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  • 1.
    Almgren, K. M.
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Kerholm, M.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Gamstedt, E. K.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Effects of moisture on dynamic mechanical properties of wood fiber composites studied by dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy2008In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 27, no 16-17, p. 1709-1721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood fiber reinforced polylactide is a biodegradable composite where both fibers and matrix are from renewable resources. In the development of such new materials, information on mechanical behavior on the macroscopic and the molecular level is useful. In this study, dynamic Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is used to measure losses at the molecular level during cyclic tensile loading for bonds that are characteristic of the cellulosic fibers and the polylactid matrix. This molecular behavior is compared with measured macroscopic hysteresis losses for different moisture levels. The results show that moisture ingress will transfer the load from the fibers to the matrix, and that a more efficient fiber-matrix interface would diminish mechanical losses. Although the dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy method is still qualitative, this investigation shows that it can provide information on the stress transfer of the constituents in wood fiber reinforced plastics.

  • 2.
    Almgren, Karin M.
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Moisture uptake and hygroexpansion of wood fiber composite materials with polylactide and polypropylene matrix materials2009In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 1809-1816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of butantetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) modification, choice of matrix, and fiber volume fraction on hygroexpansion of wood fiber composites have been investigated. Untreated reference wood fibers and BTCA-modified fibers were used as reinforcement in composites with matrices composed of polylactic acid (PLA), polypropylene (PP), or a mixture thereof. The crosslinking BTCA modification reduced the out-of- plane hygroexpansion of PLA and PLA/PP composites, under water-immersed and humid conditions, whereas the swelling increased when PP was used as matrix material. This is explained by difficulties for the BTCA- modified fibers to adhere to the PP matrix. Fiber volume fraction was the most important parameter as regards out-of-plane hygroexpansion, with a high-fiber fraction leading to large hygroexpansion. Fiber-matrix wettability during processing and consolidation also showed to have a large impact on the dimensional stability and moisture uptake.

  • 3.
    Almgren, Karin M.
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Nygård, P.
    Malmberg, F.
    Lindblad, J.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Role of fibre-fibre and fibre-matrix adhesion in stress transfer in composites made from resin-impregnated paper sheets2009In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 551-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper-reinforced plastics are gaining increased interest as packaging materials, where mechanical properties are of great importance. Strength and stress transfer in paper sheets are controlled by fibre-fibre bonds. In paper-reinforced plastics, where the sheet is impregnated with a polymer resin, other stress-transfer mechanisms may be more important. The influence of fibre-fibre bonds on the strength of paper-reinforced plastics was therefore investigated. Paper sheets with different degrees of fibre-fibre bonding were manufactured and used as reinforcement in a polymeric matrix. Image analysis tools were used to verify that the difference in the degree of fibre-fibre bonding had been preserved in the composite materials. Strength and stiffness of the composites were experimentally determined and showed no correlation to the degree of fibre-fibre bonding, in contrast to the behaviour of unimpregnated paper sheets. The degree of fibre-fibre bonding is therefore believed to have little importance in this type of material, where stress is mainly transferred through the fibre-matrix interface.

  • 4. Alriksson, B.
    et al.
    Rose, S. H.
    Van Zyl, W. H.
    Sjöde, A.
    Nilvebrant, N. -O
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Jönsson, L. J.
    Cellulase production from spent lignocellulose hydrolysates by recombinant aspergillus niger2009In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 75, no 8, p. 2366-2374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recombinant Aspergillus niger strain expressing the Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase Cel7B was grown on spent hydrolysates (stillage) from sugarcane bagasse and spruce wood. The spent hydrolysates served as excellent growth media for the Cel7B-producing strain, A. niger D15[egI], which displayed higher endoglucanase activities in the spent hydrolysates than in standard medium with a comparable monosaccharide content (e.g., 2,100 nkat/ml in spent bagasse hydrolysate compared to 480 nkat/ml in standard glucose-based medium). In addition, A. niger D15[egI] was also able to consume or convert other lignocellulose-derived compounds, such as acetic acid, furan aldehydes, and phenolic compounds, which are recognized as inhibitors of yeast during ethanolic fermentation. The results indicate that enzymes can be produced from the stillage stream as a high-value coproduct in secondgeneration bioethanol plants in a way that also facilitates recirculation of process water.

