby generate a small flow of liquid benzene as a side product. The carbon dioxide emissions for the final product LBG are in the range of 1.6 to 2.6 gCO2-eq/MJLBG, which compares favorably to other types of second-generation biofuels. Compared to fossil gas, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is 96-97%. The carbon efficiency of the systems can be significantly increased if excess carbon dioxide is utilized either through BECCS or BECCU. If the carbon dioxide stream from the upgrading plant is processed into liquid carbon dioxide, the production cost is estimated to be 187-204 SEK/ton. If the product is to be sent to permanent storage the cost for transportation and storage would need to be added to estimate total cost of BECCS, but this is out of scope for the current project.. Assuming that BECCS is applied and that the entire carbon sink is allocated to the final product LBG, this will result in negative emissions in the range of -35 to -104 gCO2-eq/MJLBG. An alternative is to utilize excess carbon dioxide directly in the methanation process by boosting incoming gas with extra hydrogen. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide are then converted by methanogens, which generates extra methane. Since the addition of extra hydrogen is assumed to come from electrolysis, the additional methane production can likely be classified as electrofuel, so-called e-methane. The techno-economic evaluation results in a production cost ranging from 740 to 1300 SEK/MWhLBG, including all sensitivity scenarios. The lower price scenarios include a lower investment cost, which can be assumed to represent cases with public investment support. Overall, a large part of the scenarios are considered to be within the range of what can be considered market relevant production costs. This leads to the conclusion that there is techno-economic potential at this stage to justify continued development of concepts based on biological methanation of syngas. With scaling up and continued development in the right direction, the concepts may eventually lead to cost-effective utilization of forest residues for the production of biomethane at a commercially relevant scale. The next step in the development is scaling up to pilot scale, which will take place during 2023-2025 through an EU-funded project and will be carried out by RISE, Wärtsilä, Cortus and Swedish Gas Association. A pilot plant for biological methanation will then be operated with syngas from Cortus' gasifier in Höganäs.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Tamm, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Berg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Bio-CCS från biogasanläggningar2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    BECCS from biogas production

    Global CO₂ emissions amount to about 40 Gtonnes/year and they need to be rapidly reduced if we are to meet adopted climate targets. To achieve this, a variety of measures is needed, such as more electrification, reduced use of fossil energy, more renewable energy, energy efficiency improvements and CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage). However, this will not be enough, but will also require so-called negative emissions, which means that CO₂ is removed from the atmosphere through, for example, increased afforestation, increased carbon storage in soil (e.g. biochar), or by capturing and storing CO₂ of biogenic origin in geological formations, also known as bio-CCS or BECCS. At global level, the need for negative emissions is estimated to be in the order of several billion tonnes of CO₂ per year if it shall be possible to reach the 1.5-degree target and net zero emissions by 2050. At national level, Sweden’s target is to achieve net zero emissions by 2045 and from then on to be climate positive. This means that territorial emissions from the 1990 level must be reduced by at least 85% by 2045 and that the remaining 15 % will be eliminated by means of so-called supplementary measures including bio-CCS as an important measure.

    The need for bio-CCS is significant and the actors who can deliver biogenic CO₂ at the right quality and at low cost will have good business opportunities in an expected future global marketplace for negative emissions. With this project, we have investigated the opportunities CO₂ from biogas production has to contribute to bio-CCS in Sweden. At biogas plants that produce vehicle gas, there is already equipment to separate CO₂ from biogas, so-called upgrading technologies. By modifying and extending this technology, pure liquid CO₂ can be generated. The CO₂ is then transported to terminals in Swedish ports while waiting for transport by ship to the place for permanent storage.

    The project has studied gas purification and liquefaction based on the four most common upgrading techniques: water scrubber, PSA (pressure swing adsorption), membrane separation and amine scrubber. The residual gas (the CO₂-rich gas leaving the upgrading equipment) differs between different upgrading technologies, which affects the need for subsequent purification steps. Results from modelling and simulation have led to two proposed technology chains. For amine scrubbers, a simple process of compression, drying and liquefaction is sufficient to achieve the CCS specification of the liquid CO₂. PSA, membranes and water scrubbers require more advanced gas purification including a two-phase separation and recirculation of gases with low dew point, such as O₂ and CH4. The recirculated gas is recycled to the inlet of the upgrading process, leading to the double benefit of increased amount of valuable CH₄ product and further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. A side effect is that the need for conventional residual gas management is eliminated.

    Cost calculations have been carried out for biogas plants with a production capacity of 20, 50 and 120 GWh/year. With an availability of 95% and a CO₂ content of 39% in raw biogas (gas before upgrading), this equates to a CO₂ production of 2,400, 5,900 and 14,200 tons/year, respectively. A starting point for the study has been that systems for large-scale bio-CCS/CCS will be established and that this will lead to the construction of several CO₂ terminals in Swedish ports. Furthermore, it is assumed that these terminals allow third-party access where a supplementary volume of biogenic CO₂ from biogas plants can constitute a portion of the total managed amount. Around each terminal, clusters of biogas plants are estimated to emerge, which each can deliver approximately 20,000–100,000 tons CO₂ per year. The distribution from biogas plants to port terminals may be done by truck transport where the loading capacity amounts to 34 tons of CO₂. After the terminal, CO₂ is transported by ship to the place for permanent storage.

    The cost of producing liquid CO₂ from biogas depends on local conditions such as CO₂ flow, O₂ content, upgrading technology, new or existing plant, transport distance to terminal, etc. In order to determine what the cost will be for each individual biogas plant, it is necessary to adapt the calculations to local conditions. Through the project, generic calculations have been carried out which show that large biogas plants have good opportunities to produce liquid CO₂ at competitive costs, but also that there is a strong scaling effect. For example, the cost is about SEK 200–300/tonne CO₂ for new plants with 120 GWh in annual biogas production. With investment support, the cost drops to about SEK 150–200/tonne. For new plants in the intermediate segment (50 GWh/year), the cost is slightly higher, SEK 300–450/tonne (without capital grants) and SEK 190–275/tonne (with capital grants). For smaller plants (20 GWh/year), the cost rises significantly, especially for water scrubbers.

    The transport cost up to the terminal is affected by the distance and amount of CO₂ handled. For example, the cost of truck transport from larger biogas plants is about SEK 200/tonne at 100 km one-way to terminal. The total cost of bio-CCS from biogas including terminal handling, ship transport and final storage is affected by many parameters and there are uncertainties in cost estimates along the entire chain. In a calculation example for a biogas plant with membrane upgrading, 100 km of truck transport one way to terminal in Gothenburg and transport and final storage according to Northern Light's concept, the total cost was estimated at SEK 830–1020/tonne CO₂ for larger biogas plants (120 GWh/year).

    When the bio-CCS from biogas is introduced, negative emissions arise from two sources, firstly from the final storage itself, which is the main part, and secondly by reducing CH₄ emissions from the upgrading plants, which is a smaller, but not negligible part. The total CO₂ efficiency of the value chain is determined by energy consumption, transport distance, selected storage solution and CH₄ slip before the introduction of bio-CCS. Emissions from truck transport are small in this context. In total, CO₂ efficiency in many cases amounts to close to 100%, i.e. net emissions in the value chain up to final storage are close to zero. For plants that initially had relatively high CH₄ emissions from the upgrading unit, the climate benefit is even greater, with CO₂ efficiency throughout the chain being well over 100%.

