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  • 1.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Långström, Runar
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Novel reactive bicomponent fibres: Material in composite manufacturing2012Ingår i: Journal of Nanostructured Polymers and Nanocomposites, ISSN 1790-4439, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 5-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypotheses that reactive uncured, thermoset bicomponent fibres can be prepared and mixed with reinforcing fibres and ultimately used in preparation of a composite was tested and is described. It is thought that such fibres have the two potential advantages: (1) to enable manufacturing with particle doped resins e.g. nanocomposites which add functionality to composites and (2) increased efficiency of structural composite manufacturing by increasing the level of automation. The structure of the thermoset fibres comprises of a sheath of thermoplastic and a core of uncured thermoset resin. Once manufactured, the fibres were wound with a reinforced fibre onto a plate, consolidated and cured. The resulting composite was examined and compared to other composites made with the same manufacturing method from commercially available materials. The results show that a laminate can be produced using these reactive bicomponent fibres. The resin system successfully impregnates the reinforcing carbon fibres and that the thermoplastic separates from the epoxy resin system during consolidation. In comparison to reference material, the bicomponent laminate shows promising characteristics. However, the processes developed are currently on a lab-scale and considerable improvement of various bicomponent fibre properties, such as the strength, are required before the technology can be used on a larger scale.

  • 2.
    Bjelkemyr, Marcus
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Jönsson, C.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Individuals’ perception of which materials are most important to recycle2015Ingår i: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2015, Springer New York LLC , 2015, s. 723-729Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have asked respondents to rank ten different waste fractions that are both common in manufacturing industry and easily recognizable. The purpose of the study has been to clarify to what extent individuals are able to identify the waste fractions that are most important to recycle from an environmental perspective. The individuals’ perception has then been correlated with a life cycle assessment of the ten materials. In addition, the respondents were also asked to rank the fractions according to cost. The results show that metals are consistently considered most important to recycle, and plastics are commonly among the top five amongst the ten waste fractions together with glass. The cellulose based fractions, cotton, and compost are commonly rated low. In addition, there is a perceived correlation between the environmental and economic impact.

  • 3.
    Bregner, Anders
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Swerea Lättvikt: Tekniska textilier2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Dang, B. T. T.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brelid, H.
    Södra Innovation, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Theliander, H.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of sodium ion concentration profile during softwood kraft pulping on delignification rate, xylan retention and reactions of hexenuronic acids2014Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 604-611Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this investigation was to study how different concentration profiles of sodium ions influence the delignification rate, hexenuronic acid formation/degradation and xylan retention under kraft cooking conditions. The concentration of sodium ions was varied in time between 0.52 and 3.00 mol/kg solvent, taking two different routes by the controlled addition of sodium carbonate. The reaction rates of hexenuronic acid were found to increase when the sodium ion concentration was at the higher level. Furthermore, the results implied that the kinetics of hexenuronic acid reactions responds rapidly to changes in sodium ion concentration. Delignification and the removal rates of xylan decreased rapidly after the sodium ion concentration was increased. However, when the sodium ion concentration was decreased, the response to the change was delayed. These findings indicate that effects of ionic strength on the rate of delignification and removal of xylan arise as a consequence of changes in solubility and on mass transport phenomena rather than from the rates of chemical reaction. Furthermore, the results suggest that non-dissolved xylan located in the fibre wall matrix may also sorb on cellulose surfaces relatively early on in the cook if the concentration of sodium ions is at high level

  • 5.
    Dang, B. T. T.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brelid, H.
    Södra Innovation, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Theliander, H.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Impact of ionic strength on delignification and hemicellulose removal during kraft cooking in a small-scale flow-through reactor2013Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 28, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of ionic strength/sodium ion concentration and type of anions on the delignification rate, the retention of xylan and the reactions of hexenuronic acid during kraft cooking has been investigated. A novel, small, flow-through digester was used in the cooking experiments in order to prevent the resorption of lignin and xylan and to maintain a constant concentration of active chemicals throughout the kraft cook. An increase in ionic strength/sodium ion concentration in the cooking liquor decreases the removal rate of both lignin and xylan during kraft cooking. In general, the removal rate of xylan tends to correlate with the delignification rate. However, the present investigation finds that the retention of xylan at a given degree of delignification increases at high ionic strength/sodium ion concentration. The addition of sodium salts of carbonate or chloride to the cooking liquor was shown to increase the rate of formation/degradation reactions of hexenuronic acids and the total amount of uronic acids substituted on the xylan backbone decreases when the concentration of sodium ions increases in the cooking liquor. This promotes a decrease in the dissolution of xylan and consequently an increase in the retention of xylan in the wood residues. The obtained results demonstrate that the xylan content in the fiber wall increases at higher ionic strength/sodium ion concentration, which leads to a slight increase in pulp yield.