  • 5. Aulin, C.
    et al.
    Shchukarev, A.
    Lindqvist, J.
    Malmström, E.
    Wågberg, L.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Wetting kinetics of oil mixtures on fluorinated model cellulose surfaces2008In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 317, no 2, p. 556-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wetting of two different model cellulose surfaces has been studied; a regenerated cellulose (RG) surface prepared by spin-coating, and a novel multilayer film of poly(ethyleneimine) and a carboxymethylated microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). The cellulose films were characterized in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). AFM indicates smooth and continuous films on a nanometer scale and the RMS roughness of the RG cellulose and MFC surfaces was determined to be 3 and 6 nm, respectively. The cellulose films were modified by coating with various amounts of an anionic fluorosurfactant, perfluorooctadecanoic acid, or covalently modified with pentadecafluorooctanyl chloride. The fluorinated cellulose films were used to follow the spreading mechanisms of three different oil mixtures. The viscosity and surface tension of the oils were found to be essential parameters governing the spreading kinetics on these surfaces. XPS and dispersive surface energy measurements were made on the cellulose films coated with perfluorooctadecanoic acid. A strong correlation was found between the surface concentration of fluorine, the dispersive surface energy and the contact angle of castor oil on the surface. A dispersive surface energy less than 18 mN/m was required in order for the cellulose surface to be non-wetting (Ξe > 90 °) by castor oil.

  • 6. Aulin, C.
    et al.
    Varga, I.
    Claesson, P. M.
    Wågberg, L.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Buildup of polyelectrolyte multilayers of polyethyleneimine and microfibrillated cellulose studied by in situ dual-polarization interferometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation2008In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 2509-2518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyethyleneimine (PEI) and Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) have been used to buildup polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) on silicone oxide and silicone oxynitride surfaces at different pH values and with different electrolyte and polyelectrolyte/colloid concentrations of the components. Consecutive adsorption on these surfaces was studied by in situ dual-polarization interferometry (DPI) and quartz crystal microbalance measurements. The adsorption data obtained from both the techniques showed a steady buildup of multilayers. High pH and electrolyte concentration of the PEI solution was found to be beneficial for achieving a high adsorbed amount of PEI, and hence of MFC, during the buildup of the multilayer. On the other hand, an increase in the electrolyte concentration of the MFC dispersion was found to inhibit the adsorption of MFC onto PEL The adsorbed amount of MFC was independent of the bulk MFC concentration in the investigated concentration range (15-250 mg/L). Atomic force microscopy measurements were used to image a MFC-treated silicone oxynitride chip from DPI measurements. The surface was found to be almost fully covered by randomly oriented microfibrils after the adsorption of only one bilayer of PEI/MFC. The surface roughness expressed as the rms-roughness over 1 ÎŒm2 was calculated to be 4.6 nm (1 bilayer). The adsorbed amount of PEI and MFC and the amount of water entrapped by the individual layers in the multilayer structures were estimated by combining results from the two analytical techniques using the de Feijter formula. These results indicate a total water content of ca. 41% in the PEM.

  • 7. Aulin, C.
    et al.
    Yun, S. H.
    Wåberg, L.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Design of highly oleophobic cellulose surfaces from structured silicon templates2009In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 1, no 11, p. 2443-2452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structured silicon surfaces, possessing hierarchical porous characteristics consisting of micrometer-sized cavities superimposed upon a network of nanometer-sized pillars or wires, have been fabricated by a plasma-etching process. These surfaces have superoleophobic properties, after being coated with fluorinated organic trichlorosilanes, on intrinsically oleophilic surfaces. By comparison with flat silicon surfaces, which are oleophilic, it has been demonstrated that a combination of low surface energy and the structured features of the plasma-etched surface is essential to prevent oil from penetrating the surface cavities and thus induce the observed macroscopic superoleophobic phenomena with very low contact-angle hysteresis and low roll-off angles. The structured silicon surfaces were coated with cellulose nanocrystals using the polyelectrolyte multilayer technique. The cellulose surfaces prepared in this way were then coated with a monolayer of fluorinated trichlorosilanes. These porous cellulose films displayed highly nonwetting properties against a number of liquids with low surface tension, including alkanes such as hexadecane and decane. The wettability and chemical composition of the cellulose/silicon surfaces were characterized with contact-angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The nano/microtexture features of the cellulose/silicon surfaces were also studied with field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The highly oleophobic structured cellulose surfaces are very interesting model surfaces for the development of biomimetic self-cleaning surfaces in a vast array of products, including green constructions, packaging materials, protection against environmental fouling, sports, and outdoor clothing, and microfluidic systems.

  • 8. Bellani, G.
    et al.
    Lundell, F.
    Söderberg, L. Daniel
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Experimental study of the forming process: Fluid velocity and fluid-fiber interaction measurements2008In: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon '08, TAPPI Press, 2008, Vol. 2, p. 1145-1176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the flow in the direct vicinity of a forming wire and a fiber network during forming is reported. The measurements are performed with Particle Image Velocimetry in a scaled system. Index-of-refraction matching is used to gain optical access to the flow. Time resolved measurements of the flow velocity in the vertical and horizontal direction is obtained in a plane with a size of 60 × 40 fiber diameters. The spatial resolution is 2 fiber diameters. Data is obtained for three drainage velocities and two different lengths of the fibers. The relative level of the velocity fluctuations are found to decrease with drainage velocity and is higher in the flow above a network mat of shorter fibers compared to the network made of longer fibers. The size of the flow structures is obtained by spectral analysis and compared for the six cases.