    A driving hypothesis in the project has been that CO₂ from biogas can be the CO₂ stream in society that is one of the lowest-hanging fruits and that the value chain is well placed to be more cost-effective than other concepts for bio-CCS. Based on the results of the project, we can conclude that the hypothesis is likely to hold. The cost up to the terminal will in many cases likely be lower compared to capture and liquefaction from large point sources. With efficient technology and distribution solutions, biogas producers should be able to contribute to bio-CCS to a fairly large extent, up to about 10% of Sweden's need for negative emissions. For biogas operators, this would mean a broadening of the business where CO₂ is seen as a valuable product which complements the revenues from the production of biomethane. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Bru, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Wästerlid, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Lindh, E Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Hallquist, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Cirkulärt omhändertagande av solcellspaneler och vindturbinblad för vindkraftverk2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I regleringsbrevet för 2023 fick Energimyndigheten i uppdrag av regeringen att utreda hur solcellspaneler och vindturbinblad till vindkraftverk i högre utsträckning ska kunna tas om hand på ett giftfritt och cirkulärt sätt i enlighet med avfallshierarkin. Redovisningen av detta regeringsuppdrag, rapporten Från avfall till resurs – Förslag för en mer cirkulär hantering av solcellspaneler och vindturbinblad, ER 2024:11, baseras på denna underlagsrapport som har tagits fram av forskningsinstitutet RISE på uppdrag av Energimyndigheten. Analyser, slutsatser och förslag/rekommendationer som framförs i rapporten är författarnas egna.En fortsatt utbyggnad av fossilfri elproduktion är av stor vikt för att vi ska kunna nå Sveriges energi- och klimatmål. För att utbyggnaden i sig ska vara hållbar är det viktigt att vi redan nu planerar för hur avfallet från dessa elproduktionsanläggningar ska förebyggas, minimeras och sedan hanteras.Det finns redan i dagsläget aktörer som har utvecklat och håller på att utveckla ett flertal olika lösningar för ökad cirkularitet. Dessa möjligheter kan tas tillvara och främjas genom regelbunden kartläggning och genom att arbeta gemensamt inom EU. Genom ett sådant arbete finns det också större möjligheter att etablera industriella värdekedjor i Sverige för hanteringen av avfallet från solcellspaneler och vindturbinblad.En cirkulär hantering av avfall ger ett betydligt mindre avtryck på miljön än det som en linjär hantering ger upphov till. Det är viktigt att de aktörer som tillhandahåller fossilfri elproduktion tar ansvar under hela livscykeln och att det finns goda förutsättningar för aktörerna att göra det.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Argyropoulos, Dimitris
    et al.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Crestini, Claudia
    Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Italy.
    Dahlstrand, Christian
    Ren FuelK2B AB, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gioia, Claudio
    Universityof Trento, Italy.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pierrou, Clara
    RenFuel Materials AB, Sweden.
    Samec, Joseph
    RenFuel Materials AB, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden; Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; Ren FuelK2B AB, Sweden.
    Subbotina, Elena
    Yale University, USA.
    Wallmo, Henrik
    Valmet AB, Sweden.
    Wimby, Martin
    Valmet AB, Sweden.
    Kraft Lignin: A Valuable, Sustainable Resource, Opportunities and Challenges.2023Inngår i: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, artikkel-id e202300492Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft lignin, a by-product from the production of pulp, is currently incinerated in the recovery boiler during the chemical recovery cycle, generating valuable bioenergy and recycling inorganic chemicals to the pulping process operation. Removing lignin from the black liquor or its gasification lowers the recovery boiler load enabling increased pulp production. During the past ten years, lignin separation technologies have emerged and the interest of the research community to valorize this underutilized resource has been invigorated. The aim of this review is to give (1) a dedicated overview of the kraft process with a focus on the lignin, (2) an overview of applications that are being developed, and (3) a techno-economic and life cycle asseeements of value chains from black liquor to different products. Overall, it is anticipated that this effort will inspire further work for developing and using kraft lignin as a commodity raw material for new applications undeniably promoting pivotal global sustainability concerns.

  • 10.
    Ayub, Rabia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Raheel, Ahmad
    Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan.
    High-Value Chemicals from Electrocatalytic Depolymerization of Lignin: Challenges and Opportunities2022Inngår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 23, nr 7, artikkel-id 3767Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic biomass is renewable and one of the most abundant sources for the production of high-value chemicals, materials, and fuels. It is of immense importance to develop new efficient technologies for the industrial production of chemicals by utilizing renewable resources. Lignocellulosic biomass can potentially replace fossil-based chemistries. The production of fuel and chemicals from lignin powered by renewable electricity under ambient temperatures and pressures enables a more sustainable way to obtain high-value chemicals. More specifically, in a sustainable biorefinery, it is essential to valorize lignin to enhance biomass transformation technology and increase the overall economy of the process. Strategies regarding electrocatalytic approaches as a way to valorize or depolymerize lignin have attracted significant interest from growing scientific communities over the recent decades. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the electro-catalytic methods for depolymerization of lignocellulosic biomass with an emphasis on untargeted depolymerization as well as the selective and targeted mild synthesis of high-value chemicals. Elec-trocatalytic cleavage of model compounds and further electrochemical upgrading of bio-oils are discussed. Finally, some insights into current challenges and limitations associated with this approach are also summarized. © 2022 by the authors. 

  • 11.
    Bakratsas, Georgios
    et al.
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Polydera, Angeliki
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Nilson, Oskar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Chatzikonstantinou, AV
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Xiros, Charilaos
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Katapodis, Petros
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Stamatis, Haralambos
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Mycoprotein Production by Submerged Fermentation of the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in a Batch Stirred Tank Bioreactor Using Agro-Industrial Hydrolysate2023Inngår i: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 12, nr 12, artikkel-id 2295Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for cheap, healthy, and sustainable alternative protein sources has turned research interest into microbial proteins. Mycoproteins prevail due to their quite balanced amino acid profile, low carbon footprint and high sustainability potential. The goal of this research was to investigate the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to metabolize the main sugars of agro-industrial side streams, such as aspen wood chips hydrolysate, to produce high-value protein with low cost. Our results indicate that P. ostreatus LGAM 1123 could be cultivated both in a C-6 (glucose)- and C-5(xylose)-sugar-containing medium for mycoprotein production. A mixture of glucose and xylose was found to be ideal for biomass production with high protein content and rich amino acid profile. P. ostreatus LGAM 1123 cultivation in a 4 L stirred-tank bioreactor using aspen hydrolysate was achieved with 25.0 ± 3.4 g L−1 biomass production, 1.8 ± 0.4 d−1 specific growth rate and a protein yield of 54.5 ± 0.5% (g/100 g sugars). PCA analysis of the amino acids revealed a strong correlation between the amino acid composition of the protein produced and the ratios of glucose and xylose in the culture medium. The production of high-nutrient mycoprotein by submerged fermentation of the edible fungus P. ostreatus using agro-industrial hydrolysates is a promising bioprocess in the food and feed industry. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 12.
    Bakratsas, Georgios
    et al.
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Polydera, Angeliki
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Nilson, Oskar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Kossatz, Lalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Xiros, Charilaos
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Katapodis, Petros
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Stamatis, Haralambos
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Single-cell protein production by Pleurotus ostreatus in submerged fermentation†2023Inngår i: Sustainable Food Technology, ISSN 2753-8095, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 377-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural land shrinkage, decreasing global water resources, population increase and malnutrition highlight the need for new food sources. Single-cell protein derived from microorganisms could be a solution to high protein demand. The aim of this work was to optimize the cultivation conditions for single-cell protein production by Pleurotus ostreatus LGAM 1123 in submerged cultures and valorize fiber sludge, a low cost industrial side stream from the pulp and paper industry, as a substrate for single-cell protein (SCP) production. A study on the effect of different cultivation conditions on fungal growth and protein production has been conducted. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the combined effect of the most important factors (glucose and yeast extract medium concentrations) and optimize the process. A maximum protein production of 10.0 ± 0.9 g L-1 was found for the submerged cultivation of the fungus in a 3.5 L stirred-tank bioreactor, while the biomass produced and its total protein content were 26.0 ± 2.0 g L-1 and 44.8 ± 0.8%, respectively. As an industrial application, a cellulosic hydrolysate obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of fibre sludge in the optimized medium composition was used. Fibre sludge was shown to be an excellent feedstock for SCP production achieving productivity and protein content very similar to glucose fermentations. Single-cell protein of P. ostreatus presented higher amino acid scores compared to the recommended ones for valine, leucine, and aromatic amino acids in human nutrition. Therefore, P. ostreatus biomass could stand as an alternative vegan protein source due to its high protein content and amino acid composition. 

  • 13.
    Balakshin, Mikhail
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Capanema, Ewellyn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Zhu, Xuhai
    Aalto University, Finland; Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Sulaeva, Irina
    BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Potthast, Antje
    BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Rosenau, Thomas
    BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Rojas, Orlando
    Aalto University, Finland; University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Spruce milled wood lignin: Linear, branched or cross-linked?2020Inngår i: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 22, nr 13, s. 3985-4001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of lignin structure, critical for fundamental and practical reasons, is addressed in this study that includes a review of the methods applied to elucidate macromolecular branching. The recently available approaches for determination of the absolute molecular mass of spruce milled wood lignin (MWL) along with the quantification of terminal groups clearly indicate that MWL is significantly branched and cross-linked (with ∼36% lignin units partaking in these linkages). Results from independent methods imply that about half of the branching and crosslinking linkages involve aromatic rings, predominantly 5-5′ etherified units; meanwhile, a significant number of linkages are located in the side chains. Quantitative 13C NMR analyses suggest that the branches involve different aliphatic ether (alkyl-O-alkyl) types at the α- and γ-positions of the side chain, with intact β-O-4 linkages. While the exact structures of these moieties require further investigation, our results point to the fact that conventional lignification theory disagrees with the presence of such key moieties in softwood MWL and the observed high degree of branching/crosslinking. Potential reasons for the noted discrepancies are discussed.

  • 14.
    Balakshin, Mikhail Yu
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Capanema, Ewellyn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Sulaeva, Irina
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria; Wood K plus, Austria.
    Schlee, Philipp
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Huang, Zeen
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Feng, Martin
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Borghei, Maryam
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Rojas, Orlando J
    Aalto University, Finland; University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Potthast, Antje
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Rosenau, Thomas
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    New Opportunities in the Valorization of Technical Lignins.2021Inngår i: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 1016-1036Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sugar-based biorefineries have faced significant economic challenges. Biorefinery lignins are often classified as low-value products (fuel or low-cost chemical feedstock) mainly due to low lignin purities in the crude material. However, recent research has shown that biorefinery lignins have a great chance of being successfully used as high-value products, which in turn should result in an economy renaissance of the whole biorefinery idea. This critical review summarizes recent developments from our groups, along with the state-of-the-art in the valorization of technical lignins, with the focus on biorefinery lignins. A beneficial synergistic effect of lignin and cellulose mixtures used in different applications (wood adhesives, carbon fiber and nanofibers, thermoplastics) has been demonstrated. This phenomenon causes crude biorefinery lignins, which contain a significant amount of residual crystalline cellulose, to perform superior to high-purity lignins in certain applications. Where previously specific applications required high-purity and/or functionalized lignins with narrow molecular weight distributions, simple green processes for upgrading crude biorefinery lignin are suggested here as an alternative. These approaches can be easily combined with lignin micro-/nanoparticles (LMNP) production. The processes should also be cost-efficient compared to traditional lignin modifications. Biorefinery processes allow much greater flexibility in optimizing the lignin characteristics desirable for specific applications than traditional pulping processes. Such lignin engineering, at the same time, requires an efficient strategy capable of handling large datasets to find correlations between process variables, lignin structures and properties and finally their performance in different applications.