  • 6.
    De Goey, Heleen
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, IVF. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Engström, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Linderoth, Henrik
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Design Thinking as Facilitator for Sustainable Innovation: Exploring Opportunities at SMEs in the Swedish Wood Products Industry2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Sustainable Innovation, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Design thinking (DT) is the application of design practice as an approach to innovate and initiate change. Recently, DT has received increasing attention as an approach to address sustainability challenges. However, this area is less studied. The purpose of this study was to explore how DT could enable small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Swedish wood products industry to create more sustainable offers. Various actors from this industry have identified the need to develop sustainable offers, although few discuss how this is realized. Interviews have been conducted with six SMEs to increase understanding on challenges they perceive with developing sustainable products. Current practice is compared to potential benefits of DT described in literature. Three main benefits of DT for SMEs have been identified. It could enable SMEs [1] to redefine the purpose of their offers, [2] to better address needs and [3] to address conflicting requirements regarding sustainability.

  • 7.
    Fasth Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    RISE., Swerea, IVF. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Groth, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Åkerman, Magnus
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Gullander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Creatinga structured MEETing arena for knowledge-sharing2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe how to create and structure a meeting arena bycombining organisation structure and information structure; this will be used in orderto create an innovative and creative arena for knowledge sharing and problemsolving within the company. The model is exemplified by four industrial casestudies.Results reveal that most of the companies do not have any standards forinformation- or knowledge sharing, most improvement potentials are seen instructuring and storing the right information (IS), aiming from tacit towards explicitknowledge (OS) and this could be done by structuring the questions in the OS-M-ISmodel and by creating innovative and creative meeting arenas.

  • 8.
    Færevik, H.
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Gersching, D.
    TITK, Germany.
    Hagström, Bror
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Novel temperature regulating fibers and garments2013Ingår i: Chemical Fibers International, ISSN 1434-3584, Vol. 63, nr 2, s. 89-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the EU-funded research project Noterefiga was to develop novel temperature regulating fibers and innovative textile products for thermal management and improved comfort. The temperature regulating effect was achieved by novel methods of incorporating large amounts of phase changing materials (PCM) in textile fibers. The PCM melted and absorbed the heat from the body in the form of latent heat when the body temperature increased. The PCM crystallized and the stored heat was released again when the temperature dropped. It was assumed that clothes with built-in thermo-regulating properties would provide maintained thermal comfort in difficult thermal environments and physical activity situations. The thermophysiological effect of the developed PCM garments were evaluated on 24 human subjects in controlled environmental conditions under the Noterefiga project.

  • 9.
    Gong, Guan
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Olofsson, Kurt
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Juntikka, Magdalena
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Oxfall, Henrik
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Experimental verification of Re-Fib method for recycling fibres from composites2016Ingår i: Advanced Manufacturing: Polymer and Composites Science, ISSN 2055-0359, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 27-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new concept, Re-Fib, was developed within an EU project, REFORM, to recycle carbon and glass fibres from polymeric composite structures, aiming to reduce energy consumption and degradation of fibre properties during recycling. The optimized thermolysis treatment, 24 h at 380 °C, was verified able to recover clean fibres from most tested composite structures containing different thermoset resins (epoxy, vinyl ester, and polyester) and various core materials such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PU), and wood. Single-fibre test was performed in dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The reduction of strength was found around 26% for carbon fibres and 34–40% for glass fibres. Thermally recycled glass fibres were melt-compounded with recycled polypropylene (rPP); the resultant composites showed promising mechanical properties.