  • 9. Bergenstråhle, M.
    et al.
    Wohlert, J.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Mazeau, K.
    Berglund, L. A.
    Dynamics of cellulose - Water interfaces: NMR spin - Lattice relaxation times calculated from atomistic computer simulations2008In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 112, no 9, p. 2590-2595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13C NMR) spectroscopy has often been used to study cellulose structure, but some features of the cellulose NMR spectrum are not yet fully understood. One such feature is a doublet around 84 ppm, a signal that has been proposed to originate from C4 atoms at cellulose fibril surfaces. The two peaks yield different T1, differing by approximately a factor of 2 at 75 MHz. In this study, we calculate T1 from C4-H4 vector dynamics obtained from molecular dynamics computer simulations of cellulose I β-water interfacial systems. Calculated and experimentally obtained T1 values for C4 atoms in surface chains fell within the same order of magnitude, 3-20 s. This means that the applied force field reproduces relevant surface dynamics for the cellulose-water interface sufficiently well. Furthermore, a difference in T1 of about a factor of 2 in the range of Larmor frequencies 25-150 MHz was found for C4 atoms in chains located on top of two different crystallographic planes, namely, (110) and (110). A previously proposed explanation that the C4 peak doublet could derive from surfaces parallel to different crystallographic planes is herewith strengthened by computationally obtained evidence. Another suggested basis for this difference is that the doublet originates from C4 atoms located in surface anhydro-glucose units with hydroxymethyl groups pointing either inward or outward. This was also tested within this study but was found to yield no difference in calculated T1.

  • 10.
    Berglin, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Salman, H.
    Svärd, S. H.
    Amand, L. -E
    Pilot-scale combustion studies with kraft lignin as a solid biofuel2008In: Engineering, Pulping and Environmental Conference 2008, TAPPI Press, 2008, Vol. 4, p. 2571-2580Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing of kraft lignin precipitated from black liquor to produce a solid biofuel with high energy density and low ash content has been developed in research programs by STFI-Packforsk and partners. In preparation for full-scale combustion trials, tests were carried out on pilot scale in a 150 kW powder burner and in a 12 MWfluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Lignin powder could be fired in a powder burner with good combustion performance after some trimming of the airflows to reduce swirl. Lignin dried to 10 % moisture content was easy to feed smoothly and had less bridging tendencies in the feeding system than wood/bark powder. In the CFB boiler lignin was easily handled and co-fired together with bark. Although the filter cake was broken into smaller pieces and fines the combustion was not disturbed. When co-firing lignin with bark, the sulfur emission increased compared to bark firing only, but most of the sulfur was captured by calcium in the bark ash. Conventional sulfur capture with addition of limestone to the bed was also demonstrated. The sulfur content in the lignin had a significantly positive effect on reducing the alkali chloride content in the deposits, thus reducing the high temperature corrosion risk.

  • 11. Bradley, E. L.
    et al.
    Honkalampi-Hämäläinen, U.
    Weber, A.
    Andersson, M. A.
    Bertaud, F.
    Castle, L.
    Dahlman, O.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Hakulinen, P.
    Hoornstra, D.
    Lhuguenot, J. -C
    Mäki-Paakkanen, J.
    Salkinoja-Salonen, M.
    Speck, D. R.
    Severin, I.
    Stammati, A.
    Turco, L.
    Zucco, F.
    von Wright, A.
    The BIOSAFEPAPER project for in vitro toxicity assessments: Preparation, detailed chemical characterisation and testing of extracts from paper and board samples2008In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 2498-2509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nineteen food contact papers and boards and one non-food contact board were extracted following test protocols developed within European Union funded project BIOSAFEPAPER. The extraction media were either hot or cold water, 95% ethanol or Tenax, according to the end use of the sample. The extractable dry matter content of the samples varied from 1200 to 11,800 mg/kg (0.8-35.5 mg/dm2). According to GC-MS the main substances extracted into water were pulp-derived natural products such as fatty acids, resin acids, natural wood sterols and alkanols. Substances extracted into ethanol particularly, were diisopropylnaphthalenes, alkanes and phthalic acid esters. The non-food contact board showed the greatest number and highest concentrations of GC-MS detectable compounds. The extracts were subjected to a battery of in vitro toxicity tests measuring both acute and sublethal cytotoxicity and genotoxic effects. None of the water or Tenax extracts was positive in cytotoxicity or genotoxicity assays. The ethanol extract of the non-food contact board gave a positive response in the genotoxicity assays, and all four ethanol extracts gave positive response(s) in the cytotoxicity assays to some extent. These responses could not be pinpointed to any specific compound, although there appeared a correlation between the total amount of extractables and toxicity.