  • 15.
    Battestini Vives, Mariona
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Thuvander, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arkell, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Lipnizki, Frank
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Low-Molecular-Weight Lignin Recovery with Nanofiltration in the Kraft Pulping Process2022Inngår i: Membranes, E-ISSN 2077-0375, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 310-310Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft lignin is an underutilized resource from the pulp and paper industry with the potential of being a key raw material for renewable fuels and chemicals. The separation of high-molecular-weight lignin from black liquor by ultrafiltration has been widely investigated, while the permeate containing low-molecular-weight lignin has received little attention. Nanofiltration can concentrate the low-molecular-weight lignin. This work, therefore, evaluates nanofiltration for the separation and concentration of low-molecular-weight lignin from the ultrafiltration permeate. For this study, eight flat polymeric sheet membranes and one polymeric hollow fiber membrane, with molecular weight cut-offs ranging from 100 to 2000 Da, were tested. A parametric study was conducted at 50 °C, 2.5–35 bar, and crossflow velocity of 0.3–0.5 m/s. At a transmembrane pressure of 35 bar, the best performing membranes were NF090801, with 90% lignin retention and 37 L/m2·h, and SelRO MPF-36, with 84% lignin retention and 72 L/m2·h. The other membranes showed either very high lignin retention with a very low flux or a high flux with retention lower than 80%. Concentration studies were performed with the two selected membranes at conditions (A) 50 °C and 35 bar and (B) 70 °C and 15 bar. The NF090801 membrane had the highest flux and lignin retention during the concentration studies. Overall, it was shown that the nanofiltration process is able to produce a concentrated lignin fraction, which can be either used to produce valuable chemicals or used to make lignin oil.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Benavente, Verónica
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. Umeå university, Sweden.
    Pérez, Carla
    Umeå university, Sweden.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå university, Sweden.
    Co-hydrothermal carbonization of microalgae and digested sewage sludge: Assessing the impact of mixing ratios on the composition of primary and secondary char2024Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 174, s. 429-438Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of microalgae cultivation in wastewater treatment and reclamation has been studied extensively, as has the potential utility of the resulting algal biomass. Most methods for processing such biomass generate solid residues that must be properly managed to comply with current sustainable resource utilization requirements. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) can be used to process both individual wet feedstocks and mixed feedstocks (i.e., co-HTC). Here, we investigate co-HTC using microalgae and digested sewage sludge as feedstocks. The objectives were to (i) study the material’s partitioning into solid and liquid products, and (ii) characterize the products’ physicochemical properties. Co-HTC experiments were conducted at 180–250°C using mixed microalgae/sewage sludge feedstocks with the proportion of sewage sludge ranging from 0 to 100 %. Analyses of the hydrochar composition and the formation and composition of secondary char revealed that the content of carbonized material in the product decreased as the proportion of sewage sludge in the feedstock increased under fixed carbonization conditions. The properties of the hydrochars and the partitioning of material between the liquid phase and the hydrochar correlated linearly with the proportion of microalgae in mixed feedstocks, indicating that adding sewage sludge to microalgae had weak or non-existent synergistic effects on co-HTC outcomes. However, the proportion of sewage sludge in the feedstock did affect the secondary char. For example, adding sewage sludge reduced the abundance of carboxylic acids and ketones as well as the concentrations of higher molecular weight cholesterols. Such changes may alter the viable applications of the hydrochar. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Bengtsson, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Hecht, Pascale
    Sommertune, Jens
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sedin, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa.
    Carbon Fibers from Lignin-Cellulose Precursors: Effect of Carbonization Conditions2020Inngår i: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 8, nr 17, s. 6826-6833Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon fibers (CFs) are gaining increasing importance in lightweight composites, but their high price and reliance on fossil-based raw materials stress the need for renewable and cost-efficient alternatives. Kraft lignin and cellulose are renewable macromolecules available in high quantities, making them interesting candidates for CF production. Dry-jet wet spun precursor fibers (PFs) from a 70/30 w/w blend of softwood kraft lignin (SKL) and fully bleached softwood kraft pulp (KP) were converted into CFs under fixation. The focus was to investigate the effect of carbonization temperature and time on the CF structure and properties. Reducing the carbonization time from 708 to 24 min had no significant impact on the tensile properties. Increasing the carbonization temperature from 600 to 800 °C resulted in a large increase in the carbon content and tensile properties, suggesting that this is a critical region during carbonization of SKL:KP PFs. The highest Young's modulus (77 GPa) was obtained after carbonization at 1600 °C, explained by the gradual transition from amorphous to nanocrystalline graphite observed by Raman spectroscopy. On the other hand, the highest tensile strength (1050 MPa) was achieved at 1000 °C, a decrease being observed thereafter, which may be explained by an increase in radial heterogeneity.

  • 18.
    Berg, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Mellanlagring av sågat virke - inverkan på kvaliteten efter torkning1998Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns idag önskemål om att kvalitetssortera redan före torkning. För att kunna göra det måste man veta kur kvaliteten på virket påverkas av mellanlagring mellan såghus och torkhus samt av torkningsprocessen. I detta examensarbete har man studerat vilken inverkan mellanlagringen har på den relativa spricklängden före och efter torkning.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Bergman, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Langeland, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Vidakovic, Aleksandar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Environmental and biodiversity performance of a novel single cell protein for rainbow trout feed2024Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 907, artikkel-id 168018Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood has an important role to play to achieve a sustainable food system that provides healthy food to a growing world population. Future seafood production will be increasingly reliant on aquaculture where feed innovation is essential to reduce environmental impacts and minimize feed and food competition. This study aimed to investigate whether a novel single cell protein feed ingredient based on Paecilomyces variotii grown on a side stream from the forest industry could improve environmental sustainability of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by replacing the soy protein concentrate used today. A Life Cycle Assessment including commonly addressed impacts but also the rarely assessed biodiversity impacts was performed. Furthermore, feeding trials were included for potential effects on fish growth, i.e., an assessment of the environmental impacts for the functional unit ‘kg feed required to produce 1 kg live-weight rainbow trout’. Results showed that the best experimental diet containing P. variotii performed 16–73 % better than the control diet containing soy protein concentrate in all impact categories except for energy demand (21 % higher impact). The largest environmental benefits from replacing soy protein with P. variotii in rainbow trout diets was a 73 % reduction of impact on biodiversity and halved greenhouse gas emissions. The findings have high relevance for the aquaculture industry as the production scale and feed composition was comparable to commercial operations and because the effect on fish growth from inclusion of the novel ingredient in a complete diet was evaluated. The results on biodiversity loss from land use change and exploitation through fishing suggest that fishery can dominate impacts and exclusion thereof can greatly underestimate biodiversity impact. Finally, a novel feed ingredient grown on side streams from the forest industry has potential to add to food security through decreasing the dependence on increasingly scarce agricultural land resources. 

  • 20.
    Bergvall, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Cheah, You Wayne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bernlind, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemiska processer och läkemedel.
    Bernlind, Alexandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemiska processer och läkemedel.
    Olsson, Louise
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Creaser, Derek
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Öhrman, Olov GW
    Preem AB, Sweden.
    Upgrading of fast pyrolysis bio-oils to renewable hydrocarbons using slurry- and fixed bed hydroprocessing2024Inngår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 253, artikkel-id 108009Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass through fast pyrolysis, to yield fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO), is a technique that has been extensively researched in the quest for finding alternatives to fossil feedstocks to produce fuels, chemicals, etc. Properties such as high oxygen content, acidity, and poor storage stability greatly limit the direct use of this bio-oil. Furthermore, high coking tendencies make upgrading of the FPBO by hydrodeoxygenation in fixed-bed bed hydrotreaters challenging due to plugging and catalyst deactivation. This study investigates a novel two-step hydroprocessing concept; a continuous slurry-based process using a dispersed NiMo-catalyst, followed by a fixed bed process using a supported NiMo-catalyst. The oil product from the slurry-process, having a reduced oxygen content (15 wt%) compared to the FPBO and a comparatively low coking tendency (TGA residue of 1.4 wt%), was successfully processed in the downstream fixed bed process for 58 h without any noticeable decrease in catalyst activity, or increase in pressure drop. The overall process resulted in a 29 wt% yield of deoxygenated oil product (0.5 wt% oxygen) from FPBO with an overall carbon recovery of 68%.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Bergvall, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Molinder, Roger
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Continuous Slurry Hydrocracking of Biobased Fast Pyrolysis Oil2021Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 2303-2312Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-refining of fast pyrolysis bio-oil together with fossil oil in existing refinery infrastructure is an attractive and cost-efficient route to conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuel. However, due to large differences in properties between the two oils, special notice is needed to reduce process-related issues. Here, fast pyrolysis bio-oil produced from lignocellulosic biomass was co-refined with vacuum gas oil at a 20:80 weight ratio in continuous operation in a pilot-scale slurry hydrocracker in order to investigate the impact of process parameters on product quality and process performance. Mass balances together with product characterization were used to investigate product yields, product composition, and hydrodeoxygenation. Best conversion and hydrodeoxygenation of the fast pyrolysis bio-oil was achieved using an unsupported catalyst loading of 900 ppm Mo with either a low temperature (410 °C) and long residence time (2 h) or higher temperature (435 °C) and shorter residence time (1 h). These settings resulted in about 94% hydrodeoxygenation but also led to highest yield of biogenic carbon to gas phase (40-43 wt %) and lowest yield of biogenic carbon to oil fractions (53-56 wt %) as well as the water fraction (3-5 wt %). Successfully, coke yield remained low at around 0.07-0.10 wt % for all performed runs, which was comparable to the insoluble particle content in the feed due to the presence of particles in the untreated fast pyrolysis bio-oil. Co-processing pyrolysis oil with fossil oil in a slurry hydrocracker seems to be a robust process with regard to coke formation, which should lead to reduced plugging issues compared to fixed bed hydrotreaters. Although this study gives a brief understanding of the effect of process parameters on the processing of fast pyrolysis bio-oil, further research is required to find optimal process parameters and to fully comprehend the possibilities and limitations for production of transportation fuels from fast pyrolysis bio-oil using this technology.

