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  • 1.
    Aalberg, Asbjørn Lein
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Holen, Siri Mariane
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Læring etter branner i Norge – forutsetninger, barrierer og fremmende faktorer2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denne rapporten presenterer resultater fra et prosjekt som er utført av Fire Research and Innovation Centre - FRIC fra 2020 til 2022. Første versjon av rapporten ble publisert på engelsk i mars 2022. Denne norske versjonen er oversatt av SINTEF Digital og RISE Fire Research i samarbeid. En spesiell takk til Caroline Kristensen for arbeidet med oversettelsen. Rapporten er også oppdatert på enkelte punkter, uten at fokus og konklusjoner skal være endret.

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  • 2.
    Aalberg, Asbjørn Lein
    et al.
    SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Holen, Siri Mariane
    SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne Elise
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Preconditions for Learning from Fires in Norway: Structural, Cultural, Technological, Interactional and Relational Aspects2021In: Proceedings of the 31st European Safety and Reliability Conference, 2021, p. 1747-1754Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning from incidents is widely accepted as a core part of safety management. This is also true for fires – however few fires in Norway are investigated. Fires are interesting incidents conceptually due to their potential of devastating outcomes on material and human lives and because they happen across all sectors and industries, businesses, and homes. In Norway, several different actors play a role in investigating and learning from fires, from the fire rescue services to directorates and Non-Governmental Organisations. The present study seeks to understand the preconditions for learning from fires in Norway, with emphasis on the formal actors that play a role in preventing and mitigating fires. Methodologically, the study is based on qualitative interviews conducted with relevant actors from first responders, authorities, and other sectors. We found that there are structural, cultural, technological, and relational aspects that seem to influence learning from fires in Norway. The results were analyzed using thematic analysis and the Pentagon model framework. The findings are discussed in relation to theories from organisational learning and learning from incidents.

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  • 3.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sanfeliu Melia, Cristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Erfaringer med mobile vanntåkeanlegg installert i boliger2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences regarding personal protection water mist systems installed in dwellings. Personal protection water mist systems can produce a water mist that can cool down and limit a fire in a small area in a dwelling. The system is equipped with sensitive detectors which can activate the system in the early stages of the fire and limit the fire spread, and in some cases extinguish the fire. This gives more time for evacuation, which can be especially important for vulnerable people with risk factors, like impaired cognitive and physical functioning. The goal of this study has been to map the experiences in Norway regarding personal protection water mist systems, considering how the municipalities have experienced the work related to the systems and whether the systems have activated and saved lives. This will shed light upon whether mobile water mist systems are appropriate measures for vulnerable people in the society, and the risk factors that determine whether the measure is appropriate or not. This study has used literature studies, questionnaires, and interviews to map the experiences of personal protection water mist systems in Norway. The results showed that personal protection water mist systems installed in Norwegian dwellings have been activated in connection with fire outbreaks, and thus limited or extinguished the fire. This has saved lives on several occasions and reduced the damage potential. There are many people who have risk factors that make it appropriate to install a mobile water mist system in their home, but there are also exceptions. The risk factors that indicate that it is beneficial to install mobile water mist systems in Norwegian dwellings are - Impaired cognitive abilities - Impaired physical abilities - Drug and alcohol problems - Smoking - Living alone The systems are particularly suitable when several of the risk factors are present at the same time. It was also shown that personal protection water mist systems are not suitable for mobile people who spend time in several places in the home and are therefore often outside the system's coverage area. Personal protection water mist systems are not recommended for people who may have the potential to sabotage the system. In questionnaires and interviews, it emerged that there are big differences between how Norwegian municipalities work with assigning, installing, operating, and maintaining personal protection water mist systems. In larger municipalities, there are more people who rely on routines and formal processes for the work, and there is therefore a greater proportion of the larger municipalities who distribute the facilities out to individuals than in the small municipalities where the work is more characterised by informal routines and personal relations. 3 Based on the results from this study, it is our opinion that the following aspects should be covered by future work: • Need for a new and updated cost-benefit analysis for personal protection water mist systems. • Need for a better statistical basis for assessment of the personal protection water mist systems. • Need for a Norwegian test standard for personal protection water mist systems. • Need for clear guidelines for assignment, procurement, installing, operation, and maintenance of personal protection water mist systems.

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  • 4.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandt, Are W
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Review of efficient manual fire extinguishing methods and equipment for the fire service2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The late 90s and the early 2000s was a period with relative extensive research and innovation in the area of manual fire extinguishing methods and equipment for the fire service. New equipment such as the cutting extinguisher and extinguishing spears allowed to conduct offensive attacks from the exterior of a building, reducing the exposure of fire fighters to fire and smoke and their associated risks in general. This led to the development of new firefighting tactics, as for example the Quadrant Model of the Dutch fire service, which extends the “traditional” offensive interior attack and defensive exterior attack by the offensive exterior attack and defensive interior attack.Recently the research focus has furthermore increasingly shifted to environmental aspects, such as the water consumption and effect of additives (i.e., foam) on humans and the environment. Extinguishing with smaller amounts of water is beneficial for the environment, reduces water damage and lowers the burden on the water delivery system.ConclusionIn conclusion, the systems most relevant to be further tested in a fire situation in a small house or dwelling are the cutting extinguisher and the extinguishing spear.These systems are different in operation but have both shown to be promising with regard to fulfilling the different objectives of the overall project. Being relatively easy to utilize with the right training during internal extinguishing efforts executed from the outside of the building, and being only water based to minimize contamination, due to lower water consumption, of the surrounding areas give these systems advantages over conventional equipment.Especially if the systems are used in combination with an IR camera to locate the fire, the extinguishing efforts can be started early and effectively, and the water amount needed to control the fire may be reduced. The need for firefighters with breathing apparatus is reduced as well, hence reducing the smoke exposure to firefighters.The fact that the fire service also recognizes the potential of using these systems early in the extinguishing efforts, and is working on implementing them, prompts the need for scientific backup.

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  • 5.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Rønning, Birger
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Sikkerhetsbehov for kullgriller i restauranter2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The RISE report 2019:04 «Charcoal and wood burning ovens in restaurants – Fire safety and documentation requirements» [1] investigated regulations and documental demands tied to charcoal and wood burning ovens in restaurants in Norway. A part of the conclusion in this report emphasized the need for, through physical testing, mapping whether existing test standards covers the safety requirements of charcoal ovens in restaurants. NS-EN 13240:2001 «Roomheaters fired with solid fuel. Requirements and test methods» [2] was chosen as a relevant test standard. Three test ovens (a closed test oven, a dummy oven and an open test oven) was produced at RISE Fire Research. Their construction with regard to insulation capabilities, materials and dimensions was based on existing charcoal ovens placed on the Norwegian marked. This was done to achieve an objective depiction of the issue, without the need for a specific brand of ovens. Restaurant oven charcoal was utilized to achieve as real heat development as possible in the test ovens. The test layout is based on NS-EN 12340:2001, with a test rigg constructed of two «safety walls», ceiling and floor attached with thermocouples. Temperatures from the test oven are registered in the safety walls at several positions according to a standardised grid, and in the ceiling and the floor each have one single measurement position measuring warmest point. Thermocouples in the chimney and exhaust duct measured the flue gas temperatures transported to the exhaust system. Four different tests were conducted, where the first one was a standardized safety test including the closed oven model. The second test was the same safety test setup with the dummy oven besides the closed oven. The dummy contained a built-in propane burner to simulate the heat load from a real oven. The purpose was to simulate two ovens placed next to each other. The third test was an overload test on the closed test oven with 150 % fuel load and higher refuelling frequency. The last test was a test of the open test oven. The safety test method described in NS-EN 13240:2001 is suitable to test the level of stable maximal temperature in the surrounding combustible materials, in the same way as for roomheaters, which the method is designed for. The method addresses safety aspects such as surface temperatures and handles on the oven. Tests show that the temperatures developed in the ovens have the potential to breech the temperature criterion given by the test standard, and therefore contribute to the ignition of surrounding combustible materials. Such situations pose a fire risk and safety measures regarding this aspect must be documented by the producer. NS-EN13240:2001 does not cover temperatures for exhaust duct and the production of sparks and their possible spread to combustible materials. These are important safety aspects which must be addressed when documenting the fire safety of restaurant grills. Tests show that sparks are created in the oven, including from restaurant charcoal fuel, and are transported into the exhaust duct, and out through the opening of the grill door. Together with high flue gas temperatures in the exhaust duct and deposits of soot and cooking oil this pose a fire risk. Documentation must therefore be presented, showing that the oven is equipped with measures (for instance spark screen) which guards the exhaust duct from sparks to a satisfactory degree. Operators of the oven must receive adequate training and must operate the closed oven with caution, as to avoid incidents with sparks being released though the door. The placement of ovens next to each other does not seem to increase the heat load on surrounding walls but may lead to increased temperatures in between the ovens. The consequences of temperature increases must be documented. Tests show that overloading with fuel and intensifying the refuelling intervals can lead to increased temperatures in the oven, which can affect materials and welding seams. Overloading can also affect the temperatures towards surrounding walls and exhaust ducts and therefore may affect fire safety negatively. NS-EN 13240:2001 requires the producer to documents how the oven is constructed and of what materials, and that the welding seams are dimensioned for the materials used. It is recommended that the producer documents the safety level of the oven materials with an overload test. It must also be documented that the exhaust ducts in which the flue gas are transported are constructed to handle the potential temperatures that can arise, including erroneous use.