  • 12. Brodin, Ida
    et al.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Gellerstedt, Göran
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Kraft lignin as feedstock for chemical products: The effects of membrane filtration2009In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 290-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of technical lignins as feedstock for chemical products will require improvements in purity, molecular mass distribution, and thermal behavior. Therefore, industrial black liquors from kraft pulping of softwood (spruce/pine) and hardwood (birch and Eucalyptus globulus) have been subjected to fractionation according to molecular mass by ceramic membranes. After acidification and isolation of the lignin fractions, a variety of analytical methods have been applied to help understand their structure - property relationships. From all types of lignin, the chemical and polymeric properties of fractions isolated from the membrane permeates were more homogeneous. This demonstrates that technical kraft lignins, irrespective of origin, may constitute an interesting feedstock for products, such as carbon fibers, adhesives, and phenol-based polymers.

  • 13.
    Bäckström, Marie
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Drotz, Mattias
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Tubek-Lindblom, Anna
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Blohm, Erik
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Improved product quality and increased production capacity with impulse technology2009In: Pulp and Paper Canada, ISSN 03164004, Vol. 110, no 2, p. 33-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impulse technology is a high-intensity web consolidation technique in which water is removed from a wet paper web by the combined action of mechanical pressure and intense heat. Pilot trials show that impulse technology is a feasible technique for the production of linerboard, paperboard and fine paper. Improved dewatering, combined with enhanced mechanical and surface properties, are benefits that can be obtained.

  • 14.
    Bäckström, Marie
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Hammar, Lars-Åke
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Htun, Myat
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Beatability and runnability studies of ion-exchanged unbleached kraft pulps on a pilot scale2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has earlier been shown that the counter-ion to the charged groups in the fibre has a significant effect on the beatability of fibres, but large-scale investigations of this effect are scarce in the literature. The objectives of the present study were therefore to develop a technique to ion-exchange large quantities of industrial pulp into the Na +-form using complexing agents and to study the effect of industrial-scale refining on pulp fibres in the Na +-form and how the fibres respond to industrial-like papermaking. The results show that ion-exchange can indeed be conducted on a pilot-scale using complexing agents such as DTPA. The study further indicates that an energy reduction of 50% at a given WRV or tensile index may be achieved if the fibres are converted to Na +-form prior to pilot-scale refining. By applying these techniques in full-scale production, it should thus be possible to save significant amount of energy, especially in the case of papers made from unbleached pulp that usually demands a higher degree of beating to achieve sufficient strength.

  • 15.
    Bäckström, Marie
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Kolar, Marie-Claude
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Htun, Myat
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Characterisation of fines from unbleached kraft pulps and their impact on sheet properties2008In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 546-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fines are an essential component in the papermaking process because they have a profound influence on the behaviour of the wet web and on the mechanical properties of the final sheet. Primary fines are present in the pulp prior to refining, and secondary fines are produced during refining. In the present investigation, two commercially manufactured unbleached pulps with kappa numbers of 45 and 90 were studied in terms of how they responded to refining with respect to the quality of fibre and fines. Primary and secondary fines were collected and characterised and their impact on sheet strength was evaluated by addition of known amounts to a refined and decrilled pulp. All the measured paper strength properties improved when primary and secondary fines were added. The strength improvement was generally somewhat higher in the second case. The effect was more pronounced at a higher level of addition. We attribute the main strength improvements associated with fines to improved consolidation by the creation of capillary forces between the surfaces.

  • 16. Carlsson, A.
    et al.
    Söderberg, L. Daniel
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lundell, F.
    Fibre orientation in the boundary layers of a planar converging channel2008In: Paper Conference and Trade Show: PaperCon '08, TAPPI Press, 2008, Vol. 1, p. 384-408Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental results on the fibre orientation in a laboratory scale headbox are reported. A steerable filter was used to determine the orientation of bleached and unbeaten birch fibres at different distances from one of the inclined walls of the headbox contraction. Due to optical limitations only low concentrations were studied. It is shown that the orientation varies with the distance from the wall. For most studied cases a more anisotropic profile was found closer to the wall.