  • 10.
    Gullander, Per
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Fast- Berglund, Åsa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    RISE., Swerea, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Groth, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Åkerman, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Stahre, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The innovative glue between the organization system and information system2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Gullander, Per
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Fässberg, Tommy
    Van Landeghem, Hendrik
    Zeltzer, Luiza
    Limère, Veronique
    Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine
    Stahre, Johan
    Comparing Two Methods to Measure Assembly Complexity From An Operator Perspective2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Hagnell, M. K.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Langbeck, Björn
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Åkermo, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cost efficiency, integration and assembly of a generic composite aeronautical wing box2016Ingår i: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 152, s. 1014-1023Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a cost-efficiency study of part integration with respect to reduced assembly effort within aeronautical composite structures. The study is performed through the use, and continuous improvement upon, a previously developed cost model. Focus are on the assembly and basic inspection a wing box, part of a section of a full wing, where involved parts are all considered to be manufactured from carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP). Treated cases range from traditional, mechanical joining, to high integration either through co-curing or co-bonding of composite structures. The outcome of presented cost study shows that increased integration decreases the overall production cost of said considered wing box. In general it is shown that co-curing or co-bonding reduces a number of cost-expensive assembly steps in comparison to mechanical joining

  • 13.
    Hedlund, Artur
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Theliander, H.
    Chalmers University of Engineering, Sweden.
    Coagulation of EmimAc-cellulose solutions: Dissolution-precipitation disparity and effects of non-solvents and cosolvent2015Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 32-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coagulation values (CVs) of cellulose/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc)/dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions for water, ethanol (EtOH) and 2-propanol (2-PrOH) were measured by using a light-scattering technique. Expressed in moles per mole, CVs of H2O were roughly twice as high as the CVs of EtOH and 2-PrOH at equal cellulose concentration for EmimAc solutions without the addition of a cosolvent. We explain this observation mainly in terms of alcohol alkyl chains efficiently obstructing EmimAc anions, preventing anions from simultaneously interacting with cellulose hydroxyls. DMSO was found to mitigate the coagulating effect of water and, to a lesser extent, the effect of alcohols. The explanation may be the different enthalpies of mixing for water and alcohols, with DMSO. An explanation on a more practical level, is based on how the solvatochromic α and β parameters change due to small amounts of the different non-solvents. Small additions of methanol induce disproportionately large changes from basic towards acidic properties for DMSO, meanwhile, the same stoichiometric addition of water induces only minor changes. Precipitation occurred at concentrations of non-solvent much higher than the concentrations that limit dissolution. The most likely explanation for this is a metastable region in the phase diagram. It was also seen that the typically observed inhibitive effect of high Mw on solubility during dissolution did not apply to precipitation. 

  • 14.
    Hedlund, Artur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Coagulation of cellulose-EmimAc-DMSO solutions studied in order to control properties of wet-spun cellulose fibers2016Ingår i: The 7th Workshop on cellulose, regenerated cellulose and cellulose derivatives, 2016, s. 49-52, artikel-id 15Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Hjort, Stefan
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Folksams färgtest - 4: En undersökning av funktionen hos 45 vanliga utomhusfärger2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2000-talet har försäkringsbolaget Folksam bidragit till att tre stora oberoende studier av utomhusfärger för träfasader genomförts i Sverige. Resultatet har varit nedslående med en övervägande del ”dåliga” färger. Testprogrammet har fortsattunder ytterligare en tvåårsperiod och presenteras nu i rapporten ”Folksams färgtest – 4”. Studien omfattar 45 av våra vanligaste utomhusfärger och panelerna har exponerats under två års tid på fyra teststationer i landet. De flesta färgerna har varit vattenburna och miljöanpassade. Många lasyrfärger har testats och denna gång har en rödbrun kulör valts (den vanligast förekommande kulören) till skillnad mot tidigare år då en vit kulör användes. Övriga färger har haft en vit kulör förutom slamfärg och trätjära som var rödaktiga. Alla färger har köpts in över disk och beträffande priset har det varierat från lågprisfärger till dyra linoljefärger. Färgerna har applicerats i enlighet med färgtillverkarnas rekommendationer. Syftet med undersökningen är att ge konsumenter och andra intressenter information om hur de vanligaste färgerna fungerar i vårt klimat. I studien undersöks flera parametrar och kriteriet för att få det samlade omdömet ”Färger med bäst resultat” är att färgsystemet ska klara två års utomhusexponering utan alltför grava anmärkningar.