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  • 6.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    LEARNING FROM FIRE INCIDENTS : Analysis of a devastating fire in a building with municipal housing in Norway2022In: Proceedings of the 32nd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2022), 2022, p. 1156-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an analysis of a fire in a municipal apartment building used as housing for people with challenges connected to drug addiction. The fire took place in Norway 7th of August 2021. The incident happened during the night and the fire was spreading quickly and intensely via the external wooden balconies. The combination of risk factors both connected to the fire development and the characteristics of the occupants raises the potential for fire fatalities. This analysis seeks to understand why the fire spread with such a speed, and how everyone in the building survived without injuries. The analysis identified both technical and human factors that may help to answer these questions. The findings suggest that there were deficiencies connected to the technical fire safety design that if improved could have reduced the fire damage. Factors promoting the fire spread and fire intensity include the choice of wood material used in the construction of the balconies, no sprinkler system installed on the balconies and a large fire load on the balconies caused by the occupants’ tendency to accumulate possessions on the balconies. Factors contributing to the outcome of no injuries or fatalities included occupants being awake during these late hours, and the strong social network between them. Such a network should be seen as a positive factor regarding robustness against fire and should be encouraged.

  • 7.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olsen, Vegard E
    Multiconsult, Norway.
    Hermansen, Anna-Karin
    TBRT, Norway.
    Hermansen, Arild
    TBRT, Norway.
    Log, Torgrim
    Gassco, Norway.
    Opstad, Kristen K
    NTNU, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne C
    HVL, Norway.
    Analyse av brann i kommunalt boligbygg i Bergen 7. august 20212023Report (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Abbasi, A
    et al.
    NKT HV Cables AB, Sweden.
    Castellon, J
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Cavallini, A
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Esterl, F
    TU Berlin, Germany.
    Götz, T
    TU Dresden, Germany.
    Kharezy, Mohammad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Markalous, S
    Megger, Germany.
    Neuhold, S
    FKH, Switzerland.
    Pietsch, R
    Highvolt, Germany.
    Pirker, A
    TU Graz, Austria.
    Plath, R
    TU Berlin, Germany.
    Riechert, U
    ABB Ltd, Switzerland.
    Rossner, M
    Hochschule Coburg, Germany.
    Seltzer- Grant, M
    HVPD Ltd, UK.
    Frietsche, R
    Siemens AG, Germany.
    Geissler, M
    Siemens AG, Germany.
    Kosse, M
    Siemens AG, Germany.
    Reuter, M
    Siemens AG, Germany.
    Hockbruckner, B
    Hochschule Würzburg-Schweinfurt, Germany.
    Kuchler, A
    Hochschule Würzburg-Schweinfurt, Germany.
    Progress on Partial Discharge Detectionunder DC Voltage Stress2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection and evaluation of partial discharges (PD) is important for quality assurance and diagnosis ofelectrical insulation systems. With increasing use of DC voltages in electrical transmission and distributionsystems, the field of PD under DC voltage stress needs to be further investigated.CIGRE Working Group D1.63 was approved for start in May 2015, where available knowledge and experiencein particular concerning the field distribution in insulation systems used in DC voltage systems, and thephysical processes of the PD phenomena under DC voltage stress should be reviewed. In order of guidingto meaningful procedures for DC PD measurements of HV equipment thorough understanding of i) thedifferences of PD behaviour between AC and DC with respect to the physical process and ii) influencingfactors of operating conditions (as e.g. polarization, temperature etc.) of different insulation systems underDC stress and respective effects on PD phenomena had to be examined.

  • 9.
    Abdollahi, Elnaz
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Hamon, Camille
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Potential profits from ancillary service markets2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this deliverable from the SeCoHeat project, profits that can be made with 1 MWh of electricity production capacity on existing ancillary service markets are evaluated in 2020 and 2021. Profits are evaluated for four different marginal production costs corresponding to the following fuels for a CHP power plant: waste (assumed fuel price: 0 kr/MWh), recycled wood (10 kr/MWh), wood chips (20 kr/MWh) and wood pellets (30 kr/MWh). The results show that except for wood chips and wood pellets in 2020, the most profitable ancillary service markets are FFR (fast-frequency response) and aFRR down (automatic frequency restoration reserves for down-regulation). The reasons are that (1) producers don’t have to withhold capacity from the day-ahead market when their participate in these two markets and (2) producers get compensated for the capacity reserved for the ancillary service markets. For wood chips, the FFR market was the most profitable in 2020, followed by the mFRR down market (manual frequency restoration reserves for down-regulation). The reason for the mFRR down market to be more profitable than the aFRR down market for this fuel is that the profits from mFRR down depend on the avoided fuel costs, which are higher for wood chips than for waste and recycled wood. In 2021, all prices started increasing significantly, which decreased the relative profitability of the mFRR down compared to other markets. For wood pellets, the mFRR down market was also the second most profitable market in 2020, for the same reasons. The most profitable one in 2020 was the mFRR up market (manual frequency restoration reserves for up-regulation). The reason is that the higher fuel price of these two fuels entails low participation in the day-ahead market. Therefore, withholding capacity from the day-ahead market to be able to participate on the mFRR up market brings additional profits. In 2021, however, day-ahead prices started increasing significantly (a trend that continued into 2022) and the mFRR up market became the least profitable market for these two fuels. The profit evaluation performed in this deliverable is purely economic. It does not include the sector coupling to the heat sector (which entails limitation of the available electricity production capacity but also a possibility to store heat if storage is available) nor does it include other technical limitations such as ramp rates. These aspects will be considered in follow-up work in this project. This report has been compiled within the scope of the project SeCoHeat - Sector coupling of district heating with the electricity system: profitability and operation. The project is financed by the Research and Development Foundation of Göteborg Energi.

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  • 10.
    Abdul Hamid, Akram
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    von Platten, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport. Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dennis
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bagge, Hans
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Impact of high residential density on the building technology, HVAC systems, and indoor environment in Swedish apartments2020In: E3S Web of Conferences. Volyme 172, 2020., EDP Sciences , 2020, article id 09003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few years, there has been an increased number of overcrowded apartments, due to increased migration but also housing shortage in general, particularly in the suburbs to major cities. The question is how the indoor environment in these apartments is affected by the high number of persons and how the problems related to high residential density can be overcome. This paper aims to specify the problem by investigating and analysing the technical parameters influenced by residential density in Swedish apartments built between 1965-1974. To map the situation, 11 interviews with employees at housing companies were conducted. Based on extreme conditions described in the interviews, simulations of the indoor climate and moisture risks at some vulnerable parts of constructions were made. Simulations were focused on moisture loads and CO2 concentrations as functions of residential density and ventilation rate. Finally, measures to combat problems associated to overcrowding are suggested. The aim is that the results should be used by authorities to formulate incentives and/or recommendations for housing companies to take actions to ensure a good indoor environment for all, irrespective of residential density conditions. © The Authors.

  • 11.
    Agirre, Joseba A.
    et al.
    MGEP, Spain.
    Etxeberria, L.
    MGEP, Spain.
    Barbosa, R.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Basagiannis, S.
    United Technologies Research Centre, Ireland.
    Giantamidis, G.
    United Technologies Research Centre, Ireland.
    Bauer, Thomas
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Ferrari, E.
    Rulex Innovation Labs, Italy.
    Labayen Esnaola, M.
    CAF SIGNALLING, Spain.
    Orani, V.
    CNR-IEIIT, Italy.
    Öberg, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pereira, David
    CISTER/ISEP, Portugal.
    Proenca, Jose
    CISTER/ISEP, Portugal.
    Schlick, Rupert
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Smrcka, Ales
    Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic.
    Tiberti, W.
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Tonetta, S.
    Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Bozzano, M.
    Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Yazici, A.
    Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    The VALU3S ECSEL project: Verification and validation of automated systems safety and security2021In: Microprocessors and microsystems, ISSN 0141-9331, E-ISSN 1872-9436, Vol. 87, article id 104349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers of automated systems and their components have been allocating an enormous amount of time and effort in R&D activities, which led to the availability of prototypes demonstrating new capabilities as well as the introduction of such systems to the market within different domains. Manufacturers need to make sure that the systems function in the intended way and according to specifications. This is not a trivial task as system complexity rises dramatically the more integrated and interconnected these systems become with the addition of automated functionality and features to them. This effort translates into an overhead on the V&V (verification and validation) process making it time-consuming and costly. In this paper, we present VALU3S, an ECSEL JU (joint undertaking) project that aims to evaluate the state-of-the-art V&V methods and tools, and design a multi-domain framework to create a clear structure around the components and elements needed to conduct the V&V process. The main expected benefit of the framework is to reduce time and cost needed to verify and validate automated systems with respect to safety, cyber-security, and privacy requirements. This is done through identification and classification of evaluation methods, tools, environments and concepts for V&V of automated systems with respect to the mentioned requirements. VALU3S will provide guidelines to the V&V community including engineers and researchers on how the V&V of automated systems could be improved considering the cost, time and effort of conducting V&V processes. To this end, VALU3S brings together a consortium with partners from 10 different countries, amounting to a mix of 25 industrial partners, 6 leading research institutes, and 10 universities to reach the project goal.