  • 22.
    Bergvall, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Cheah, Y. W.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhrman, Olov
    Preem Ab, Sweden.
    Slurry Hydroconversion of Solid Kraft Lignin to Liquid Products Using Molybdenum- and Iron-Based Catalysts2022Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 36, nr 17, s. 10226-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft lignin is an abundantly available and largely underutilized renewable material with potential for production of biobased fuels and chemicals. This study reports the results of a series of slurry hydroprocessing experiments with the aim of converting solid Kraft lignin to liquid products suitable for downstream refining in more conventional reactors. Experiments reported in this study were conducted by feeding a lignin slurry to an already hot, liquid-filled reactor to provide momentaneous heating of the lignin to the reaction temperature. This modified batch procedure provided superior results compared to the regular batch experiments, likely since unwanted repolymerization and condensation reactions of the lignin during the heating phase was avoided, and was therefore used for most of the experiments reported. Experiments were performed using both an unsupported Mo-sulfide catalyst and Fe-based catalysts (bauxite and hematite) at varied reaction temperatures, pressures, and catalyst loadings. The use of Mo-sulfide (0.1% Mo of the entire feed mass) at 425 °C and 50 bar resulted in complete conversion of the Kraft lignin to nonsolid products. Very high conversions (>95%) could also be achieved with both sulfided bauxite or hematite at the same temperature and pressure, but this required much higher catalyst loadings (6.25% bauxite or 4.3% hematite of the total feed mass), and around 99% conversion could be achieved at higher temperatures but at the expense of much higher gas yields. Although requiring much higher loadings, the results in this study suggest that comparatively nonexpensive Fe-based catalysts may be an attractive alternative for a slurry-based process aimed at the hydroconversion of solid lignin to liquid products. Possible implementation strategies for a slurry-based hydroconversion process are proposed and discussed. © 2022 The Authors.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Bergvall, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Öhrman, Olov G. W.
    Preem AB, Sweden.
    Corefining of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil with Vacuum Residue and Vacuum Gas Oil in a Continuous Slurry Hydrocracking Process2020Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 34, nr 7, s. 8452-8465Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of renewable raw materials in existing refineries is most likely the shortest way for the successful, large-scale introduction of biofuels in the transport sector in the short term and medium term. One possible renewable raw material for this application is fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO), which in this study has been coprocessed (at 0 and 20 wt %) with vacuum residue (VR, 50 wt %) and vacuum gas oil (VGO, balance) in a continuous, as well as a semibatch, slurry hydrocracking process. Experiments both with and without FPBO were performed at 450°C and 150 bar with a continuous hydrogen flow through the reactor. Oil-soluble molybdenum hexacarbonyl and molybdenum 2-ethylhexanoate were used as catalyst precursors, to be sulfided in situ. The continuous trials resulted in reactor walls completely free of coking, and they resulted in a low overall coke yield (about 1 wt %). The hydrodeoxygenation reached almost 92%, and the total acid number was reduced by nearly 99% in the FPBO experiment A mass balance of the renewable carbon from FPBO, based on the performed experiments, showed that the fossil CO2 emissions can be lowered by 1.35 kg per kg of processed FPBO if all renewable carbon in gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons is used to replace its fossil counterparts, and all methane formed from FPBO is used to produce hydrogen. Semibatch experiments gave less successful results when upgrading FPBO-containing feedstock, with a high coke yield (8 wt %) as well as a high gas yield (24 wt %). The results of this study demonstrate that FPBO can be successfully coprocessed with heavy fossil oils in a continuous slurry hydrocracking process without neg. affecting the processing of the fossil components of the feed and that a continuous process is preferred over batch or semibatch processes when studying coprocessing of bio-oils.

  • 24.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Kotilainen, Oula
    Andritz Oy, Finland.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Lopes, Marta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Design, optimization and modelling of a chemical recovery system for wet spinning of cellulose in sodium carbonate solutions2020Inngår i: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 27, s. 8681-8693Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to present the design, optimization and modelling of a chemical recovery system for a novel CS2-free viscose-type process that entails dissolution of pre-treated dissolving pulp in a continuous-flow reactor in cold alkali and wet spinning of cellulose in sodium carbonate solutions. Technologies already known to other industries for the recovery and reuse of chemicals, such as causticizing, recalcination, recarbonization and freeze-separation, were used. Chemical equilibria simulations were performed with OLI Studio 9.5, with the purpose to select experimental conditions which avoid undesired precipitations in each unit operation. Synthetic solutions mimicking the spent coagulation liquor were used in the laboratorial experiments. The proposed chemical recovery system was shown to be technically feasible and reduce chemical make-ups to a minimum of 45 kg/ton of NaOH and 4 kg/ton of H2SO4. Small amounts of Zn are expected to precipitate during recarbonization of the coagulation liquor at 30 °C and causticizing at 98 °C. Thus, a filter for ZnO particles should be included in the design of the recarbonization unit and a continuous purge of lime mud and input of fresh lime make-up should be needed to keep burnt lime availability at an acceptable level. Overall, the results presented in this study portray a solution to reduce operating costs and the environmental impact of novel viscose-type processes with alkaline spin dopes and wet spinning of cellulose in sodium carbonate solutions. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 25.
    Bostan, Lars
    et al.
    Faserinstitut Bremen E.V, Germany.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Fourné, Renate
    FOURNÉ Maschinenbau GmbH, Germany.
    Herrmann, Axel
    Faserinstitut Bremen E.V, Germany; University of Bremen, Germany.
    Upscaling of lignin precursor melt spinning by bicomponent spinning and its use for carbon fibre production2021Inngår i: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 379, nr 2209, artikkel-id 20200334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Upscaling lignin-based precursor fibre production is an essential step in developing bio-based carbon fibre from renewable feedstock. The main challenge in upscaling of lignin fibre production by melt spinning is its melt behaviour and rheological properties, which differ from common synthetic polymers used in melt spinning. Here, a new approach in melt spinning of lignin, using a spin carrier system for producing bicomponent fibres, has been introduced. An ethanol extracted lignin fraction from LignoBoost process of commercial softwood kraft black liquor was used as feedstock. After additional heat treatment, melt spinning was performed in a pilot-scale spinning unit. For the first time, biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used as a spin carrier to enable the spinning of lignin by improving the required melt strength. PVA-sheath/lignin-core bicomponent fibres were manufactured. Afterwards, PVA was dissolved by washing with water. Pure lignin fibres were stabilized and carbonized, and tensile properties were measured. The measured properties, tensile modulus of 81.1 ± 3.1 GPa and tensile strength of 1039 ± 197 MPa, are higher than the majority of lignin-based carbon fibres reported in the literature. This new approach can significantly improve the melt spinning of lignin and solve problems related to poor spinnability of lignin and results in the production of high-quality lignin-based carbon fibres. This article is part of the theme issue 'Bio-derived and bioinspired sustainable advanced materials for emerging technologies (part 2)'. © 2021 The Author(s).

  • 26. Briceño, G.
    et al.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Diez, M.C.
    Biodegradation of pesticides by Actinobacteria and their possible application in biobed systems.2013Inngår i: Actinobacteria. Application in Bioremediationand production of industrial enzymes., s. 165-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Broberg, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Lindahl, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Tamm, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Potentialstudie för biogassubstrat i Västra Götaland, Halland och Skåne2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of producing biogas by digestion from substrates in Västra Götaland, Halland and Skåne has in this study been estimated to approximately 5 900 GWh per year, of which 2 300 GWh are found in Västra Götaland, 650 GWh in Halland and 3 000 GWh in Skåne. The estimated potential is based on the current amounts of the substrate categories food waste, agricultural residues, manure, sludge from sewage treatment plants and industrial organic residues. For each of the three regions, the largest contributor to the current substrate potential is agricultural residues. This category contributes with approximately 3 900 GWh annually in total for the three regions. However, to be able to fully realize the potential of the agricultural residues there are logistic and technical challenges to be solved. Manure accounts for the second largest contribution to the potential, approximately 1 000 GWh per year for the three regions. The conditions to realize the manure potential are good with national production support in place for this substrate category.