    För bedömning av färgernas funktion har nedanstående kriterier använts.

    Färger med bäst resultat: Färger med betyg 0 och 1, dvs inga allvarliga anmärkningar.Färger med dåligt resultat: Färger med minst betyg 3 på minst två exponeringsstationer. Färger med tveksamt resultat: Här hamnar alla färger som inte hamnat i någon av ovanstående grupper. Av förklarliga skäl är spannet stort och några färger som ligger på gränsen till ”färger med bäst resultat” skulle säkert fungera bra i många tillämpningar.

    I tabellen på nästa sida rangordnas resultatet som respektive färgsystem har erhållit. Jämfört med tidigare tester har fler färger fått betyget ”bäst resultat” samtidigt som andelen färger som fått betyget ”sämst resultat” har minskat. Att det skulle bero på att klimatet har blivit ”snällare” mot färgerna är inte troligt. Exempelvis visar en jämförelse av klimatet mellan perioden 2008–2010 och 2010–2012 på ungefär likvärdigt klimat enligt SMHIs mätningar. En troligare förklaring till resultatförbättringen är istället att färgtillverkarna har förbättrat sina färger, vilket är en positiv utveckling för Sveriges färgkonsumenter. Att rangordna färger är vanskligt men underlättar för färgkonsumenten som vill ha ett ”snabbt svar”. I detta test har samma kriterier använts som i tidigare test och just uppdelningen i tre grupper innebär kanske att vissa färger bedöms orättvist. Därför är rådet att komplettera informationen i tabellen på nästa sida med den i bilaga D.

  • 16.
    Idström, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Gentile, Luigi
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gubitosi, Marta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Stenqvist, Björn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lund, Mikael
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Karl Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Wernersson, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dissolution of cellulose in tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide2016Ingår i: The 7th Workshop on cellulose, regenerated cellulose and cellulose derivatives, 2016, s. 15-18, artikel-id 1Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissolution of cellulose in tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAAc)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied combining experimental and simulation techniques. It was found that the dissolution limit at 40 °C corresponded to a molar ratio close to one acetate per cellulose anhydroglucose units. MD simulations suggested that the acetate ions bind to cellulose by dual hydrogen bonds. This effectively turns cellulose into a polyelectrolyte, attracting the bulky tetrabutylammonium (TBA+ ) counter ions, which prevent close contact between chains in the dissolved state. This hypothesis was tested by 1 Hand 13C-NMR spectroscopy, which confirmed that acetate forms hydrogen bonds to cellulose, and by diffusion NMR spectroscopy, which demonstrated a strong dynamic correlation between bound acetate and tetrabutylammonium in near-quantitative agreement with simulation. The present results suggest that offering hydrogen bonding to the acetate ions is the main driving force for dissolving cellulose and that the TBA+ counter ions form a diffuse layer around the acetate-decorated cellulose chains.

  • 17.
    Jäger, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, KIMAB. University West, Sweden.
    Alagan, N. T.
    University West, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    RISE., Swerea, IVF. University West, Sweden.
    Beno, T.
    University West, Sweden.
    Wretland, A.
    EDS Analysis of Flank Wear and Surface Integrity in Machining of Alloy 718 with Forced Coolant Application2016Ingår i: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier B.V. , 2016, s. 271-274Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been extensive research on forced coolant application, usually known as high pressure coolant, in machining heat resistant super alloys. This technology has shown to improve the tool life, chip segmentation, surface integrity and reduce the temperature in the cutting zone. A number of studies have been done on hydraulic parameters of the coolant. This study has been focused on residues on the flank face of the insert and residual stress on the workpiece surface generated by regular and modified cutting inserts. To identify any residual elements, analysis were done by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, EDS, on regular as well as modified inserts in combination with forced coolant application on both rake and flank face. The investigations have shown that the temperature gradient in the insert has changed between the regular and modified cutting inserts and that the tool wear and surface roughness is significantly affected by the modified cutting tool. © 2016 The Authors.