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  • 12.
    Agirre, Joseba A
    et al.
    Mondragon University, Spain.
    Yazici, Ahmet
    Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey.
    Di Blasio, Katia
    Intecs Solutions S.p.a., Italy.
    De la Vara, Jose Luis
    University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Yayan, Ugur
    Inovasyon Muhendislik Ltd. Sti, Turkey.
    Barbosa, Raul
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Etxeberria, Leire
    Mondragon University, Spain.
    Nazaria, Massimo
    Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Karaca, Mustafa
    Inovasyon Muhendislik Ltd. Sti, Turkey.
    Multidimensional Framework for Characterizing Verification and Validation of Automated Systems2022In: 18th European dependable computing conference (EDCC 2022), 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Verification and Validation (V&V) of automated systems is becoming more costly and time-consuming because of the increasing size and complexity of these systems. Moreover, V&V of these systems can be hindered if the methods and processes are not properly described, analysed, and selected. It is essential that practitioners use suitable V&V methods and enact adequate V&V processes to confirm that these systems work as intended and in a cost-effective manner. Previous works have created different taxonomies and models considering different aspects of V&V that can be used to classify V&V methods and tools. The aim of this work is to provide a broad, comprehensive and a easy to use framework that addresses characterisation needs, rather than focusing on individual aspects of V&V methods and processes.To this end, in this paper, we present a multi-domain and multi-dimensional framework to characterize and classify V&V methods and tools in a structured way. The framework considers a comprehensive characterization of different relevant aspects of V&V. A web-based repository has been implemented on the basis of the framework, as an example of use, in order to collect information about the application of V&V methods and tools. This way, practitioners and researchers can easily learn about and identify suitable V&V processes.

  • 13.
    Ajpi, C.
    et al.
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leiva, N.
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Lindbergh, G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cabrera, S.
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of Fe3+-BDC metal organic framework as material for lithium ion batteries2023In: Journal of Molecular Structure, ISSN 0022-2860, E-ISSN 1872-8014, Vol. 1272, article id 134127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a new metal-organic framework (MOF). The compound Fe-BDC-DMF was synthetized by the solvothermal method and prepared via a reaction between FeCl3.6H2O and benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) or terephthalic acid using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. The powder was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) analysis. The electrochemical properties were investigated in a typical lithium-ion battery electrolyte by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charging and discharging. The synthetized Fe-BDC-DMF metal-organic framework (MOF) contains a mixture of three phases, identified by PXRD as: MOF-235, and MIL-53(Fe) monoclinic with C2/c and P21/c space groups. The structure of the Fe-BDC is built up from Fe3+ ions, terephalates (BDC) bridges and in-situ-generated DMF ligands. The electrochemical measurements conducted in the potential range of 0.5–3.5 V vs. Li+/Li0 show the voltage profiles of Fe-BDC and a plateau capacity of around 175 mAh/g. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 14.
    Ajpi, Cesario
    et al.
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leiva, Naviana
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Vargas, Max
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cabrera, Saul
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Synthesis and characterization of LiFePO4-PANI hybrid material as cathode for lithium-ion batteries2020In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on the synthesis of LiFePO4-PANI hybrid materials and studies their electrochem. properties (capacity, cyclability and rate capability) for use in lithium ion batteries. PANI synthesis and optimization was carried out by chem. oxidation (self-assembly process), using ammonium persulfate (APS) and H3PO4, obtaining a material with a high degree of crystallinity. For the synthesis of the LiFePO4-PANI hybrid, a thermal treatment of LiFePO4 particles was carried out in a furnace with polyaniline (PANI) and lithium acetate (AcOLi)-coated particles, using Ar/H2 atm. The pristine and synthesized powders were characterized by XRD, SEM, IR and TGA. The electrochem. characterizations were carried out by using CV, EIS and galvanostatic methods, obtaining a capacity of 95 mAhg-1 for PANI, 120 mAhg-1 for LiFePO4 and 145 mAhg-1 for LiFePO4-PANI, at a charge/discharge rate of 0.1 C. At a charge/discharge rate of 2 C, the capacities were 70 mAhg-1 for LiFePO4 and 100 mAhg-1 for LiFePO4-PANI, showing that the PANI also had a favorable effect on the rate capability.

  • 15.
    Ajpi, Cesario
    et al.
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leiva, Naviana
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Vargas, Max
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cabrera, Saul
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of NiII coordination network: Poly-[tris(µ4-Benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato)-tetrakis(µ1-dimethylformamide-κ1O)-trinickel(II)] as material for lithium ion batteries2022In: Journal of Molecular Structure, ISSN 0022-2860, E-ISSN 1872-8014, Vol. 1265, article id 133316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The compound Ni3(C8H4O4)3(C3H7NO)3, poly-[tris(µ4-Benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato)-tetrakis(µ1-dimethylformamide-κ1O)-trinickel(II)], was synthesized by the solvothermal method prepared via reaction between NiCl2•6H2O and terephthalic acid using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. The structure was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analyses. The electrochemical properties as a potential active material in lithium-ion batteries were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge curves in a battery half-cell. The characterization results show that the coordination network contains one independent structure in the asymmetric unit. It is constructed from Ni2+ ions, terephthalate bridges and in-situ-generated DMF ligands, forming two similar two-dimensional (2D) layer structures. These similar 2D layers are in an alternating arrangement and are linked with each other by dense H—H interactions (45%) to generate a three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular framework with ordered and disordered DMF molecules. The electrochemical measurements, conducted in the potential range of 0.5–3.5 V vs Li/Li+, show that Ni3(C8H4O4)3(C3H7NO)4 has good electrochemical properties and can work as anode in lithium-ion batteries. The material presents an initial specific capacity of ∼420 mAh g−1, which drops during consecutive scans but stabilizes at ∼50 mAh g−1. However, due to the wide potential range there are indications of a gradual collapse of the structure. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows an increase of charge transfer resistance from 24 to 1190 Ohms after cycling likely due to this collapse.

  • 16.
    Alam, Naveed
    et al.
    Ulster University, UK.
    Nadjai, Ali
    Ulster University, UK.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Vassart, Oliver
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Dai, Xi
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Large scale travelling fire tests with open ventilation conditions and their effect on the surrounding steel structure– The second fire test2022In: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 188, article id 107032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the frame of the European RFCS (Research Fund for Coal and Steel) TRAFIR (Characterization of TRAvelling FIRes in large compartments) project, three natural fire tests in a large compartment were conducted at Ulster University. The aim of this investigation was to understand the conditions in which the travelling fires develop and to study the impact of such fires on the surrounding steel structure. This paper provides details of the second fire test where the size of the openings was reduced to induce different ventilation conditions in comparison to the first fire test. During the test, behaviour of the travelling fire was observed and the gas temperatures at different levels and locations were recorded. The influence of travelling fires on the surrounding structure is studied in terms of the temperatures recorded in the selected steel columns and beams. The influence of change in the ventilation conditions is presented and highlighted through the comparison of results of the second fire test with those recorded earlier during the first fire test. It was found that the travelling fires produce non-uniform temperatures in the compartment irrespective of the ventilation conditions although the magnitude of this non-uniformity is related with the opening sizes. This non-uniformity exists along the length as well as along the height of the test compartment. It was found that for reduced opening sizes, more heat is retained within the compartment which induces higher temperatures in the surrounding steel structure. The transient heating of the surrounding structure caused by travelling fires should be considered while performing the structural fire design of large compartments. The results obtained during the test are state-of-the-art and will help in understating the behaviour of travelling fires and their influence on the surrounding structure which will help to devise fire design methods for future use.

  • 17.
    Alavijeh, Nima Mirzaei
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Song, Meng
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Tobiasson, Wenche
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Steen, David
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anh Tuan, Le
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A toolbox for comparing congestion management solutions for distribution networks2023In: 2023 IEEE Belgrade PowerTech, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address the emerging challenges in electricity distribution networks, various solutions have been proposed such as alternative tariff design, local flexibility markets (LFMs), bilateral contracts, and local energy markets (LEMs). However, choosing a suitable solution is not straightforward due to multi-dimensional complexity of the challenges which may vary under different circumstances. This paper proposes a toolbox for qualitative and quantitative comparison of the different solutions. The toolbox includes a multi-dimensional analytical framework and a flexible modeling and demonstration platform for conducting quantitative comparison studies. Four solutions i.e. LFM, LEM, cost-reflective tariffs, and bilateral contracts are compared qualitatively using the framework and a real demonstration example of an LFM design is presented utilizing the modeling platform. The toolbox can facilitate research on the local grid challenges and contribute to finding a suitable solution from a multi-dimensional perspective.