    The study also includes a brief investigation of future substrate categories focused on marine substrates, grass and hay harvesting, industrial wastewater and biological methanation. From the future substrates, a contribution of a total of 3 600 GWh per year will be added to the estimated potential for the three regions. The largest addition is potential biological methanation of the carbon dioxide streams from the total substrate potential from the current categories, approximately 3 000 GWh annually. Thereafter, the largest contributing future substrate category is industrial wastewater. Including the future substrate flows, a total biogas potential of 9 500 GWh per year was estimated for Västra Götaland, Skåne and Halland together. To realize the potential, close cooperation between substrate owners, gas producers and municipalities are needed together as well as a long-term policy landscape.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Massa, papper och förpackningar.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Consequences in a softwood kraft pulp mill of initial high alkali concentration in the impregnation stage2020Inngår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 28-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Impregnation with high initial concentration is fast and efficient, leading to a homogeneous delignification in the subsequent cook, resulting in improved screened pulp yield. To obtain high initial alkali concentration, the white liquor flow needs to be significantly increased. The moisture content of the wood chips and the alkali concentration of the white liquor limit the initial alkali concentration of the impregnation liquor that can be reached. It is therefore of interest to evaluate the possibility to implement high alkali impregnation (HAI) industrially and the consequences this would have on the mill system. The effect of HAI on mass and energy balances in a kraft pulp mill has been studied using mill model simulations. The sensitivity to disturbances in important parameters for process control has been compared to impregnation scenarios used industrially. It was shown that high initial alkali concentration can be achieved on industrial scale by increased white liquor flow. HAI has a positive effect on recovery flows and reduces the need for make-up chemicals. The HAI concept is less sensitive to variations in process parameters, such as chip moisture and white liquor concentration, thus diminishing the risk of alkali depletion in chip cores.

  • 29.
    Bulsink, Philip
    et al.
    Natural Resources Canada, Canada.
    De Miguel Mercader, Ferran
    Scion, New Zealand.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Van De Beld, Bert
    BTG Biomass Technology Group BV, Netherlands.
    Preto, Fernando
    Natural Resources Canada, Canada.
    Zacher, Alan H.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA.
    Oasmaa, Anja
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Dahmen, Nicolaus
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany.
    Funke, Axel
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany.
    Bronson, Benjamin
    Natural Resources Canada, Canada.
    Results of the International Energy Agency Bioenergy Round Robin on the Analysis of Heteroatoms in Biomass Liquefaction Oils2020Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 34, nr 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A round robin study evaluating the analysis of biomass liquefaction oils (BLOs) from fast pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) was performed, receiving data from 14 laboratories in seven countries in order to assess the current status of analytical techniques for the determination of nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine content in BLOs and to evaluate potential differences in origin (i.e., fast pyrolysis versus HTL). The BLOs were produced from a range of feedstocks including pine, mixed softwoods, forest residues, microalgae, miscanthus, and wheat straw to cover a variety in nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine content and speciation. Nine samples were distributed, comprised of eight separate BLOs and one blind duplicate produced by five producers. The samples were analyzed for water, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine content. No analytical test method was mandated; laboratories were encouraged to utilize whichever method they determined would be most applicable, relying on the existing body of BLO literature as a guide. The results of this round robin study are presented in this paper. The results of the carbon, hydrogen, and water measurements as reference analyses had relative standard deviations (2.9, 3.5, and 5.6%, respectively) that were comparable to those found in past round robin studies on fast pyrolysis bio-oil. The analysis of nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine showed higher levels of variability. Laboratories mostly chose the same method for water, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen determination, whereas there were a variety of methods chosen for sulfur and chlorine determination. The results suggest that specific analytical methods for the determination of nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine should be further refined to ensure reproducible and accurate results for BLO analysis due to their importance in emissions, material selection, and catalyst activity.

  • 30.
    Bågenholm-Ruuth, Edvin
    et al.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Sanchis-Sebastiá, Miguel
    ShareTex AB, Sweden.
    Hollinger, Nadine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Teleman, Anita
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Wallberg, Ola
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Transforming post-consumer cotton waste textiles into viscose staple fiber using hydrated zinc chloride2024Inngår i: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 737-748Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of cellulose-based waste textiles are generated every year, yet little is done to recycle this waste. Alternatives such as fiber-to-fiber recycling, where a significant part of the value of the waste textiles is recovered, are attractive possibilities. In this study, we have investigated the viability of using hydrated zinc chloride (ZnCl2·4H2O) as a solvent and swelling agent to convert cotton waste textiles (the most abundant cellulose-based waste textile) into a dissolving pulp that can be used as raw material for the production and spinning of viscose fibers. The solvent produced an accessible dissolving pulp and exhibited excellent recyclability, maintaining good dissolving power even after repeated recycling. The dissolving pulp was subsequently used to produce viscose dope, a spinning solution which was spun and cut into viscose staple fibers. The viscose dope exhibited good properties (moderate filter clogging value and gamma number), and the resulting staple fibers were strong and of good quality (high linear density, elongation, and tenacity). These results illustrate the potential of using hydrated zinc chloride for the production of viscose grade dissolving pulp from cotton waste textiles. 

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    fulltext
  • 31.
    Capanema, Ewellyn
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Balakshin, M. Y.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Kinetics of the oxidative ammonolysis of lignin2021Inngår i: What to Know about Lignin, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , 2021, s. 303-328Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of reaction variables on the oxidative ammonolysis of technical lignins was studied in the range of 0.4-0.8 M NH4OH, reaction temperature of 70 - 130°C, oxygen pressure of 0.5 - 1.2 MPa and pH 9- 12.7. The kinetics of nitrogen incorporation consists of two phases, both of which follow a pseudo-first order reaction law. The reaction is 1st and 0.5 order with respect to oxygen and NH4OH concentration, respectively. The effective activation energy of nitrogen incorporation is rather low, 33-43 kJ/mol. The dependence of the reaction rate on pH of the reaction solution goes through a maximum. Linear correlation between nitrogen incorporation and O-demethylation, CO2 formation, oxygen uptake as well as oxygen incorporation were observed. Structural analyses of the soluble N-modified lignins by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques showed only qualitative differences of the spectra obtained under different reaction conditions indicating that the reaction conditions do not affect the reaction pathways. A scheme of possible reaction mechanisms is postulated based on the experimental results. 

  • 32.
    Cheng, G.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gabler, Florian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Olsson, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Schnürer, A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Microbial community development during syngas methanation in a trickle bed reactor with various nutrient sources2022Inngår i: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 106, s. 5317-5333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial community development within an anaerobic trickle bed reactor (TBR) during methanation of syngas (56% H2, 30% CO, 14% CO2) was investigated using three different nutrient media: defined nutrient medium (241 days), diluted digestate from a thermophilic co-digestion plant operating with food waste (200 days) and reject water from dewatered digested sewage sludge at a wastewater treatment plant (220 days). Different TBR operating periods showed slightly different performance that was not clearly linked to the nutrient medium, as all proved suitable for the methanation process. During operation, maximum syngas load was 5.33 L per L packed bed volume (pbv) &amp; day and methane (CH4) production was 1.26 L CH4/Lpbv/d. Microbial community analysis with Illumina Miseq targeting 16S rDNA revealed high relative abundance (20–40%) of several potential syngas and acetate consumers within the genera Sporomusa, Spirochaetaceae, Rikenellaceae and Acetobacterium during the process. These were the dominant taxa except in a period with high flow rate of digestate from the food waste plant. The dominant methanogen in all periods was a member of the genus Methanobacterium, while Methanosarcina was also observed in the carrier community. As in reactor effluent, the dominant bacterial genus in the carrier was Sporomusa. These results show that syngas methanation in TBR can proceed well with different nutrient sources, including undefined medium of different origins. Moreover, the dominant syngas community remained the same over time even when non-sterilised digestates were used as nutrient medium. Key points: •Independent of nutrient source, syngas methanation above 1 L/Lpbv/D was achieved. •Methanobacterium and Sporomusa were dominant genera throughout the process. •Acetate conversion proceeded via both methanogenesis and syntrophic acetate oxidation. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 33.
    Dahlberg, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Kusoffsky, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Klingberg, Josefine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Testbädd för prefabricerade dagvattenanläggningar2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Test facility for prefabricated storm water treatment devices.