  • 17.
    Coppel, Ludovic G.
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Modelling the effect of simultaneous contrast on perceived whiteness2008In: 4th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision and 10th International Symposium on Multispectral Colour Science, 2008, p. 183-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceived colour from a surface does not only depend on its optical properties and the illumination. Several studies have demonstrated the simultaneous contrast effect that makes the appearance of coloured patches depend on neighbouring colours. In this study the perceived whiteness of white patches surrounded by induction fields of different shades was evaluated by asking observers to give a magnitude estimate of perceived whiteness of the patches in comparison to a white reference. The perceived whiteness of patches with identical tristimulus values was highly dependent on the shade of the induction field and the patch size did not significantly affect the perceived whiteness. The recent CIECAM02-m2 colour appearance model was tested together with two whiteness equations. A combination of ClECAM02-m2 and a non-linear whiteness equation defined in the whole colour space predicted much of the observed simultaneous contrast effect. However, the model performed better for dark induction fields than for light induction fields. The model rated patches surrounded by light blue and light yellow equally, whereas the observers clearly rated the patches with light yellow induction field as whiter than the patches with light blue induction field. A deeper analysis of the CIECAM02-m2 model indicated that the simultaneous contrast model used cannot accurately predict the change in hue for high lightness induction fields. A potential improvement for predicting contrast simultaneous effect would be to base the calculations not only on the difference between the induction field and the background, but on the difference between the patch stimulus and the induction field.

  • 18.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Tormund, Disa
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    ֖stlund, Johanna
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Processing of xylan from hardwood spent cooking liquors2008In: 2008 Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference - Proceedings: NWBC 2008, 2008, p. 114-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports conditions suitable for recovering and processing 4-O-methylglucuronoxylans from birch and eucalyptus spent kraft cooking liquors. The black liquor originating from the initial heating-up phase in birch kraft cooking exhibits a high xylan and low lignin concentration. The maximum concentration of polymeric xylan was found in the cooking liquor just before the cook reached its final cooking temperature. For eucalyptus kraft cooking, however, lignin was more abundant than xylan in the cooking liquor throughout the whole cook. Birch and eucalyptus xylan, exhibiting good purity, were produced by employing a process chain involving, redrawing of xylan-rich spent liquor early in the cook, upgrading of the spent liquor employing ultrafiltration with diafiltration followed by precipitation and drying.

  • 19. Dammström, S.
    et al.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Gatenholm, P.
    On the interactions between cellulose and xylan, a biomimetic simulation of the hardwood cell wall2009In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plant cell wall exhibits a hierarchical structure, in which the organization of the constituents on different levels strongly affects the mechanical properties and the performance of the material. In this work, the interactions between cellulose and xylan in a model system consisting of a bacterial cellulose/glucuronoxylan (extracted from aspen, Populus tremula) have been studied and compared to that of a delignified aspen fiber material. The properties of the materials were analyzed using Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA) with moisture scans together with dynamic Infra Red -spectroscopy at dry and humid conditions. The results showed that strong interactions existed between the cellulose and the xylan in the aspen holocellulose. The same kinds of interactions were seen in a water-extracted bacterial cellulose/xylan composite, while unextracted material showed the presence of xylan not interacting with the cellulose. Based on these findings for the model system, it was suggested that there is in hardwood one fraction of xylan that is strongly associated with the cellulose, taking a similar role as glucomannan in softwood.

  • 20.
    De Magistris, Federica
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Finite element modelling of wood cell deformation transverse to the fibre axis2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 240-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling of wet wood under compression and combined shear and compression load was performed to simulate the mechanical pulping of wood chips in refiners. Experiments have shown that the wet fibre network exhibit two different deformation modes; an S-shape mode associated with compression and a brick-shape mode associated with combined shear and compression. To study the factors governing the mechanical behaviour of the fibre network a material model with the characteristics originating from the properties of the wood polymers was developed and was used in a three-dimensional finite element analysis. The effects of material properties were investigated by comparing models with anisotropic one-layer cell walls and orthotropic multi-layer cell walls. The deformation achieved both under compression and under combined shear and compression was found to be similar independent of the material constants used or the number of layers of the cells walls. This implies that the most important factor governing the deformation pattern of the fibre network is the cell structure itself.

  • 21.
    Duker, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Ankertors, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Glad-Nordmark, Gunnel
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    The use of CMC as a dry strength agent: The interplay between CMC attachment and drying2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 65-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the ability to use high molecular weight CMC as a dry strength agent in paper and how the drying of the pulp, either before or after the CMC attachment, affects the mechanical properties of the paper. The effect of the counter-ion form used during drying and reslushing was also investigated. In the case of the calcium and hydrogen counter-ion forms, drying after CMC attachment had no impact on the attached amount. The sodium form did, however, result in some detachment of CMC. When the pulp was dried prior to CMC treatment, the counter-ion form had no effect on the attached amount. It was also shown that drying of a CMC-treated pulp reduced the positive effect of CMC on the mechanical properties. Nevertheless, the mechanical properties were still better than those of paper made from the never-dried reference pulp. The relative effect of CMC on the mechanical properties was independent of the drying strategy used and the counter-ion form did not affect the mechanical properties. However, surface carboxymethylation prior to drying resulted in sheets with better final mechanical properties than sheets made from pulp that had first been dried and then surface carboxy-methylated.