  • 18.
    Alexandersson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Mao, W.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Prediction of roll motion using fully nonlinear potential flow and ikeda’s method2021In: Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers , 2021, p. 1670-1679Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Getting the best possible accuracy with the lowest possible computational cost is an important factor in the early design stage of ships. Potential flow-based analysis presents such a solution for seakeeping analyses. The accuracy of roll motion in potential flow is however not so good, due to the large influence from vicsous roll damping, which is missing in these calculations. This paper proposes a hybrid method, as a solution to this problem, where the viscous roll damping from Ikeda’s semi-empirical method is injected into an existing 3D unsteady fully nonlinear potential flow (FNPF) method. The hybrid method is investigated using roll decay tests with the KVLCC2 test case. This investigation shows that the accuracy of simulated roll motions is significantly improved and also shows good agreement with the corresponding roll decay model tests.

  • 19.
    Alexandersson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mao, Wengang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Analysis of roll damping model scale data2021In: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, Vol. 16, no S1, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Having an accurate prediction of ship roll damping is crucial when analysing roll motions. In this paper, the simplified Ikeda method (SI-method) is compared with the original Ikeda method. The methods are compared using results from a database of roll decay tests carried out on modern merchant ships and a smaller set of predictions in which the original Ikeda method was used. It was found that most of the ships in the database had dimensions outside the limits of the SI-method. Thus, the SI-method showed poor agreement with model tests outside its limits but acceptable agreement for ships within limits. It was found that the deviations were caused by extrapolation errors of the wave-damping in the SI-method. Two ways to improve the accuracy of the SI-method were proposed based on regression, which gave about the same accuracy as the original Ikeda method. © 2021 The Author(s).

  • 20.
    Alexandersson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mao, Wengang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    System identification of Vessel Manoeuvring Models2022In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 266, article id 112940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the ship's maneuvering dynamics can build models for ship maneuverability predictions with a wide range of useful applications. A majority of the publications in this field are based on simulated data. In this paper model test data is used. The identification process can be decomposed into finding a suitable manoeuvring model for the hydrodynamic forces and to correctly handle errors from the measurement noise. A parameter estimation is proposed to identify the hydrodynamic derivatives. The most suitable manoeuvring model is found using the parameter estimation with cross-validation on a set of competing manoeuvring models. The parameter estimation uses inverse dynamics regression and Extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a Rauch Tung Striebel (RTS) smoother. Two case study vessels, wPCC and KVLCC2, with very different maneuverability characteristics are used to demonstrate and validate the proposed method. Turning circle predictions with the robust manoeuvring models, trained on zigzag model tests, show good agreement with the corresponding model test results for both ships. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 21.
    Alexandersson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Daiyong
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mao, Wengang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A comparison of ship manoeuvrability models to approximate ship navigation trajectories2023In: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 550-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is essential to describe a ship’s manoeuvrability for various applications, e.g. optimal control of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). In this study, the capability of two recognised manoeuvrability models to predict ships’ trajectories is investigated based on both simulation and open-water experiment test data. The parameters of these models are estimated by a statistical learning method. The goodness of the two estimated models for describing a merchant ship’s manoeuvrability is first studied using her manoeuvring simulation data. Then, experimental manoeuvring tests to use a USV in open water with wind and drifting effects are used to check the conventional model identification procedures. Finally, some modifications and adjustments are proposed to improve the conventional procedures. It shows that the proposed procedures can accurately derive the ship’s manoeuvrability based on experimental data. © 2022 The Author(s). 

  • 22.
    Alisic, S.
    et al.
    Institute of Metrology of B&H, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Gutfelt, Bengt
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Beaudoux, F.
    Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais, France.
    Bezjak, M.
    State Office of Metrology, Croatia.
    Coenegrachts, M.
    FPS Economy, Belgium.
    Davidson, S.
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Grgić, G.
    Metrology Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, Slovenia.
    Hanrahan, R.
    NSAI National Metrology Laboratory, Ireland.
    Geel, J. L. W. A. V.
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Kacmaz, S.
    Ulusal Metroloji Enstitüsü, Turkey.
    Mangutova-Stoilkovska, B.
    Bureau of metrology, Macedonia.
    Miteva, M.
    Bulgarian Institute of Metrology, Bulgaria.
    Navrozidis, G.
    Hellenic Institute of Metrology, Greece.
    Neuvonen, P. T.
    Justervesenet, Norway.
    Nielsen, L.
    Danish Fundamental Metrology, Denmark.
    Ojanen-Saloranta, M.
    VTT, Finland.
    Pantić, D.
    Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals, Serbia.
    Pärn, A.
    AS Metrosert, Estonia.
    Popa, G. F.
    Institutul National de Metrologie, Romania.
    Snopko, L.
    Slovenský Metrologický Ústav, Slovakia.
    Spohr, I.
    Instituto Português da Qualidade, Portugal.
    Conceição, P.
    Instituto Português da Qualidade, Portugal.
    Stock, M.
    Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France.
    Vámossy, C.
    Government Office of the Capital City Budapest, Hungary.
    Wüthrich, C.
    Eidgenössisches Institut für Metrologie, Switzerland.
    Žandarova, T.
    Latvian National Metrology Centre Ltd, Latvia.
    Zelenka, Z.
    Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Austria.
    Zůda, J.
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Alqarni, S. M.
    Saudi Standards Metrology and Quality Org, Saudi Arabia.
    Final report on EURAMET comparison on 1 kg stainless steel mass standards2020In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 57, no 1 A, article id 07011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to demonstrate the equivalence in calibration of mass standards among National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of EURAMET this key comparison (KC) on 1 kg stainless steel mass standards has been carried out under the auspices of EURAMET. The comparison was undertaken with reference to the International Prototype Kilogram (IPK) as the definition of the unit of mass. The overall result shows good consistency among the participants. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  • 23.
    Alissa, S.
    et al.
    Swedish Mapping Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, Sweden.
    Håkansson, M.
    Swedish Mapping Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, Sweden.
    Henkel, P.
    ANavS GmbH, Germany.
    Mittmann, U.
    ANavS GmbH, Germany.
    Huffmeier, Johannes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Rylander, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Low bandwidth network-rtk correction dissemination for high accuracy maritime navigation2021In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 171-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than half of the incidents reported to EMSA relate to nautical events such as collision, groundings and contacts. Knowledge of accurate and high-integrity positioning is therefore not only a need for future automated shipping but a base for today’s safe navigation. Examples on accidents include Ever Given in the Suez Canal and HNoMS Helge Ingstad in Norway. A Network-RTK (NRTK) service can be used as an augmentation technique to improve performance of shipborne GNSS receivers for future positioning of manned and unmanned vessels in restricted areas, such as port areas, fairways, and inland water ways. NRTK service providers generate RTK corrections based on the observations of networks of GNSS reference stations which enables the users to determine their position with centimeter accuracy in real-time using a shipborne GNSS receiver. Selection of appropriate communication channels for dissemination of NRTK corrections data is the key to a secure positioning (localization) service. In PrePare-Ships project, the modern maritime communication system VDES (VHF Data Exchange System) is proposed to distribute SWEPOS (NRTK in Sweden) correction data to shipborne positioning modules. VDES is a very reliable technique and it is compatible with most onboard functionalities. In order to minimize the impact on the overall VDES data capacity in a local area, NRTK correction data shall only occupy a single VDES slot with a net capacity of 650 bytes. Update rates may vary but are preferably at 1Hz. However, NRTK correction data size changes instantly, depending on the number of visible GNSS satellites, and the data rate can therefore sometimes reach in excess of 1000 byte/s. In this study, a smart technique is proposed to reduce size of NRTK correction data to instantly adapt with the VDES requirements by choosing a combination of specific signals, satellites or even constellations such that the data rate is not more than 650 byte/s, and at the same time it achieves optimal positioning performance with the accuracy required by the PrePare-Ships project application. 

  • 24.
    Alissa, S.
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet, Sweden.
    Håkansson, M.
    Lantmäteriet, Sweden.
    Rieck, Carsten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Dutta, Uttama
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Nord, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Bergljung, P.
    Saab TransponderTech, Sweden.
    Bagge, A.
    Saab TransponderTech, Sweden.
    Distribution of the adapted-NRTK correction data via VDES for the shipping navigation safety2021In: Proceedings of the 34th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, ION GNSS+ 2021, Institute of Navigation , 2021, p. 521-534Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the maritime communication system VDES (VHF Data Exchange System) is proposed to distribute Network-RTK (NRTK) correction data to shipborne GNSS receivers in fairways, port areas, or inland water ways. The transport layer used for transmission of VDES messages (related to the standard IEC61162-450) is the UDP multicast protocol. This makes it possible to transmit the RTCM packages from the VDES transponder to the shipborne GNSS receivers as a UDP payload without any additional formatting. In order to minimize the impact on the overall VDES data capacity in a local service area, NRTK correction data shall at most occupy a single VDES slot with a net capacity of 650 bytes denoted Link ID 19. This is the fastest link in VDES. Update rates may vary but are preferably at 1Hz. However, depending on the number of visible satellites NRTK correction data size changes instantly and the data rate can therefore sometimes be in excess of 1000 byte/s per reference station to be distributed. In order to comply with the VDES requirements, the Lantmäteriet Adjustment Solution (LAS) for GNSS correction data adjustment was developed and is presented in this paper. The responsibility of this solution is to produce a correction data stream that complies with the bandwidth limitation of 650 bytes/s. To provide corrections for a potentially large number of users, dissemination is done by broadcasting corrections for a grid of VRSs. The proposed solution has therefore also the capability to combine several correction data streams from several Virtual Reference Stations (VRSs) into one single correction data stream. To reduce the required data rate, the LAS has the ability to filter streamed GNSS correction data in the RTCM3 MSM format constellation-wise, satellite-wise, and signal-wise. The objective is to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy for the ship's differential positioning solution, while at the same time adhering to constraints that might locally apply for individual transmitters. For this paper LAS was configured to interface with the SWEPOS to provide reference data to static and kinematic testing scenarios. The results presented here were obtained using RTK post-processing with RTKLib for a combination of GPS and Galileo multi-frequency observations. Results indicated that LAS solution can achieve robust positioning performance with decimeter-level accuracy which meet the requirements expected for the navigation safety at Sea. Adapted-NRTK correction data (LAS data) via VDES has the potential to be part of a world-wide standard VDES application for all vessels sailing under SOLAS and for ships that voluntarily uses VDES in the near future (inland, yachts, navies, leisure).