    In Sweden, stormwater management has usually implied release of stormwater into the nearest recipient with no concern for either the levels of contaminants in the water or to the sensitivity of the recipient. The demand for sustainable solutions has increased along with more knowledge concerning stormwater toxicity and the harmful effects it can have on the environment in the long term. New technical solutions for stormwater treatment are continuously being presented on the market, however, independent third-party tests have rarely been conducted to verify the function of these solutions. To choose the right technology for a specific application while ensuring the function over an extended period of time, can therefore be complex task for customers. Likewise, the variety of requirements on treatment efficiency makes in challenging for technology suppliers as there is currently no possibility of independent testing of stormwater treatment devices in Sweden to verify this. As a step towards a more sustainable stormwater management, RISE developed a proposal for a national standard for prefabricated treatment devices within a Vinnova-funded project in 2019. Subsequently, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has financed three follow-up projects where this is the latter of the three. The aim for this project has been to answer the remaining questions and create sufficient knowledge to be able to build the test bed in a next step. During the project, a lot of valuable information has been gathered through interviews, dialogues, a workshop and a survey with actors from both the customer side and the supplier side in Sweden and internationally. The design of the test bed has emerged and is based on the proposed standard and the input that has come along the project. A business model has been developed, where different alternatives have been studied. Based on this, ways forward have been discussed. The conclusions of the project can be summarized by the fact that the need for a clearer definition of requirements for stormwater quality and a national standard for third-party tests of stormwater treatment devices is great both from customers and technology suppliers. Based on the dialogues conducted with international actors, it has emerged that several countries (e.g., Germany and the UK) have come further than Sweden in this area and there is much to be gained from continuing the dialogue and cooperate further on these issues. The business model shows that a mobile facility is preferable, as the area of use can then be broadened and revenues for rent can supplement income from standardized tests. However, this means that only smaller facilities can be evaluated in the facility, which several technology providers have been critical of. One possibility that have been discussed within the project is that larger facilities could be evaluated according to a Swedish standard at an established test bed abroad. For standardized tests, the cost estimate is SEK 200,000 towards the customer, to also get coverage for inactive periods. If the investment cost of the test bed can be financed in another way, for example through national grants, depreciation costs are reduced by approximately SEK 10,000 / week, which contributes to reduced costs per test and rental period. This would give more technology providers the opportunity to perform tests, as well as enable an expanded knowledge building, which would benefit the industry as a whole.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Jonasson, Anna
    E.ON., Sweden.
    Vatten RUI, Marius Haakon
    NOAH.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Tekedo, Sweden.
    Östrem, Sofie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Minimering av vätgasrelaterade risker från avfallseldade CFB-pannor2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns driftparametrar som påverkar reaktiviteten på flygaskan från avfallseldade CFB-pannor. Det finns också goda skäl att tänka ett par varv extra kring säkerhetsfrågor i miljöer där dessa askor kommer i kontakt med, eller har kommit i kontakt med, vatten! Det är tidigare känt att askor från avfallseldade CFB-pannor kan bilda vätgas när de kommer i kontakt med vatten. Det övergripande syftet med projektet har varit att minska de vätgasrelaterade arbetsmiljöriskerna förknippade med dessa flygaskor samt att öka kunskapsnivån kring de vätgasrelaterade riskerna generellt. Projektet har undersökt vilka driftparametrar och mekanismer som kan påverka vätgasbildningen både sett till mängd och hastighet, undersökt mängden metalliskt aluminium i askor/beläggningar i pannan samt att genomfört en grovriskanalys för en tänkt logistikkedja med båt. Undersökningarna har fokuserats till P14 och P15 vid E.ON:s Händelöverk. Resultaten visade bland annat att det i litteraturen finns väldigt lite information direkt relaterad till frågeställningen i CFB-pannor. Istället får slutsatser och teorier byggas kring litteratur som hanterar närliggande frågeställningar i andra miljöer. De experimentella resultaten indikerar att det finns en skillnad i reaktivitet i flygaskan mellan de båda pannorna och att val av bäddmaterial är en driftparameter som tycks kunna påverka reaktiviteten. Vid inblandning av ilmenit i bäddmaterialet tycktes den maximala vätgasbildningen sjunka och/eller bli mer fördröjd i tiden. De övriga driftfall som studerades var: dellast, varierande tillsats av ammoniak i SNCR systemet samt lagring/åldring av aska i NID-filtret (rökgasreningen) när en del av filtret är ur drift. Det finns indikationer på att dessa driftfall också kan ha påverkan, men dataunderlaget är för litet för att med säkerhet fastslå något. Det tycks dock svårt att förutom med bäddmaterial påverka reaktiviteten med bibehållen funktion i driften i övrigt. Ask/beläggningsprover från olika delar av pannorna visade att halten metalliskt aluminium i ekonomiser är fullt jämförbar med de efter NID-filtret och därmed är det stor risk för vätgasbildning vid våt rengöring av dessa delar. God ventilation och utbildningsinsatser för att öka medvetenheten är viktiga rekommendationer för att minska/hantera risken. Slutsatserna från grovriskanalysen logistikkedjan lyfter faran med att generalisera vätgasbildningen från askorna eftersom den varierar så kraftigt. Det är också viktigt att ta hänsyn till att vätgasbildningen kan vara fördröjd och inte initieras förrän askan utsätts för mekanisk bearbetning. Den mekaniska bearbetningen utgör också en risk utifrån att den kan initiera gnistbildning. Denna gnistbildning kan i sin tur agera som tändkälla för bildad gas.

  • 35.
    David, Robert
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Fahrni, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. Zürich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland; .
    Marcolli, Claudia
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mahrt, Fbaian
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland; University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Brühwiler, Dominik
    Zürich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Kanji, Zamin
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    The role of contact angle and pore width on pore condensation and freezing2020Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 20, nr 15, s. 9419-9440Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has recently been shown that pore condensation and freezing (PCF) is a mechanism responsible for ice formation under cirrus cloud conditions. PCF is defined as the condensation of liquid water in narrow capillaries below water saturation due to the inverse Kelvin effect, followed by either heterogeneous or homogeneous nucleation depending on the temperature regime and presence of an ice-nucleating active site. By using sol-gel synthesized silica with well-defined pore diameters, morphology and distinct chemical surface-functionalization, the role of the water-silica contact angle and pore width on PCF is investigated. We find that for the pore diameters (2.2-9.2 nm) and water contact angles (15-78<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ</span>) covered in this study, our results reveal that the water contact angle plays an important role in predicting the humidity required for pore filling, while the pore diameter determines the ability of pore water to freeze. For <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula"><i>T</i>>235</span> K and below water saturation, pore diameters and water contact angles were not able to predict the freezing ability of the particles, suggesting an absence of active sites; thus ice nucleation did not proceed via a PCF mechanism. Rather, the ice-nucleating ability of the particles depended solely on chemical functionalization. Therefore, parameterizations for the ice-nucleating abilities of particles in cirrus conditions should differ from parameterizations at mixed-phase clouds conditions. Our results support PCF as the atmospherically relevant ice nucleation mechanism below water saturation when porous surfaces are encountered in the troposphere. © Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  • 36.
    de Morais Lima, Priscila
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Strand, L.
    Hushållningssällskapet, Sweden.
    Björs, M.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Pantelopoulos, A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Farmers’ perceptions on organic fertilisers towards circularity–a case study in Sweden2024Inngår i: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, ISSN 0906-4710, E-ISSN 1651-1913, Vol. 74, nr 1, artikkel-id 2290247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adequate treatment of organic manures and digestates from livestock production should reduce environmental impacts and provide well-defined and attractive biofertlisers for a crop production market, which can promote the closure of the nutrient cycle in agriculture. In this sense, a survey was conducted during the autumn of 2021 to investigate Swedish farmers’ perspectives on organic fertilisers use. The survey consisted of an online questionnaire, which was distributed broadly in the social media, homepages, different types of networks and at course events in order to reach all types of farms. There were 22 questions focused on current use, reasons for current use and preferences for future use. The analysis of the 99 fully responded surveys, demonstrated that 43% of the respondents think that they will increase their use of organic fertilisers in the coming 5–10 years and 60% think that they will use manure digestate in different forms (both solid and liquid fractions). Soil improvement was the main reason to use organic fertilisers, but there were also preferences for organic fertilisers with fast release of nutrients. The risk of soil compaction was the main reason not to use organic fertilisers and based on the responses, pellets and granulates seem to be more interesting than liquids and solids in general. Animal manures dominate the current use of organic fertilisers in Sweden however, other types of organic waste such as digestate and digestate derived fertilisers seems appealing to Swedish farmers. In conclusion, from this survey with 62% of the respondees in crop production, we found several indications of that there is a potential for increased use of organic fertilisers in Sweden on farms with limited use today. We found an openness, a broad interest and a demand for different types of products of different forms and origin. Since this demand in the end will almost always depend on the price of products in relation to the price of mineral fertilisers, which are fluctuating, we see the need of policy incentives in order to stimulate initiatives for the development towards increased circularity of nutrients. 

  • 37.
    del Pilar Castillo, Maria
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Nilsson, Eskil
    Inventering av biobäddar i Sverige 2013.: Sammanställning av enkätundersökning genomförd vid behörighetsutbildningar för växtskyddsmedel 2010-20122013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 38.
    Deshpande, R.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Sundvall, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Grundberg, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Lawoko, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Henriksson, G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lignin carbohydrate complex studies during kraft pulping for producing paper grade pulp from birch2020Inngår i: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 19, nr 9, s. 447-460Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper grade pulp production across the globe is dominated by the kraft process using different lig-nocellulosic raw materials. Delignification is achieved around 90% using different chemical treatments. A bottleneck for complete delignification is the presence of residual covalent bonds that prevail between lignin and carbohydrate even after severe chemical pulping and oxygen delignification steps. Different covalent bonds are present in native wood that sustain drastic pulping conditions. In this study, 100% birch wood was used for producing paper grade pulp, and the lignin carbohydrate bonds were analyzed at different stages of the kraft cook. The lignin carbohydrate bonds that were responsible for residual lignin retention in unbleached pulp were compared and analyzed with the original lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds in native birch wood. It was shown that lignin remaining after pulping and oxygen delignification was mainly bound to xylan, whereas the lignin bound to glucomannan was for the most part degraded. Application: One central problem for the pulp and paper industry is efficiency in delignification during the chemical pulping and bleaching processes. It has been believed that one limiting factor is the covalent bonds between lignin and polysaccharides. We present data on presence of such LCC bonds in paper grade birch pulp and its development during the processes. Hopefully, this research data will be useful for the development of more effi-cient processes. 