  • 22.
    Duker, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    On the mechanisms behind the ability of CMC to enhance paper strength2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The attachment of CMC to pulp is known to have a strong impact on the tensile strength properties. The mechanisms behind the strength-enhancing ability of the CMC have been investigated by studying the effect of surface carboxymethylation on some basic fibre and sheet properties. Standard methods were used for the strength evaluation, and the relative bonded area was determined from both light-scattering measurements and BET-analysis. The effect of CMC on the shear bond strength was calculated using Page’s equation. The attachment of CMC was shown to increase the shape factor and reduce the number of kinks per fibre, which is beneficial for the tensile strength. Surface carboxymethylation also increased the relative bonded area, but on a small-scale structural level detectable only using BET-analysis and not by the scattering coefficient. The sheet density was not affected by the treatment. CMC attachment also increased the shear bond strength. In order to use Page’s equation for this evaluation, the relative bonded area had to be determined by BET-analysis. The positive effect of CMC on sheet formation also contributed to an increase in tensile strength.

  • 23.
    Eriksen, O.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Holmqvist, Claes
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Mohlin, Ulla-Britt
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Fibre floc drainage - a possible cause for substantial pressure peaks in low-consistency refiners2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 321-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is floc drainage a cause for substantial pressure peaks in low-consistency refiners? High-resolution pressure measurements using a sensor mounted in a stator bar have been performed. These show that during the initial stage of a bar crossing, a substantial pressure is sometimes generated, which can reach a level of several MPa. A theoretical model that explains the pressure pulses is presented. The analysis is based on the assumption that a floc of fibres is trapped between the leading edges of the approaching bar surfaces. Water needs to be expelled from the part of the floc that is compressed and enters into the refiner gap. The hydrodynamic resistance to expel the liquid from within the floc is shown to give rise to substantial pressures in the region close to the leading edge of the rotor bar. The estimated pressures are of the same order as the measured values.

  • 24.
    Eriksen, O.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Holmqvist, Claes
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Mohlin, Ulla-Britt
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Theoretical outline of the cause for observed cavitation in a low-consistency refiner2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 315-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-frequency pressure measurements in the refining zone have exposed features that strongly indicate that cavitation occurs regularly in low-consistency refiners. In order to explain the cavitation, it is assumed that pulp fibres are trapped between opposing bars on the discs in such a way that liquid is hindered to enter into the refining gap at the leading edge of the stator bar. In order to prevent a void as the rotor bar drags liquid away from the trapped fibres, a counter flow towards the trapped fibres then needs to be set up. This necessitates a low pressure in the gap, in order that liquid from the groove in front of the rotor is accelerated into the gap at the required rate. It appears that this mechanism can yield gap pressures several hundred kPa below that in the grooves. Cavitation bubbles may then form, which subsequently collapse and cause shock waves when the pressure rises after the bar passage.

  • 25. Fernández, A.
    et al.
    Sánchez, M. D.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lagaron, J. M.
    Effects of ionizing radiation in ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers and in composites containing microfibrillated cellulose2008In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 126-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on the effect of gamma radiation on morphological, thermal, and water barrier properties of pure ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH29 and EVOH44) and its biocomposites with the nanofiller microfibrillated cellulose (2 wt%). Added microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) preserved the transparency of EVOH films but led to a decrease in water barrier properties. Gamma irradiation at low (30 kGy) and high doses (60 kGy) caused some irreversible changes in the phase morphology of EVOH29 and EVOH44 copolymers that could be associated to crosslinking and other chemical alterations. Additionally, the EVOH copolymers and the EVOH composites reduced the number of hygroscopic hydroxyl functionalities during the irradiation processing and novel carbonyl based chemistry was, in turn, detected. As a result of the above alterations, the water barrier properties of both neat materials and composites irradiated at low doses were notably enhanced, counteracting the detrimental effect on water barrier of adding MFC to the EVOH matrix. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 26.
    Gellerstedt, Göran
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Biorefinery lignins: A feedstock for chemicals and materials2008In: 2008 Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference - Proceedings: NWBC 2008, 2008, p. 111-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid expansion of bioethanol production will, in addition to fermentation of sugar and starch sources, also involve a conversion of lignocellulosic materials. In addition to carbohydrates, this will result in large amounts of lignin which can be used as process fuel but also serve as a feedstock for chemicals. Modern kraft mills constitute a second source of lignin since the energy balance is such that a partial outtake of lignin can be permitted. Irrespective of source, technical lignins must be upgraded, e.g. by purification in order to acquire properties which make them suitable as feedstock in value-added products.