  • 25.
    Allsopp, Benjamin
    et al.
    Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Johnson, Simon
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Baistow, Ian
    Solar Capture Technologies, UK.
    Sanderson, Gavin
    Solar Capture Technologies, UK.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Bingham, Paul
    Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Towards improved cover glasses for photovoltaic devices2020In: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 28, p. 1187-1206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the solar energy industry to increase its competitiveness, there is a global drive to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) module assembly is material-demanding, and the cover glass constitutes a significant proportion of the cost. Currently, 3-mm-thick glass is the predominant cover material for PV modules, accounting for 10%–25% of the total cost. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of cover glasses for PV modules and present our recent results for improvement of the glass. These improvements were demonstrated in terms of mechanical, chemical and optical properties by optimizing the glass composition, including addition of novel dopants, to produce cover glasses that can provide (i) enhanced UV protection of polymeric PV module components, potentially increasing module service lifetimes; (ii) re-emission of a proportion of the absorbed UV photon energy as visible photons capable of being absorbed by the solar cells, thereby increasing PV module efficiencies and (iii) successful laboratory-scale demonstration of proof of concept, with increases of 1%–6% in Isc and 1%–8% in Ipm. Improvements in both chemical and crack resistance of the cover glass were also achieved through modest chemical reformulation, highlighting what may be achievable within existing manufacturing technology constraints. © 2020 The Authors.

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  • 26.
    Altlntaş, A.
    et al.
    Force, Denmark.
    Koçaş, I.
    Ume, Turkey.
    Durgut, Y.
    Ume, Turkey.
    Bartolo, J.
    MCCAA-SMI, Malta.
    Bergoglio, M.
    Inrim, Italy.
    Bermanec, L. G.
    FSB-LPM, Croatia.
    Bošnjaković, A.
    fIMBiH Institute of Metrology of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina .
    Burzić, S.
    fIMBiH Institute of Metrology of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina .
    Condereys, A.
    SMD, Belgium.
    Dobre, M.
    SMD, Belgium.
    Farar, P.
    Smu Slovakia Institute of Metrology, Slovakia.
    Hetherington, P.
    Nsai Nml National Metrology Laboratory, Ireland.
    Medina, N.
    Sem, Spain.
    Sabuga, W.
    PTB, Germany.
    Ott, O.
    PTB, Germany.
    Konczak, T.
    PTB, Germany.
    Sandu, I.
    Inm, Romania.
    Setina, J.
    MIRS/IMT/LMT, Slovenia.
    Steindl, D.
    Bev, Austria.
    Vámossy, C.
    Mkeh, Hungary.
    Waller, B.
    NPL, UK.
    Wuethrich, C.
    Metas, Switzerland.
    Brzozowski, A.
    GUM, Poland.
    Geel, J. V.
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Saxholm, S.
    VTT, Finland.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Final report on key comparison EURAMET.M.P-K1.c in the range 0.7 MPa to 7.0 MPa of gas gauge pressure2020In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 57, no 1, article id 07022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A EURAMET key comparison of the national pressure standards in the range 0.7 MPa to 7.0 MPa of gas gauge pressure was carried out. The circulation of the transfer standard began in November 2011 and lasted until November 2016. The measurand of the comparison was the effective area of the piston-cylinder assembly determined by gauge pressure measurements in the range from 0.7 MPa to 7.0 MPa. As the comparison reference value, the weighted mean of the results of the laboratories with primary pressure standards was used. With this reference value, all the participants who delivered the results demonstrated equivalence respective to the reference value within expanded uncertainties (k = 2) on all the range. The results of this comparison were linked to CCM key comparison CCM.P-K1.c. Also in relation to the reference values of CCM.P-K1.c, all participants demonstrated agreement within expanded uncertainties (k = 2) at all pressure points.

  • 27.
    Altuntas Vural, Ceren
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gonzalez-Aregall, Marta
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Woxenius, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Svanberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    International container shipping through the Covid-19 pandemic - Disruptions from a Swedish perspective2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At the onset of the pandemic in spring 2020, the Swedish shipping sector was first affected by border closures preventing passengers to use RoPax shipping and cruise ferries. There were some blank sailings but in general they kept operating to foster intra-European trade by trucks despite the missing revenues from passengers. Shipping in general was affected by port disrup-tions and complicated crew changes. Eventually, however, it was clear that the most dramatic disruptions on a global scale where experienced in the container segment. General media reported on delayed goods, high freight rates and, however not related to the pandemic, the Ever Given blocking the Suez Canal for a week in March 2021. Currently, there are few reports of supply chains and shipping suffering from disruptions and capacity constraints related to the pandemic. The peak in freight rates was rather replaced by depressed rates and there is a certain risk that some logisticians and supply chain managers regard the pandemic as a once-in-a-lifetime event and just want to get back to a previous be-haviour seeing container shipping as a commodity with indefinite capacity at a reasonable price. Nevertheless, the war in Ukraine, the drought in the Panama Canal and the attacks by the Houthi rebels in the Red Sea create other problems for container shipping. Freight rates increase significantly, but from very low levels. The purpose of the report is to describe and analyse how international container shipping was affected by the Covid-19 pandemic and other disruptions. The analysis takes a Swedish perspective on disruptions and tries to go beyond the anecdotal reporting and capture what happened and why. Container shipping is put into a context of economy, consumption, world trade, supply chains and logistics. The pandemic and more current events affecting container shipping market are described together with how shipping lines responded. A series of interviews with Swedish actors revealed how they perceived the disruptions and what countermeasures the actors have applied to mitigate the effects, their organisational learning and how they prepare for future disruptions

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  • 28.
    Amer, Eynas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Towards traceable dynamic pressure calibration using a shock tube with an optical probe for accurate phase determination2022In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 59, no 3, article id 035001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce a robust method for dynamic characterization of pressure measuring systems used in time-varying pressure applications. The dynamic response of the pressure measuring systems in terms of sensitivity and phase as a function of frequency at various amplitudes of the measurand can be provided. The shock tube which is the candidate primary standard for dynamic pressure calibration at the National Laboratory for pressure, Sweden, was used to realize the dynamic pressure. The shock tube setup used in this study can realize reference pressure with amplitudes up to 1.7 MPa in the frequency range from below a kilohertz up to a megahertz. The amplitude of the realized step pressure was calculated using the Rankine–Hugoniot step relations. In addition, the accurate time of arrival of the generated shock at the device under test (DUT) was measured using an optical probe based on shadowgraphy. The optical detector has a response time in nanosecond time scale which is several orders of magnitude faster than the response time of any pressure measuring system. Hereby, the latency between physical stimuli and response of the DUT can be measured. By the knowledge of the amplitude and the accurate time of arrival of the reference step pressure, the transfer function of the DUT can be calculated and presented in Bode diagrams of sensitivity and phase response versus frequency. The uncertainty in sensitivity and phase measurements was estimated. The information provided by this work is useful for developing reliable models of dynamic pressure measuring system and provide accurate information about their dynamic response. That in turn will contribute to establish a traceability chain for dynamic pressure calibration.

  • 29.
    Amer, Eynas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Wozniak, Mikolaj
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Evaluation of Shock Tube Retrofitted with Fast-Opening Valve for Dynamic Pressure Calibration2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 13, article id 4470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate dynamic pressure measurements are increasingly important. While traceability is lacking, several National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and calibration laboratories are currently establishing calibration capacities. Shock tubes generating pressure steps with rise times below 1 µs are highly suitable as standards for dynamic pressures in gas. In this work, we present the results from applying a fast-opening valve (FOV) to a shock tube designed for dynamic pressure measurements. We compare the performance of the shock tube when operated with conventional single and double diaphragms and when operated using an FOV. Different aspects are addressed: shock-wave formation, repeatability in amplitude of the realized pressure steps, the assessment of the required driver pressure for realizing nominal pressure steps, and economy. The results show that using the FOV has many advantages compared to the diaphragm: better repeatability, eight times faster to operate, and enables automation of the test sequences.