  • 18.
    Mahlamaki, K.
    et al.
    Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.
    Ström, Mikael
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Eisto, T.
    Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.
    Holtta, V.
    Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.
    Lean product development point of view to current challenges of engineering change management in traditional manufacturing industries2016Ingår i: 2009 IEEE International Technology Management Conference, ICE 2009, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering change management causes many challenges in product development. For example, the impacts of a change can delay the whole product development project, and failed communication of changes can cause rework and scrap in production. Lean product development is one possibility to organize product development efficiently. We have conducted four case studies in heavy machinery, mechatronics and automotive industries in Finland and in Sweden to identify the current challenges in engineering change management. The challenges are categorized according to the lean product development principles they break. The results show that most challenges are related to processes and technology used in engineering change management. We suggest that implementing lean product development principles at the case companies could help in overcoming the challenges discovered.

  • 19.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, IVF. Chalmers Universitet.
    Fasth, Åsa
    Chalmers Universitet.
    Dencker, Kersin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Gullander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Stahre, Johan
    Chalmers Universitet.
    Karlsson, Malin
    Chalmers Universitet.
    Davidsson, Anna
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Validation of the complexity index method at three manufacturing companies2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Mellin, Pelle
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, KIMAB.
    Lyckfeldt, Ola
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Harlin, P.
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sweden.
    Brodin, H.
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Blom, H.
    Carpenter Powder Products, Sweden.
    Strondl, Annika
    RISE., Swerea, KIMAB.
    Evaluating flowability of additive manufacturing powders, using the gustavsson flow meter2016Ingår i: World PM 2016 Congress and Exhibition, European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA) , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gustavsson flow meter (including standard ISO-13517) is in this paper used to measure flow rate of fine AM powders. In the current paper, the results are compared to the Hall flow meter and a Freeman FT4 powder rheometer in terms of success of measuring these AM powders. The robustness is clearly superior to the Hall flow meter. Compared to using the rheometer, the Gustavsson flow meter is faster and simpler to use; however, other powder-aspects are evaluated since little correlation was found. All methods of characterizing the flowability could distinguish between (1) two alloys, and (2) if the alloys were new or used (in SLM), and (3) if they were dried or non-dried.

  • 21.
    Nilsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Oxfall, Henrik
    RISE., Swerea, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wandelt, Wojciech
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Rychwalski, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Melt spinning of conductive textile fibers with hybridized graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black filler2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 130, nr 4, s. 2579-2587Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, two different carbon fillers: carbon black (CB) and graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) are studied as conductive fillers for the preparation of conductive polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites. In order to obtain a homogenous dispersion of GNP, GNP/PP composites were prepared by two different methods: solid state mixing (SSM) and traditional melt mixing (MM). The result shows that MM is more efficient in the dispersion of GNP particles compared to SSM method. PP nanocomposites containing only one conductive filler and two fillers were prepared at different filler concentrations. Based on the analysis of electrical and rheological properties of the prepared nanocomposites, it shows that a hybridized composite with equal amounts of GNP and CB has favorable processing properties. Conductive fibers with a core/sheath structure were produced on a bicomponent melt spinning line. The core materials of these fibers are the hybridized GNP/CB/PP nanocomposite and the sheath is pure polyamide. It was found that GNPs were separated during melt and cold drawing which results in the decrease of conductivity. However, the conductivity could partly be restored by the heat treatment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 22.
    Odenberger, Eva-Lis
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Perez Caro, Lluis
    RISE., Swerea, IVF. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marth, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schill, Mikael
    DYNAmore GmbH, Germany.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Prediction of damage and fracture during forming simulations in Alloy 7182016Ingår i: Aerospace Technology Congress 2016: Swedish aerospace technology in a globalised world, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Odenberger, Eva-Lis
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Perez Caro, Lluis
    RISE., Swerea, IVF. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Sweden.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Steffenburg-Nordenström, Joachim
    GKN Aerospace, Sweden.
    Comparison of forming, welding and heat treatment simulations in LS-DYNA and MSC Marc2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Trends in Welding Research & 9th International Welding Symposium of Japan Welding Society, 2016, s. 660-663Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing of components for aero engine structures from a flat sheet to the final shape usually requires several steps that may introduce residual stresses and shape distortions in the part. Depending on the magnitude, sign and distribution with respect to the stresses induced by the service load, the remaining stresses may affect the service life of a component, especially when submitted to cyclic loading. Nowadays, several types of software that have the ability to predict the residual stresses and the final shape of a component subjected to various process steps are available. However, literature shows a lack of comparison studies among different software tools for multi-step simulations of a manufacturing process. In this study, the manufacturing process chain of an aerospace component including forming, welding and heat treatment in the nickel-based superalloy 718 is modelled and simulated using the two finite element software codes LS-DYNA and MSC.Marc. The results from the displacement of the blank in the punch stroke direction, the equivalent plastic strain and the von Mises stress are compared between both FE codes. The displacement of the blank after forming is slightly higher in LS-DYNA compared to MSC.Marc, as well as the equivalent plastic strain and the von Mises stress values. This tendency is also observed after trimming and welding. It can also be noted that the distribution of both strains and stresses on the trimmed and welded parts varies between the two compared codes, presumably due to the choice of different solver options, explicit and implicit.