  • 27. Girlanda, O.
    et al.
    Fellers, Christer
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Delamination position in multiply paperboard achieved by different testing methods2008In: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 107-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination properties of nine commercial multiply board grades, both coated and uncoated, were measured using four testing methods, the Z-Directional Tensile Strength test (ZDTS), the Scott Bond Test (SBT), the Wheel Delamination Test (WDT), and the IGT method. The positions of delamination failure in the thickness direction were then recorded and compared. For the IGT tests, failure profiles and the final failure positions were evaluated. The results showed that the failures in the ZDTS, WDT and SBT tests mainly occur in the middle ply, whereas failure in the IGT tests occurs in the top plies as well as in the middle ply. Some boards presented also more than one failure position for the same type of test. The correlations between the different delamination resistances were also investigated. The WDT and SBT method showed a good correlation, whereas no correlation could be found between the other methods.

  • 28. Girlanda, O.
    et al.
    Fellers, Christer
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Modelling of delamination in paperboard during sheet offset printing2008In: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delamination of multiply paperboard during offset printing is caused by the ink tack induced forces applied on the surface of the board. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the influence of mechanical properties of the plies and interface resistance on the delamination behaviour of the paperboard. Paperboard was modelled as a four-ply sandwich structure. A user-defined interface model described the mechanical behaviour of the interfaces between the plies. The results in terms of critical ink tack length and stress conditions in the interfaces at delamination initiation were defined for different ply structures. The delamination process in multiply paperboard was highly dependent on the stress concentration caused by the ink tack. The delamination always occurred in the interface between top and middle ply. The main stress component causing delamination was tensile stress in the thickness direction, whereas the interlaminar shear was less relevant. Bending stiffness and in-plane tensile stiffness influenced the critical ink tack length, but did not affect the stress situation at the delamination point.

  • 29. Gräns, D.
    et al.
    Hannrup, B.
    Isik, F.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    McKeand, S.
    Genetic variation and relationships to growth traits for microfibril angle, wood density and modulus of elasticity in a Picea abies clonal trial in southern Sweden2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 494-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic variation in wood density, microfibril angle (MFA), wood stiffness (MOE), height, diameter and volume was investigated in a 26-year-old Norway spruce [(Picea abies (L.) Karst.] clonal trial in southern Sweden. Wood quality measurements were performed on 10 mm increment cores using SilviScan. For MFA, mean values of annual rings showed the highest value (30°) at ring 2 counting from the pith, followed by a steep decrease and a gradual stabilization around ring 12 at approximately 14°. MOE showed a monotonic increase from 5 GPa to 14 GPa when moving from pith to bark. High broad-sense heritability values were found for wood density (0.48), MFA (0.41) and MOE (0.50). All growth traits displayed heritability values of similar magnitudes as reported in earlier studies. The generally high age-age correlations between different sections of the wood cores suggested that early selection for wood quality traits would be successful. Owing to unfavorable genetic correlations between volume and MOE, the correlated response indicated that selection for volume only at age 10 would result in a 0.27% decrease in weighted MOE at age 26 for every 1% increase in volume.

  • 30.
    Hammar, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Sandberg, C.
    Sundström, L.
    The effect of process conditions on pulp quality development at low consistency refining of mechanical pulp - TMP2009In: 2009 International Mechanical Pulping Conference : proceedings: IMPC 2009, 2009, p. 182-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low consistency refining (LC) as a second refining stage, after a HC-defibration is an energy-efficient process solution. This HC-LC concept has for some time been explored in pilot scale and shown promising results. However it is clear that in order to obtain an optimal development of pulp properties the LC-refining has to be optimized with regard to process conditions. In this study the effects of temperature, pH, and specific edge load in the LC-refining on the pulp quality were investigated. For this purpose a mobile LC refiner rig placed after a primary stage HC mill refiner in the Braviken Paper mill, Holmen Paper was used. The trials show that energy savings are possible with preserved properties in the production of mechanical pulp. High temperature, high pH and low specific edge load were indicated to be preferable for both the tensile index development and for preserving the fibre length of the pulp. An increased degree of refining developed as expected the tensile index but too high specific energy resulted in some fibre shortening.