  • 30.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Roadmap for measurable sustainability indicators for the fire safety community2023Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pre-study aims to determine whether developing measurable sustainability indicators (MSI) to assess the sustainability of projects, ideas, and decisions related to fire safety would be useful for fire safety engineers, researchers, municipalities, authorities, policymakers, first responders and other stakeholders. A review of the literature, online sources, project reports and numerous interactions with representatives of several target groups within the fire safety community were conducted to assess their sustainability needs. The results show that the target groups included in this project had some overlapping and some unique sustainability needs. Fire service product suppliers are content at this time to self-declare their sustainability status. Fire and rescue services would like MSI to help them make tactical and strategic decision while responding to fires. They are also interested in MSI to help them convey their sustainability value to the communities they serve. Fire safety engineers would like MSI to support their suggestions for improvements in construction design. Researchers and educators will contribute to the development of MSI that serve the needs of the other target groups. Authorities could use MSI to evaluate progress toward improved sustainability in their jurisdictions and transfer data to other levels of government.

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  • 31.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Challenges to transparency involving intellectual property and privacy concerns in life cycle assessment/costing: A case study of new flame retarded polymers2021In: Cleaner Environmental Systems, ISSN 2666-7894, Vol. 3, article id 100045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work explores the challenges of using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) analysis to provide easily accessible decision support for early product development in cases where intellectual property (IP) and privacy issues require special consideration. Innovation research projects with partners representing different links along the value chain are potential examples of such cases. A case study in which spreadsheet-based cradle to compounder's gate LCA and LCC screening tools were created for candidate flame retarded polymer formulations exemplifies the need for better solutions to overcome problems associated with lack of transparency due to IP/privacy concerns. These problems affect data quality, scaling up processes, and uncertainty of the results. The consortium in this case study had a common overall goal, although each of the partners had a unique perspective on the polymer development process and different IP/privacy needs. The measures used to overcome the challenges include aggregation, normalisation, and omission of costs and impacts common to all candidate compounds. The resulting LCA and LCC screening tools represent a compromise between providing the requested information at the level of detail required by the partners and reporting results that are as accurate and useful as possible. The findings are: in cases where absolute secrecy must be maintained, no one can learn which materials and processes provide the optimal results; appointing a trusted third party to handle sensitive inventory data can cause increased uncertainty of the results due to lack of peer review; the results of the work cannot be built upon by subsequent research.

  • 32.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Vilic, Azra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fire Impact Tool- Measuring the impact of fire suppression operations on the environment2021In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 120, article id 103071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the responsibility for environmental damage when emergency responders are called to an incident is increasingly focussing on the responders. The problem is that most incident response personnel do not have the training and expertise to assess the environmental consequences of their suppression operations. The Fire Impact Tool was developed for training responders about how fire effluents and suppression media affect air, surface/groundwater and soil. The tool has three interdependent parts: fire models (for vehicles and enclosures), an environmental risk assessment (ERA) model for local impacts, and a life cycle assessment (LCA) model for global impacts. Users can create two scenarios that are compared with a reference case in which responders arrive at the incident and prevent the fire from spreading beyond the vehicle or enclosure but do not suppress the fire. The Fire Impact Tool is not intended for use during an actual fire incident. This work does not answer every question for every possible fire scenario, but it does provide a framework for deeper, broader, more comprehensive training and pre-planning. This is a necessary step toward a future in which responders are prepared to make informed decisions about firefighting strategies and tactics that include environmental consequences.

  • 33.
    Amores, Santiago Gallego
    et al.
    i-DE (Iberdrola), Spain.
    Hillberg, Emil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Iliceto, Antonio
    ETIP SNET, Italy.
    Mataczyńska, Ewa
    Institute for Energy Policy, Poland.
    Ilo, Albana
    TU Wien, Austria.
    How can flexibility support power grid resilience through the next level of flexibility and alternative grid developments2023In: 27th International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2023), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023, p. 1842-1846Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power system resilience is an overarching concept covering the whole spectrum of the power system, from design and investment decisions to planning, operations, maintenance and asset management functions. Flexibility concerns the power system's ability to manage changes, with flexibility features able to improve the resilience characteristics of the system, provided that they are integrated into grid planning, in defence plans, and evaluated adequately in the energy market design. An analysis of ongoing worldwide initiatives provides relevant insight into ongoing worldwide initiatives. They provide relevant insight into how flexibility can support resilience, showing the prominence and potential values that can be unlocked, with potentially some low-hanging fruits to start. This paper introduces four innovative concepts: Alternative grid development, system integrity protection schemes, the next level of flexibility and LINK holistic approach to flexibility for resilience as solutions contributing to improving future power systems' resilience.

  • 34.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Chiva, Roman
    Efectis France, France.
    Guillaume, Eric
    Efectis France, France.
    Colwell, Sarah
    BRE, United Kingdom.
    Hofmann, Anja
    BAM, Germany.
    Toth, Peter
    ÉMI LLC for Quality Control and Innovation in Building, Hungary.
    European approach to assess the fire performance of façades2020In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several attempts have been made in the past to develop a European harmonized testing and assessment method for façades before the European commission decided to publish a call for tender on the topic. A project consortium from five countries (Sweden, UK, France, Germany and Hungary) applied to the call for tender and was contracted to develop a European approach to assess the fire performance of façades. 24 sub-contractors and 14 stakeholder entities were part of the project. The objective of the European project was to address a request from the Standing Committee of Construction (SCC) to provide EC Member States regulators with a means to regulate the fire performance of façade systems based on a European approach agreed by SCC. The initial stages of this project were focused on establishing a register of the regulatory requirements in all Member States in relation to the fire performance of façade systems, and to identify those Member States who have regulatory requirements for the fire performance façade systems which go beyond the current EN 13501 (reaction to fire and fire resistance) classification systems and to collate the details of these additional requirements. After having confirmed the regulatory needs a testing and classification methodology based on BS 8414 and DIN 4102-20 was developed to address the identified key performance and classification characteristics. This paper is a short overview of results the two-year development work, which Final Report published by the European Commission in 2018. © 2020 The Authors. Fire and Materials published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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  • 35.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Mossberg, Axel
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Gard, Eric
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Investigating machine learning for fire sciences: literature review and examples2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a review of current literature on artificial intelligence (AI) and more specifically machine learning (ML) is presented. ML is illustrated by two case studies where artificial neural networks are used for regression analysis of 110 spalling experiments and 81 Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) models of tunnel fires. Tunnel fires are often assessed by fire safety engineers using time-consuming simulation tools where a trained model has the potential to significantly reduce time and cost of these assessments.

    A regression model based on a neural net is used to study small scale spalling experiments and similar accuracy compared to least-square fits are obtained. The result is a function based on 14 determining experimental parameters of spalling and result in, spalling times and depths. It is a relatively small effort to get started and set up models, comparably to regular curve fitting. In this first case study the training times are short, it is thus possible to establish how the model performs on average.

    The 81 tunnel fire simulations are trained using a similar neural net however it takes considerable time to organize data, creating input, target data of the desired format and training. Here, it is also crucial to normalize the data in order to have it in a suitable format when training. 

    It should be noted that ML is often an iterative process in such a way that it may be difficult to know what settings will work before starting the process. It is equally important to illustrate and get to know the data, e.g., if there are large differences or orders of magnitude differences in the data. A normalization procedure is most often practical and will give better predictions.