  • 39.
    Dimitriadis, Athanasios
    et al.
    CPERI & CERTH, Greece.
    Bergvall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Bezergianni, Stella
    CPERI & CERTH, Greece.
    Tourlakidis, Nikos
    CPERI & CERTH, Greece.
    Meca, Ludek
    Ranido sro, Czech Republic.
    Kukula, Pavel
    Ranido sro, Czech Republic.
    Raymakers, Leonard
    HyET Hydrogen BV, Netherlands.
    Biomass conversion via ablative fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing towards refinery integration: Industrially relevant scale validation2023Inngår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 332, artikkel-id 126153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the use of fossil fuels is an ongoing and important effort considering the environmental impact and depletion of fossil-based resources. The combination of ablative fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing is explored as a pathway allowing bio-based intermediates (BioMates) integration in underlying petroleum refineries. The proposed technology is validated in industrially relevant scale, identifying pros and cons towards its commercialization. Straw from wheat, rye and barley was fed to ablative fast pyrolysis rendering Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil (FPBO) as the main product. The FPBO was stabilized via slurry hydroprocessing, rendering a stabilized FPBO (sFPBO) with 49 % reduced oxygen content, 71 % reduced carbonyl content and 49 % reduced Conradson carbon residue. Fixed bed catalytic hydroprocessing of sFPBO resulted in the production of BioMates, a high bio-content product to be co-fed in established refinery units. Compared to the starting biomass, BioMates has 83.6 wt% C content increase, 92.5 wt% O content decrease, 93.0 wt% water content decrease, while the overall technology has 20 wt% conversion yield (32 wt% carbon yield) from biomass to BioMates. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 40.
    Dixit, Pooja
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Patel, Anil Kumar
    Uttar Pradesh, India; National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
    Singhania, Reeta Rani
    Uttar Pradesh, India; National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
    Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases: Production and Applications2024Inngår i: Biomass Hydrolyzing Enzymes: Basics, Advancements, and Applications, CRC Press , 2024, s. 86-97Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The discovery of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) as a cellulase component has brought a significant revolution to the enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. LPMOs are powerful oxidative enzymes which can cleave glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides, such as starch, cellulose, xylan and chitin. The mechanism of action and analysis of LPMOs is complex due to which its discovery has been delayed even though its other counterparts as cellulase components have been known for some time. Their significance in biomass hydrolysis is presented in this chapter along with details of the mechanism of action and determination methods associated with complexities and future avenues. The addition of LPMOs can further reduce cellulase cost in enzyme cocktails of enzyme manufacturers, which has increased the rate of hydrolysis by more than twofold. 

  • 41.
    Donev, E. N.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Derba-Maceluch, M.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Gandla, M. L.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Pramod, S.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Heinonen, E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kumar, V.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Vilaplana, F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, U.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hertzberg, M.
    SweTree Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Sundberg, B.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Winestrand, S.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hörnberg, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Jönsson, L. J.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Mellerowicz, E. J.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Field testing of transgenic aspen from large greenhouse screening identifies unexpected winners2023Inngår i: Plant Biotechnology Journal, ISSN 1467-7644, E-ISSN 1467-7652, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 1005-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Trees constitute promising renewable feedstocks for biorefinery using biochemical conversion, but their recalcitrance restricts their attractiveness for the industry. To obtain trees with reduced recalcitrance, large-scale genetic engineering experiments were performed in hybrid aspen blindly targeting genes expressed during wood formation and 32 lines representing seven constructs were selected for characterization in the field. Here we report phenotypes of five-year old trees considering 49 traits related to growth and wood properties. The best performing construct considering growth and glucose yield in saccharification with acid pretreatment had suppressed expression of the gene encoding an uncharacterized 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2OGD). It showed minor changes in wood chemistry but increased nanoporosity and glucose conversion. Suppressed levels of SUCROSE SYNTHASE, (SuSy), CINNAMATE 4-HYDROXYLASE (C4H) and increased levels of GTPase activating protein for ADP-ribosylation factor ZAC led to significant growth reductions and anatomical abnormalities. However, C4H and SuSy constructs greatly improved glucose yields in saccharification without and with pretreatment, respectively. Traits associated with high glucose yields were different for saccharification with and without pretreatment. While carbohydrates, phenolics and tension wood contents positively impacted the yields without pretreatment and growth, lignin content and S/G ratio were negative factors, the yields with pretreatment positively correlated with S lignin and negatively with carbohydrate contents. The genotypes with high glucose yields had increased nanoporosity and mGlcA/Xyl ratio, and some had shorter polymers extractable with subcritical water compared to wild-type. The pilot-scale industrial-like pretreatment of best-performing 2OGD construct confirmed its superior sugar yields, supporting our strategy. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 42.
    Ekman Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Gomez Barrio, Laura
    Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ireland; Technological University Dublin, Ireland.
    Cabral, Eduarda
    Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ireland; .
    Tiwari, Brijesh
    Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ireland; .
    Life cycle assessment of a seaweed-based biorefinery concept for production of food, materials, and energy2022Inngår i: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 65, artikkel-id 102725Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Blue Economy is seen as an essential contributor to a sustainable development, and it is an important part of the EU Green Deal. Seaweed plays a key role in the Blue Economy as a source of food, feed, and feedstock for biorefineries. Today, the largest part of global seaweed production is based in Asia, but there is also a growing interest in seaweed production in Europe. However, more knowledge on the environmental impacts is needed to ensure sustainable growth of the sector. Seaweed can be used in biorefineries to produce a variety of products for food and non-food applications. The aim of this paper was to perform a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a seaweed value-chain, including seaweed cultivation and production into sodium alginate, biodegradable materials, biogas, and fertilizer in a biorefinery setting. The LCA included 19 environmental impact categories but focused on climate change. The seaweed Saccharina latissima was cultivated and processed in Ireland. Sodium alginate was then extracted by means of ultrasound-assisted extraction, a novel extraction technology. Cellulosic residues produced after the extraction were used for the production of films used as a packaging material. Residues that remain after the production of the films were sent to anaerobic digestion to achieve a no-waste concept. For seaweed cultivation, fuel use and drying of seaweed biomass were the main environmental hot spots; and for the alginate extraction process, the yield and purification after extraction were the main hot spots. Overall, the results of this paper showed that the seaweed-based biorefinery has the potential to be sustainable, but several improvements are necessary before it is competitive with land-based systems. © 2022 The Authors

  • 43.
    Englund, Maja
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ljung, Emelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner - en kunskapssammanställning2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Källsorterande avloppssystem kan minska utsläpp av läkemedelsrester till akvatiska miljöer och möjliggör samtidigt kretslopp av näringsämnen. Kunskapen om läkemedels-förekomst i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner är dock delvis bristfällig, liksom kunskapen om vilken reducerande effekt som erhålls i de behandlings- och hanteringsprocesser som används för dessa fraktioner idag. Även kunskapen om vad som händer i miljön är begränsad vad gäller upptag i växter, nedbrytning, transport och spridning.

    Syftet med projektet var att samla den kunskap som finns och den forskning som pågår relaterad till läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner i Sverige och internationellt, för att identifiera prioriterade frågeställningar framåt. Projektet syftade även till att beskriva hur behandling av avloppsfraktioner från källsorterande avloppssystem påverkar halterna av läkemedelsrester i slutprodukten.

    Projektet genomfördes utifrån en litteraturstudie med fokus på genomförda och pågående studier/forskning relaterad till läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner globalt. Inga analyser har genomförts inom projektet. De data över innehåll av läkemedelssubstanser i obehandlade och behandlade fraktioner som redovisas är hämtade från tidigare genomförda studier. Förutsättningarna för studier kring läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner varierar, vilket försvårar möjligheten att jämföra resultat och dra slutsatser kring innehåll och reduktion av läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner.

    De flesta studier behandlar urin. Merparten av behandlingsmetoderna för urin är utförda i labbskala medan studier på klosettavloppsvatten är gjorda på anläggningar som är i drift idag. För latrin har endast en studie som behandlar läkemedel hittats.

    Olika behandlingsmetoder fungerar olika bra på olika typer av läkemedelssubstanser. För urin har tester utförts med många olika behandlingstekniker. Av de som beaktats i denna studie är det endast ozon och UV-ljus som har en bred effekt och som till störst del reducerar de flesta läkemedelssubstanser som har analyserats i urin. För klosettavloppsvatten har tre behandlingsmetoder studerats. Ingen av metoderna reducerade alla läkemedel, men behandling med UASB-reaktor gav en god reduktion då de flesta läkemedel som analyserats reducerades till ca 60 %. För latrin påverkades de flesta läkemedel varken av mesofil eller termofil rötning.

    De flesta studierna kring läkemedelssubstanser i miljön har fokus på akvatiska system och informationen om hur substanserna beter sig i marken är begränsade – både vad gäller nedbrytning samt läkemedelsinnehåll i växande gröda. Inom dessa områden behövs mer forskning.

    Läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner är ett komplext område där flera kunskapsluckor finns och där mer forskning behövs. Förhoppningsvis bidrar denna sammanställning till en översiktlig bild av hur det kan se ut, vilken kunskap som finns inom området samt förenklar beslut och prioritering av framtida forskning.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Fjäll, Stephanie
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Olsson, J
    Edström, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Westlin, Hugo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    CASE STUDY ON SUSTAINABLE AND SELF-SUFFINCENT AGRICULTURE: INTEGRATING GRASS BIOREFINERY, ANEROBIC DIGESTION AND HYDROTHERMAL LIQUEFACTION2023Inngår i: Proc of EUBCE 2023, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2023, s. 533-539Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The agricultural industry plays a crucial role in transitioning towards a sustainable and fossil-free future. This article explores the potential of biorefineries using biomass from agriculture to reduce emissions and promote self sufficiency. Regarding a concept that integrated anaerobic digestion, grass and legume protein production, and hydrothermal liquefaction. A case study was conducted in the southwestern part of Sweden, involving interviews with a biogas plant and local farmers. The study analyzed the utilization of input goods in agriculture and evaluated the potential of biomass in the area. To assess the potential for farms to become self-sufficient in fuel, protein feed, and plant nutrients. The results show an overall positive outlook of the biorefinery concept. By utilizing 20% of the available biomass in the area can the biorefinery concept annually produce 100 GWh of biogas, 3800 tonnes of grass and legume protein concentrate and 1200 GWh bio-oil. This could theoretically cover 100 % of the need of soy meal, 44% for nitrogen, 50% for phosphorus and 100% for potassium.

  • 45.
    Fooladgar, Ehsan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Brackmann, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mannazhi, Manu
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ögren, Yngve
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Bengtsson, Per-Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Tóth, Pal
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. University of Miskolc, Hungary.
    CFD modeling of pyrolysis oil combustion using finite rate chemistry2021Inngår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 299, artikkel-id 120856Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the first Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model developed for biomass pyrolysis oil spray combustion using Finite-Rate Chemistry (FRC) approach. To make the CFD calculations feasible, a reduced mechanism for modeling the combustion of biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (FPO) based on the POLIMI 1412 mechanism and a model for eugenol oxidation was developed. The reduced mechanism consisted of 200 reactions and 71 species. This level of complexity was found to be a good tradeoff between predictive power and computational cost such that the reduced model could be used in CFD modeling. The predictive power of the reduced mechanism was demonstrated via 0D (adiabatic, premixed, constant pressure reactor), 1D (laminar counterflow flame) and 3D (CFD of a methane-air flat-flame piloted FPO spray flame) calculations. Results from CFD were compared against experimental data from non-intrusive optical diagnostics. The reduced model was successfully used in CFD calculations—the computational cost was approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of a simplified model. Using the reduced mechanism, the concentration of pollutants, minor combustion products, and flame radicals could be predicted—this is added capability compared to already existing models. The CFD model using the reduced mechanism showed quantitative predictive power for major combustion products, flame temperature, some pollutants and temperature, and qualitative predictive power for flame radicals and soot. © 2021 The Authors

  • 46.
    Gao, Wenxuan
    et al.
    AEPI Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, China.
    Liang, Junfeng
    AEPI Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, China.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Feng, Xin Mei
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Zhang, Keqiang
    AEPI Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, China.
    Castillo, Maria del Pilar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Evaluation of spent mushroom substrate as substitute of peat in Chinese biobeds2015Inngår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 98, s. 107-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biobeds are an effective system for minimising the risk of point-source contamination by pesticides. The original biobed system comprises a clay layer at the bottom, a biomixture layer and a grass layer on top. The composition of the biomixture, which in the original Swedish model consisted of soil: peat: wheat straw (1:1:2 by volume), determines the efficiency of the system. Since the use of peat is not environmentally or economically feasible in China, this study tested the potential of replacing it with a locally available material, spent mushroom substrate (SMS). Three biomixtures containing different SMS (Pleurotus eryngii, Flammulina velutipes and Lentinus edodes) were compared with a biomixture containing peat, as in the original Swedish design, and a control containing soil alone. The fungicide chlorothalonil and the insecticide imidacloprid were used as model pesticides in the tests. Microbial activity (measured as respiration and phenoloxidase and hydrolytic activity) and pesticide dissipation were studied. Microbial activity was higher in the three biomixtures containing SMS than in the original-type biomixture. Among the SMS biomixtures, that containing SMS from L.edodes was the most biologically active. However, pesticide dissipation was comparable in all four biomixtures and significant differences were only found between biomixtures and the soil-alone control. Based on the physicochemical characteristics, biological activity and preliminary results on pesticide degradation, SMS are suitable and can therefore be used as a substitutes for peat.

  • 47.
    Gond, Ritambhara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Asfaw, Habtom
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Naylor, Andrew
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A Lignosulfonate Binder for Hard Carbon Anodes in Sodium-Ion Batteries: A Comparative Study2021Inngår i: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 9, nr 37, s. 12708-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An important factor in the development of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) is the use of cheap and sustainable materials. Sodium lignosulfonate, a lignin derivative, is demonstrated here as an attractive, "green", water-soluble, and potentially cost-effective binder for use in hard carbon anodes for SIBs. A comparison of its battery cycling performance is made against other binders including sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and lignin, obtained from the kraft process, as well as sodium alginate, derived from algae. Apart from lignin, which requires processing in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, the other three binders are water-soluble. Lignosulfonate shows comparable or better performance, with high capacity retention and stability, when using 1 M NaPF6 in propylene carbonate or ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate electrolytes for both half- and full-cells (against a Prussian white cathode). Further improvements are observed when including styrene-butadiene rubber as a co-binder. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates similar solid electrolyte interphase compositions after the initial sodium insertion for both lignosulfonate and carboxymethyl cellulose binders. However, after subsequent cycling, the surface layer composition and thickness are found to be dependent on the binder. For the lignosulfonate-based electrode, the layer appears thicker but comprises a smaller fraction of carbon-oxygen species. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 48.
    Granlund, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Lindh, E. Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Malou Petersson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Evaluation of Snow Removal Methods for Rooftop Photovoltaics2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Avoiding snow on photovoltaic (PV) installations is motivated for two reasons: to decrease power losses from shading, or to decrease mechanical loads to avoid damage to the PV-installation and the underlying construction. We experimentally investigated the effectiveness and suitability of four different snow removal methods at our facility in the north of Sweden (Piteå, 65°N), throughout three winters. The layout of a PV installation and the underlying roof, together with meteorological conditions and snow characteristics, impact which methods are best suited for snow removal. A simple roof rake with a rectangular toolhead works well when the snowpack is compact and not too thick, whereas a roof rake with a slide works better when the snow is dry and packed. Neither the investigated passive hydrophobic surface coatings, nor the active forward bias electrical heating methods induced shedding of the accumulated snowpack in our experiments without additional intervention. At our test facility in Piteå, the roof rake with a slide was the most effective and user-friendly snow removal. Despite maximum snow loads of approximately 1 kPa, far below the modules’ rating, cell damage was observed for both snow removal groups (except for the slide roof rake group) and the control group.

  • 49.
    Granlund, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Malou Petersson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Sundström, Josefin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Narvesjö, Jimmy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Lindh, E. Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Evaluation of Local Conditions and Their Impact on Bifacial PV Performance at High Latitude2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Different conditions such as module orientation, ground albedo, shading and latitude are known to affect the performance of bifacial photovoltaic modules. We evaluate bifacial performance for one year at a site located at 65°N through comparison of measured and simulated front and back side plane-of-array irradiation. Each investigated module has a different azimuth, tilt, and exposure to shading from the surroundings. Local shading is found to severely impact the energy yield of the site in general, and individual modules to a varying degree depending on their location and orientation. Proper shading analysis appears to be required in the planning phase of a bifacial photovoltaic installation to accurately calculate the expected energy yield. The bifacial gain of the modules with azimuths in the east–west sector is found to span a range from 16 % to approximately the bifaciality factor, depending on the orientation. To fully utilize the potential of bifacial photovoltaics, this variability also needs to be carefully considered when planning and building bifacial photovoltaic installations.

  • 50.
    Gulshan, Samina
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shafaghat, Hoda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Yang, Hanmin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Performance analysis and production of aromatics for ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of engineered WEEE2024Inngår i: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 179, artikkel-id 106510Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of engineered waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) was conducted in a two-stage reactor using HZSM-5 catalyst. The effect of the catalysis temperature and the catalyst-to-feedstock (C/F) ratio on products yield, gas and oil composition, and products characterization were investigated in this study. Results indicated that lower reforming temperature and C/F ratio favored organic fractions production. The highest yield of organic fraction was obtained at a catalysis temperature of 450 °C and at a C/F ratio of 0.15, corresponding to 28.5 and 27.4 wt %, respectively. The highest selectivity toward aromatic hydrocarbons and the lowest TAN value of the organic fraction were obtained at a catalysis temperature of 450 °C and a C/F ratio of 0.2, respectively. Most of the alkali and transition metals and 23 % of Br remained in the solid residue after the catalytic pyrolysis of low-grade electronic waste (LGEW). 

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