  • 24.
    Olsson, Carina
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE., Innventia.
    Reimann, Anders
    RISE., Innventia.
    Carbon fibres from lignin-cellulose precursor2015Ingår i: 18th International Symposium on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry, September 9-11, 2015, Vienna, 2015, Vol. Poster, s. 126-129Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of two-component precursor fibres for carbon fibre production has been produced by air-gap spinning of kraft lignin with cellulose as the fibreforming polymer, the latter from paper grade or dissolving grade pulps. The spun precursor fibres,containing 70% lignin and 30% cellulose, demonstrate mechanical properties equivalent to commercial textile fibres. Precursor fibres based on softwood kraft lignin were treated thermally in twosteps to carbon fibres, which had mechanical properties equal to or greater than those reported for neat lignin-based carbon fibres produced by melt spinning. An advantage of the wet-spun precursor fibres developed in this project is that they are more flexible and easier to handle with a decreased risk ofbrittle fracture. The potential for further improvement for the new type of carbon fibre is very high.

  • 25.
    Olsson, Carina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Idström, Alexander
    RISE., Swerea, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gentile, Luigi
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gubitosi, Marta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stenqvist, Björn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lund, Mikael
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Karl-Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Urban
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wernersson, E.
    Tetrabutylammonium acetate as a solvent for cellulose2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Rekommendationer för hållbar upphandling av textilier2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges landsting och regioner har beställt denna rapport som en del i det gemensamma arbetet med hållbarhetskrav i upphandling. Från och med 2010 ställer Sveriges landsting och regioner samma sociala krav på sina leverantörer vid upphandling. Målet är att leverantörerna ska arbeta aktivtmed ansvarstagande i samband med produktionen av de produkter som köps in. Under en studieresa till Indien som landstingen/regionerna genomförde i april 2009 uppmärksammades miljöaspekterna vid textilproduktion och denna rapport är ett fundament till att prioritera vilka miljökrav som ska ställas vidlandstingens/regionernas framtida textilupphandlingar.

    Swerea IVF har för att ta fram rekommendationer för vilka miljökrav som ska ställas i hållbar upphandling av textilier undersökt två produkter, dels genom livscykelanalys och dels genom en kemikalieriskbedömning. De två produktersom har studerats är en patientskjorta (bäddskjorta) och en personalcardigan i stickad trikå av bomull och polyester. En specifik frågeställning har varit omoblekt bomull är miljömässigt bättre än blekt ur ett livscykelperspektiv ochäven miljökonsekvenserna av olika val av infärgning av plagg. Resultatet från livscykelanalysen och kemikalieriskbedömningen har sedan använts för att ta fram rekommendationer. Det kan noteras att det är svårt att få fram relevanta data i leverantörskedjan för textila produkter vilket även gäller idetta projekt.