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  • 36.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal Global R&D, Canada.
    Dai, Xu
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    FDS simulations and modelling efforts of travelling fires in a large elongated compartment2021In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 699-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper investigates a travelling fire scenario in an elongated structure (Length 18 m × width 6 m × height 3 m) with a controlled fire source of six trays filled with diesel (width 4 m × length 0.5 m). The fire spread is controlled manually by initiating fires consecutively in the pools. Fire dynamics simulator (FDS) is used to a-priori investigate variations in geometry, material data and fire load, whereas simulations using the final design and measured heat release rates (HRR) were performed after the test. The input to the model beside fire source and geometry are thermal material data. The FDS simulations were used to determine the appropriate size of the downstands (2 m from the ceiling in the final design) on the side to create a sufficiently one-dimensional fire spread. The post-test simulations indicate that although there are a lot of variations not included in the model similar results were obtained as in the test.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Jennie
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shiri, Alex
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Bensow, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yixing, Jin
    China Ship Scientific Research Center, China.
    Chengsheng, Wu
    China Ship Scientific Research Center, China.
    Gengyao, Qiu
    China Ship Scientific Research Center, China.
    Deng, Ganbo
    Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France.
    Queutey, Patrick
    Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France.
    Xing-Kaeding, Yan
    Hamburg Ship Model Basin, Germany.
    Horn, Peter
    Hamburg Ship Model Basin, Germany.
    Lücke, Thomas
    Hamburg Ship Model Basin, Germany.
    Kobayashi, Hiroshi
    National Maritime Research Institute, Japan.
    Ohashi, Kunihide
    National Maritime Research Institute, Japan.
    Sakamoto, Nobuaki
    National Maritime Research Institute, Japan.
    Yang, Fan
    Shanghai Ship and Shipping Research Institute, Chia.
    Gao, Yuling
    Shanghai Ship and Shipping Research Institute, China.
    Windén, Björn
    SHORTCUt CFD, USA.
    Meyerson, Max
    University of Michigan, USA.
    Maki, Kevin
    University of Michigan, USA.
    Turnock, Stephen
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Hudson, Dominic
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Banks, Joseph
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Terziev, Momchil
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Tezdogan, Tahsin
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Vesting, Florian
    Volupe AB, Sweden.
    Hino, Takanori
    Yokohama National University, Japan.
    Werner, Sofia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Ship-scale CFD benchmark study of a pre-swirl duct on KVLCC22022In: Applied Ocean Research, ISSN 0141-1187, E-ISSN 1879-1549, Vol. 123, article id 103134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Installing an energy saving device such as a pre-swirl duct (PSD) is a major investment for a ship owner and prior to an order a reliable prediction of the energy savings is required. Currently there is no standard for how such a prediction is to be carried out, possible alternatives are both model-scale tests in towing tanks with associated scaling procedures, as well as methods based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This paper summarizes a CFD benchmark study comparing industrial state-of-the-art ship-scale CFD predictions of the power reduction through installation of a PSD, where the objective was to both obtain an indication on the reliability in this kind of prediction and to gain insight into how the computational procedure affects the results. It is a blind study, the KVLCC2, which the PSD is mounted on, has never been built and hence there is no ship-scale data available. The 10 participants conducted in total 22 different predictions of the power reduction with respect to a baseline case without PSD. The predicted power reductions are both positive and negative, on average 0.4%, with a standard deviation of 1.6%-units, when not considering two predictions based on model-scale CFD and two outliers associated with large uncertainties in the results. Among the variations present in computational procedure, two were found to significantly influence the predictions. First, a geometrically resolved propeller model applying sliding mesh interfaces is in average predicting a higher power reduction with the PSD compared to simplified propeller models. The second factor with notable influence on the power reduction prediction is the wake field prediction, which, besides numerical configuration, is affected by how hull roughness is considered. © 2022 The Authors

  • 38.
    Andersson, Stina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    LASH FIRE : Consolidation of performance assessment and solutions' impact on safety: Deliverable D04.102023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been a number of fires on board ro-ro ships with severe consequences the last decades, several which have started in a ro-ro space. To prevent and mitigate future fire accidents, cost-effective solutions to improve ships’ abilities to independently handle a fire starting in a ro-ro space are needed. Within the LASH FIRE project, innovative solutions aimed at strengthening the independent fire protection of ro-ro ships have been developed and demonstrated. These solutions are developed to strengthen all parts of the fire protection chain, from ignition prevention all the way to evacuation. This deliverable, D04.10, presents an overview of the testing and demonstration of the solutions. Through this deliverable, external parties, such as industry actors, will have a compilation of the evaluation and its outcome for the different solutions that have been developed and demonstrated within LASH FIRE.

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  • 39.
    Arpaia, Riccardo
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Alcalde-Herraiz, Núria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    D’Alessio, Andrea
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Stepantsov, Evgeny
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Russian Academy of the Sciences, Russia.
    Wahlberg, Eric
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kalaboukhov, Alexei
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bauch, Thilo
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lombardi, Floriana
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Engineering underdoped CuO2 nanoribbons in nm-thick a -axis YBa2Cu3 O7-δ films2024In: Physical Review Materials, E-ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 044803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In underdoped cuprate high-Tc superconductors, various local orders and symmetry-breaking states, in addition to superconductivity, reside in the CuO2 planes. The confinement of the CuO2 planes can therefore play a fundamental role in modifying the hierarchy between the various orders and their intertwining with superconductivity. Here we present the growth of a-axis oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ films, spanning the whole underdoped side of the phase diagram. In these samples, the CuO2 planes are confined by the film thickness, effectively forming unit-cell-thick nanoribbons. The unidirectional confinement at the nanoscale enhances the in-plane anisotropy of the films. By x-ray diffraction and resistance vs temperature measurements, we have discovered the suppression of the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal transition at low dopings, and a very high anisotropy of the normal state resistance in the b-c plane, the latter being connected to a weak coupling between adjacent CuO2 nanoribbons. These findings show that the samples we have grown represent a novel system, different from the bulk, where future experiments can possibly shed light on the rich and mysterious physics occurring within the CuO2 planes.

  • 40.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Bohlen, Haleh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    de Krom, Iris
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Heikens, Dita
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    van Wijk, Janneke
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Hydrogen purity analysis: Suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14687-2 standard sets requirements for the purity of the hydrogen that is delivered at refuelling stations. These specifications cover a wide range of impurities and include challenging measurements, mainly due to the very low levels of the required detection limits and the need for "total" measurements (total hydrocarbons, total sulphur compounds, halogenated compounds). Most of the compounds belonging to the species are organic. Thermal desorption often coupled with gas chromatography is a common speciation method used to determine the content of organic impurities. However, no existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal to trap all possible impurities; depending on the sorbents and the sampling volume, some compounds may irreversibly adsorb or may break through. It is therefore necessary to evaluate sorbents for the compounds targeted at the level required. In this study, the suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping organic impurities in hydrogen was investigated. Suitable sorbents were selected based on a literature review of suitable sorbent materials. Short-term stability studies for compounds among hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and sulphurcompounds on the selected sorbents have then been performed for storage periods of two weeks since this is the period typically required to complete the collection, transport and analysis of hydrogen samples. The study clearly shows that the method is promising for total species, even through the results show that not all of the compounds belonging to the three total species to be analysed when performing hydrogen purity analysis can be quantified on one unique sorbent. A multibed sorbent consisting of Tenax TA (weak), Carboxen 1003 (medium), Carbograph 1 (strong) is shown to be a versatile sorbent suitable for the three "total species"; only a few compounds from each family would need to be analysed using other analytical methods. This method proposed here for total species will not only provide a sum of concentrations, but also an identification of which compound(s) is/are actually present in the hydrogen.

  • 41.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Comparison of different models to calculate the viscosity of biogas and biomethane in order to accurately measure flow rates for conformity assessment2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents an optimised method to correct flow rates measured with a LFE flowmeter pre-set on methane while used for gas mixtures of unknown composition at the time of the measurement. The method requires the correction of the flow rate using a factor based on the viscosity of the gas mixtures once the composition is accurately known. The method has several different possible applications inclusive for the sampling of biogas and biomethane onto sorbent tubes for conformity assessment for the determination of siloxanes, terpenes and VOC in general. Five models for the calculation of the viscosity of the gas mixtures were compared and the models were used for ten binary mixtures and four multi-component mixtures. The results of the evaluation of the different models showed that the correction method using the viscosity of the mixtures calculated with the model of Reichenberg and Carr showed the smallest biases for binary mixtures. For multi-component mixtures, the best results were obtained when using the models of Lucas and Carr. 

  • 42.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Moore, Niamh
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Development and evaluation of a novel analyser for ISO14687 hydrogen purity analysis2020In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 31, no 7, article id 075010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standards ISO14687 and EN17124 set stringent limits for numerous gaseous impurities and particulates that may damage the fuel cell system in a hydrogen vehicle, as it is highly sensitive to the presence of even very low levels of impurities. However, performing the whole set of analyses is both technically challenging and time-consuming for any laboratory and will require a combination of several analytical techniques or instruments. In this study, we discussed the selection of analytical techniques for hydrogen purity testing in order to optimize the CAPEX (capital expenditure) and OPEX (operational expenditure), while ensuring the quality of the results and the compliance of the analytical methods with ISO21087. Among the individual impurities to be analysed in ISO14687, spectroscopy techniques are suitable for ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, formic acid, oxygen and water. Spectroscopy techniques are even suitable for some impurities belonging to the three total species such as hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen chloride and methane. However, helium and argon, which are monoatomic, do not exhibit response in the infrared region. Therefore, any spectroscopic analysis method must be completed by another method in order to simultaneously analyse all individual gaseous impurities from ISO14687. In this study, we constructed and demonstrated the feasibility of an instrument composed of a gas chromatograph having three columns (two packed columns and a PLOT (Porous Layer Open Tubular) column and two detectors (FID and TCD) coupled in parallel to two OFCEAS instruments using reference gas mixtures. Finally, we also proposed an extended configuration that will allow performing the whole set of analyses for gaseous species from ISO14687

  • 43.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Adrien, Herve
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    El Masri, Ahmad
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Lestremau, Francois
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Robinson, Tim
    Waverton Analytics Ltd, UK.
    Analytical methods for the determination of oil carryover from CNG/biomethane refueling stations recovered in a solvent2020In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 10, no 20, p. 11907-11917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle gas is often compressed to about 200 bar at the refueling station prior to charging to the vehicle's tank. If a high amount of oil is carried over to the gas, it may cause damage to the vehicles; it is therefore necessary to accurately measure oil carryover. In this paper, three analytical methods for accurate quantification of the oil content are presented whereby two methods are based on gas chromatography and one on FTIR. To better evaluate the level of complexity of the matrix, 10 different compressor oils in use at different refueling stations were initially collected and analysed with GC and FTIR to identify their analytical traces. The GC traces could be divided into three different profiles: oils exhibiting some well resolved peaks, oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks with some dominant peaks on top of the hump and oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks. After selection of three oils; one oil from each type, the three methods were evaluated with regards to the detection and quantification limits, the working range, precision, trueness and robustness. The evaluation of the three measurement methods demonstrated that any of these three methods presented were suitable for the quantification of compressor oil for samples. The FTIR method and the GC/MS method both resulted in measurement uncertainties close to 20% rel. while the GC/FID method resulted in a higher measurement uncertainty (U = 30% rel.).