    Resultatet av livscykelanalysen visar att produktionen av trikån är totalt dominerande för miljöpåverkan i de olika faserna av livscykeln; produktion av trikå, våtberedning, konfektionering, transport och användning. I produktionen av trikå ingår bomullsodling och förädling till bomullsgarn samtråvaror till och framställning av polyestergarn och stickningen till trikå. Ianvändningsfasen har tvättprocessen enligt överenskommelse lämnats utanför beräkningarna i studien, då det inte direkt påverkar kriterierna för att köpa in textilier. Tidigare studier visar att tvättprocessen ger ett stort bidrag till miljöpåverkan under livscykeln och detta diskuteras i rapporten. När det gäller blekprocessen visar studien att det är inte någon större skillnad i miljöpåverkan mellan att bleka (med väteperoxid) och att inte bleka skjortan. Dock är denna slutsats dragen utifrån information om att den processen som används i verkligheten i Indien motsvarar den svenska process som använts för modelleringen (bästa tillgängliga teknik). En övergång från blekt till oblekt medför mindre användning av optiskt vitmedel, och är på så sätt en merhållbar lösning. Det går i dagsläget inte att bedöma miljömässiga för- och nackdelar med olika recept för infärgning, då sådan information inte är allmänt tillgänglig idag i leverantörsledet om dessa kemikalier. En meleradlösning skulle fungera genom att enbart infärga polyestern, vilket skulle minska miljöpåverkan genom både minskad vatten, energi, och kemikaliekonsumtion. Det som kan sägas om ett optimalt färgrecept är att omalla landsting väljer samma färg, nyans och övrigt utseende skulle detinnebära större förutsättningar att driva igenom sina miljökrav.

    Slutsatsen från den kemiska riskbedömningen är att det saknas mycket data om de ämnen som används under produktionen och de åtgärder som har vidtagits för att minimera hälso- och miljöpåverkan. Framförallt saknas information om ämnenas bioackumulerande förmåga och data omfördelningen av emissioner i avloppet, d v s effektiviteten i vattenreningen. Författarna anser att den scoring modell som presenterats i rapporten är användbar som ett redskap för att bedöma hälso- och miljöpåverkan i produktionen och för att fatta beslut om vilka kemikalier som ska användas. Utgående från den informationen som är allmänt tillgänglig idag i leverantörsledet är det dock svårt att få in tillräckligt mycket av den informationen som krävs för att modellen ska vara användbar och kunna bedöma vilket kemikalierecept som är det bästa alternativet.

    Nedan följer kortfattat Swerea IVFs rekommendationer på vad som kan förbättras.

    1. Sätt krav även i produktionsledet, inte bara på varan. - Ställ krav på att det inte används kemiska ämnen klassificerade som Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC)1 varken vidtillverkning eller som tillsatser i offererade varor. - Kräv att få in data om kemikalier i relevanta textila processer:         Säkerhetsdatablad/materialdatablad som håller den kvalitet och kompletthet som föreskrivs i REACH Bilaga2.         Data om utsläppsmängder efter rening och vilken typ av reningsanläggning som används. - Skapa en lista över tillåtna kemikalier, eller kräv kemikalier med exempelvis maxvärdet 16 enligt scoring modellen. - Ställ kunskapskrav på leverantörerna dels kring vilka kemikalier som används i produktionen och dels kring deras processers miljöpåverkan

    2. Skapa en ”road map” för hur kraven i framtiden ska öka i rimlig takt och stegvis.

    3. Sätt krav som går att säkerställa och följa upp och lägg resurser på uppföljningen.

    4. Underlätta för landstingen att samordna sina krav - Verka för utveckling av upphandlingskriterierna i flera organisationer som SIS, Miljöstyrningsrådet, Nationella Textilrådet eller andra forum. - Öka standardiseringen av landstingskläder. Skriv in i SIS TK332 hur plaggen ska vara och öppna inte för variationer i varje landsting.

    5. Överväg byte till fibrer framställda från skogsråvara.

    Författarna till den här rapporten rekommenderar att landstingen/regionerna skaffar sig bättre kunskap om produktionsprocesserna och de verkliga förhållandena i leverantörsländerna. Det finns stora kunskapsluckor, vilket inte är specifikt för landstingen utan en genomgående trend inom hela textilbranschen, och en konsekvens av att produktionen sker i avlägsna länder.

    Det krävs sannolikt att kunderna har krav på processerna för att få in data från produktionsprocesserna. För att landstingen/regionerna ska kunna ställa krav på processerna utifrån sina förutsättningar bör landsting/regioner ta fram gemensamma krav som inte innebär snedvriden konkurrens och lägga resurser på att följa upp dem.

  • 27.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Szpeig, Magdalena
    Livscykelanalys av Z-Bee, ett eldrivet fordon i kompositmaterial2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola .
    Kurdve, Martin
    Bjelkemyr, Marcus
    Mälardalens högskola .
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE., Swerea, IVF. Mälardalens högskola .
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola .
    Industrial waste management within manufacturing: A comparative study of Tools, policies, visions and concepts2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Trey, Stacy
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Lundevall, Åsa
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Olsson, Sara
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Influence of cure conditions on the properties of a one-compenent moisture-cured polyurethane adhesive in the context of green gluing of wood2012Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 126, nr S1, s. E297-E304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Stormvinter, A.
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Kristofferssen, H.
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Olofsson, A.
    Scania, Sweden.
    Haglund, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Biwersi, K.
    Scania, Sweden.
    Effect of hardenability and press quenching on distortion of crown wheels2014Ingår i: Thermal Process Modeling - Proceedings from the 5th International Conference on Thermal Process Modeling and Computer Simulation, ICTPMCS 2014 / [ed] Papp R.MacKenzie S.Goldstein R.Ferguson B.L., ASM International , 2014, s. 149-155Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Press quenching is used to control distortion of large transmission components, e.g. case hardened crown wheels. The unsystematic distortion arises from non-uniformity in the steel properties and processing conditions and is a major concern for gear manufactures. In the present work a methodology is developed to analyze how various properties and parameters influence the distortion during press quenching of crown wheels. To obtain realistic quenching characteristics, to be used for simulation, a number of experiments are carried out on an industrial press quenching machine. In addition, the distortion potential from hardenability is surveyed on a set of non-press quenched crown wheels and quantified by 3D- scanning. Based on the experimentally obtained quenching characteristics the press quenching process is simulated by FEM. Impact of steel properties, quenching characteristics and processing conditions on the distortion is discussed and analyzed in relation to the experiments. From the results it may be concluded that press quenching is a powerful tool that can limit the impact of distortion carriers. However, to exploit the full capability of press quenching and thereby increase process optimization it is necessary to better quantify the distortion carriers in the parts to be hardened. Copyright © 2014 ASM International ® All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Svensson, M.
    et al.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Sweden.
    Mark, A.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Sweden.
    Edelvik, F.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Sweden.
    Kressin, J.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Sweden.
    Bolin, R.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Sweden.
    Segerdahl, D.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Sweden.
    Carlson, J. S.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Sweden.
    Wahlborg, Per Johan
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Sundbäck, M.
    Volvo Car Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Process Simulation and Automatic Path Planning of Adhesive Joining2016Ingår i: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier B.V. , 2016, s. 298-303Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesive joining is frequently used in the automotive industry. In the pursuit of reducing weight, adhesive joining is important due to the possibility of joining different types of materials. The process is often automatised in order to reduce cycle time. In this paper we aim to present a novel framework that includes detailed process simulation and automatic generation of collision free robot paths and in this way improve the quality of the joint and reduce both cycle time and processing time. To verify the simulations, the properties of the adhesive bead have been compared to experiments with good agreement. © 2016 The Authors.

  • 32.
    Zhang, S.
    et al.
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Zeng, X.
    University of Twente, Netherlands; Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Matthews, D. T. A.
    Tata Steel, Netherlands.
    Igartua, A.
    IK4-Tekniker, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Vidal, E.
    IK4-Tekniker, Spain.
    Contreras Fortes, J.
    Acerinox Europa SAU, Spain.
    Saenz de Viteri, V.
    IK4-Tekniker, Spain.
    Pagano, F.
    IK4-Tekniker, Spain.
    Wadman, Boel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Wiklund, E. D.
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    van der Heide, E.
    University of Twente, Netherlands; TU Delft, Netherlands.
    Selection of micro-fabrication techniques on stainless steel sheet for skin friction2016Ingår i: Friction, E-ISSN 2223-7690, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 89-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This review gives a concise introduction to the state-of-art techniques used for surface texturing, e.g., wet etching, plasma etching, laser surface texturing (LST), 3D printing, etc. In order to fabricate deterministic textures with the desired geometric structures and scales, the innovative texturing technologies are developed and extended. Such texturing technology is an emerging frontier with revolutionary impact in industrial and scientific fields. With the help of the latest fabrication technologies, surface textures are scaling down and more complex deterministic patterns may be fabricated with desired functions, e.g., lotus effect (hydrophobic), gecko feet (adhesive), haptic tactile, etc. The objective of this review is to explore the surface texturing technology and its contributions to the applications. © 2016, The author(s).

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