  • 44.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Francini, Lorena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Sampling methods for renewable gases and related gases: challenges and current limitations2022In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 414, p. 6285-6294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable gases, hydrogen and biomethane can be used for the same applications as natural gas: to heat homes, power vehicles and generate electricity. They have the potential to contribute to the decarbonisation of the gas grid. Hydrogen blending with existing natural gas pipelines is also proposed as a means to increase the performance of renewable energy systems. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) technologies can be an answer to the global challenge of significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Due to production methods, these gases typically contain species in trace amounts that can negatively impact the equipment they come into contact with or pipelines when injected into the gas grid. It is therefore necessary to ensure proper (and stable) gas quality that meets the requirements set out in the relevant standards. The gas quality standards require the collection and transport of a representative gas sample from the point of use to the analytical laboratory; i.e., no compounds may be added to or removed from the gas during sampling and transport. To obtain a representative sample, many challenges must be overcome. The biggest challenge is material compatibility and managing adsorption risks in the sampling systems (sampling line and sampling vessels). However, other challenges arise from the need for flow measurement with non-pure gases or from the nature of the matrix. Currently, there are no conclusive results of short-term stability measurements carried out under gas purity conditions (suitable pressure, matrix, appropriate concentrations, simultaneous presence of several species). © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 45.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Francini, Lorena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Arques, Laurent
    AP2E, France.
    Comparison of optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography for the measurement of the main components and impurities in biogas, landfill gas, biomethane and carbon dioxide streams2023In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 34, no 9, article id 095011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we evaluated the performances of a custom-built optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFCEAS) instrument for the determination of the composition of energy gases, focusing on methane and carbon dioxide as main components, and carbon monoxide as impurities, in comparison with the well-established, validated, and traceable gas chromatographic method. A total of 115 real sample gases collected in biogas plants or landfills were analyzed using with both techniques over a period of 12 months. The comparison of the techniques showed that the virtual model which allows the measurement, needs to be optimized using real samples of varied compositions. The OFCEAS measurement technique was found to be capable of measuring both the main components and a trace component in different matrices; to within a 2% measurement uncertainty (higher than the gas chromatograph/thermal conductivity detector (GC/TCD) method). The OFCEAS method exhibits a very fast response, does not require daily calibration, and can be implemented online. The agreements between the OFCEAS technique and the GC/TCD method show that the drift of the OFCEAS instruments remains acceptable in the long term as long as no change is made to the virtual model. Matrix effects were observed, and those need to be taken into consideration when analyzing different types of samples. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 46.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Fire protection of robotic top-loading compact storage systems2020In: Fire Protection Engineering, ISSN 1524-900X, no 85, p. 16-22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Egeltoft, Emil
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Godby, Tomas
    Brandskyddsbesiktning T Godby AB, Sweden.
    Driftserfarenheter från sprinkler-installationer i kyrkor och andra kulturhistoriskt värdefulla byggnader Brandforsk projekt 323-0102023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Operating experiences from sprinkler system installations in Swedish churches and other heritage buildings During the past 20 years, the fire protection of many historically valuable buildings in Sweden, especially ancient wooden churches, have been improved with the installation of fire detection and fire sprinkler systems. The objective of the project was to document the operating experiences from some of these buildings. Most of the installations have been made in small- or intermediate-sized wooden churches, but installations in larger buildings were identified. The operating experiences were documented by interviews with the end users, fire protection inspectors and system installers, and by study visits. Problems associated with the use of antifreeze were identified. Systems have experienced leakage, high and varying system pressures during warm days and unintentional activations due to breakage of nozzles or nozzle glass bulbs. For systems designed as dry-pipe systems, unintentional activations have occurred during wintertime due to freezing. Testing of dry-pipe systems during the study visits also revealed unacceptably long water delivery times and residual water in piping. Many of the smaller rural churches are using a high-pressure gas (nitrogen) driven pump because the public grid is unreliable. Three suffocation incidents were documented when nitrogen was unintentionally released into the technical space. Two of the incidents can be described as profoundly serious. The church building managers have a key role in the daily supervision of these installations. But it requires effort, technical competence and not least a substantial deal of self-interest. For some churches, high staff turnover has contributed to a lack of competence and supervision and maintenance has been neglected. High frequency of fault alarms (operating alarms) was also perceived as a burden and is also costly. Overall, the occurrence of technical problems and excessive costs have contributed to the shutdown or even dismantling of several sprinkler systems.

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  • 48.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sprinklersystem i fortifikationsläggningar under mark: Kostnad och nytta2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fortifikationsverket (FORTV) has expressed a desire to investigate the design, reliability, performance and cost of a sprinkler system for a typical underground fortification facility. Based on the cost and the benefit associated with a sprinkler system, a cost-benefit analysis was performed. In addition, water mist fire protection systems were studied. The installation cost analysis was based on two fictious facilities; a small facility with a net area of 1 000 m2 and a large facility with a 5 000 m2 net area.

    The estimated installation cost for a traditional sprinkler system in the smaller type facility is about SEK 1,3 million and about SEK 3,3 million for the larger type facility. The installation cost for a high-pressure water mist system is higher than that of a traditional sprinkler system for the smaller type facility but comparable for the larger type facility. A low‑pressure water mist system seems to be the least expensive option for both types of facilities. This is probably because the system, unlike a traditional sprinkler system, requires smaller pipe sizes, smaller water pumps and a smaller water tank and unlike a high-pressure system uses normal steel pipes and less expensive centrifugal pumps.

    The cost-benefit analysis for the fictitious type facilities shows that a sprinkler system is cost-effective, especially for the larger type facility. But it should be noted that the uncertainty in the data base is quite large, which means that the trends in the result can be used for further analysis, but that the actual values ​​of the benefit ratio should be viewed with some caution. The sprinkler system mainly has an effect to reduce the property loss. The expected benefit for personal injury is around one percent of the total benefit of the sprinkler system. This is because the risk of fatality and injuries in the event of a fire is small, as people can usually put themselves in safety. The reduction in property loss was assumed to be 75%, and an assumed lowered benefit of sprinklers (50% and 25% property loss reduction, respectively) leads to a lower benefit ratio but for the large type facility the benefit ratio is still above 1,0. The benefit of sprinklers also decreases if the assumed fire frequency is reduced. However, for the larger type plant, the calculation shows that there is still a benefit, even if the assumed fire frequency is halved. The same applies if the cost of replacement of expensive equipment is assumed to be half as high.

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  • 49.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Bleye, Jaime
    Centro de Seguridad Marítima Integral Jovellanos, Spain.
    Fire suppression and manual firefighting of batteryelectric vehicle fires on ro-ro ships2023In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, 2023, p. 107-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of electric vehicles has raised a concern about firefighting measures including water spray fire suppression systems (often denoted “drencher systems”) and tactics and equipment used for manual firefighting on ro-ro cargo and ro-ro passenger ships. A test series involving testing of two pairs of geometrically similar internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV’s) and battery electric vehicles (BEV’s) under as equal test conditions as possible were conducted to investigate the performance efficiency of the drencher system. In addition, manual firefighting equipment and tactics was evaluated on three BEV fire tests. It is concluded that a fire in the two types of vehicles is different but share similarities. However, a fire in a BEV does not seem to be more challenging than a fire in an ICEV for the drencher system design given in current international recommendations. Similarly, there are common (e.g., handheld fire extinguishers and hoses) and new (e.g., fire blanket and water-cooling device) manual firefighting equipment that effectively can be used to control or limit a BEV fire.

  • 50.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire testing of alternative fixed fire-extinguishing systems for ro-ro spaces onboard ships2023In: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 423-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) recognises five different fire-extinguishing system solutions for ro-ro spaces on ships; manually activated water spray systems (Resolution A.123(V)), automatic sprinkler or deluge water spray systems and automatic nozzle or deluge water mist systems (MSC.1/Circ.1430), high-expansion foam systems and gas fire-extinguishing systems (FSS Code). A review of potential commercially available alternative systems, their expected performance efficiency and water consumption was made. Based on this review, two alternative fire-extinguishing systems were identified: Compressed Air Foam Systems (CAFS) and foam-water sprinkler/spray systems. Fire suppression performance testing of water spray systems according to the Resolution A.123(V) and MSC.1/Circ.1430, a CAFS and a foam-water spray system were conducted. The water spray system per MSC.1/Circ.1430 had superior performance while the system per Resolution A.123(V) and the foam-water spray system limited the fire size to some degrees. The CAFS provided limited fire suppression performance.

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