  • 31. Henriksson, M.
    et al.
    Berglund, L. A.
    Isaksson, P.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Nishino, T.
    Cellulose nanopaper structures of high toughness2008In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Biomacromolecules, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 1579-1585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils offer interesting potential as a native fibrous constituent of mechanical performance exceeding the plant fibers in current use for commercial products. In the present study, wood nanofibrils are used to prepare porous cellulose nanopaper of remarkably high toughness. Nanopapers of different porosities and from nanofibrils of different molar mass are prepared. Uniaxial tensile tests are performed and structure - property relationships are discussed. The high toughness of highly porous nanopaper is related to the nanofibrillar network structure and high mechanical nanofibril performance. Also, molar mass correlates with tensile strength. This indicates that nanofibril fracture controls ultimate strength. Furthermore, the large strain-to-failure means that mechanisms, such as interfibril slippage, also contributes to inelastic deformation in addition to deformation of the nanofibrils themselves. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  • 32.
    Holmqvist, Claes
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Dahlkild, A.
    Consolidation of sheared, strongly flocculated suspensions2008In: AIChE Journal, ISSN 0001-1541, E-ISSN 1547-5905, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 924-939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of a particle concentration dependent yield stress, previously employed in studies of uniaxial consolidation of a flocculated solid phase dispersed in a liquid, is extended to comprise flocculated phase shear strength. The inter-particle stresses are modeled by assuming that the stress state is always located on a yield-surface in stress-space, whose form is adopted from the Cam-clay plasticity theory for the quasistatic consolidation of soil. By treating the time-dependent dewatering of a suspension trapped between a permeable filter and a sliding piston, as well as the asymptotic limit of a cross-flow filtration situation, the differences with respect to the conventional uniaxial models are made apparent, and the effects of the shear stresses on the consolidation process are elucidated. Applying shear is predicted to increase the rate of the drainage process, because of a reduced load bearing capacity of the flocculated phase, and the correspondingly higher pore pressures.

  • 33. Horvath, A. T.
    et al.
    Horvath, A. E.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Wågberg, L.
    Adsorption of highly charged polyelectrolytes onto an oppositely charged porous substrate2008In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 24, no 15, p. 7857-7866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption behavior of highly charged cationic polyelectrolytes onto porous substrates is electrostatic in nature and has been shown to be highly dependent on the poly electrolyte properties. Copolymers of acrylamide (AM) and diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) were synthesized to have a range of macromolecular properties (i.e., charge density and molecular mass). Traditional titration methods have been complemented by fluorescence labeling techniques that were developed to directly observe the extent that fluorescently labeled poly(AM-co-DADMAC) adsorbs into the pore structure of a cellulosic substrate. Although contributing to the electrostatic driving force, the charge density acts to limit adsorption to the outermost surface under electrolyte-free conditions. However, adsorption into the pores can occur if both the molecular mass and charge density of poly(AM-co-DADMAC) are sufficiently low. Adsorption initially increases as the electrolyte concentration is increased. However, the electrostatic persistence length of poly(AM-co-DADMAC) restricts the polyelectrolyte from entering the pores. Therefore, changes in the adsorption behavior at moderate electrolyte concentrations have been attributed to swelling of the polyelectrolyte layer at the fiber exterior. The adsorption behavior changes again at high electrolyte concentrations such that poly(AMco-DADMAC) could adsorb into the pore structure. This occurred when the electrolyte concentration was sufficient to screen the electrostatic persistence length of poly(AM-co-DADMAC), provided that the entropie driving force for adsorption still existed. It is suggested that adsorption into the pore structure is a kinetic process that is governed by localized electrostatic interactions between poly(AM-co-DADMAC) and the charges located within the pores.

  • 34. Horvath, A. T.
    et al.
    Horvath, A. E.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Wågberg, L.
    Adsorption of low charge density polyelectrolytes to an oppositely charged porous substrate2008In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 24, no 13, p. 6585-6594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption behavior of a low charge density cationic polyelectrolyte to cellulosic fibers has been studied. Cationic dextran served as a model polyelectrolyte, as it can be prepared over a range in molecular mass and charge density. The adsorption behavior of the cationic dextran was measured in electrolyte-free conditions using polyelectrolyte titration techniques. By fluorescent labeling the cationic dextran, the extent to which adsorption occurs inside the porous structure was further determined by fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cationic dextran having a sufficiently low charge density adsorbed into the pores, although the extent the cationic dextran adsorbed was governed by the molecular mass. The adsorption behavior of the cationic dextran was also studied in various electrolyte concentrations. The adsorbed mass monotonically decreased with increasing electrolyte, as the electrostatic interaction with the substrate was more effectively screened. This behavior also suggests that the interactions between adsorbed polyelectrolyte chains, i.e. lateral correlation effects, are negligible for low charge density polyelectrolytes. Finally, the effect of having a preadsorbed layer of cationic dextran on the adsorption behavior was determined in electrolytefree conditions using fluorescent double staining techniques. The preadsorbed cationic dextran had almost no effect on the adsorption of low molecular mass fractions. Low molecular mass fractions directly adsorbed into the pore structure, as opposed to adsorbing to a free surface and diffusing into the pores. It was also shown that cationic dextran can be selectively adsorbed to different locations, such that the surface of a porous substrate can be treated uniquely from the bulk.

  • 35. Horvath, A. T.
    et al.
    Horvath, A. E.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Wågberg, L.
    Diffusion of cationic polyelectrolytes into cellulosic fibers2008In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 24, no 19, p. 10797-10806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The penetration of cationic polyelectrolytes into anionic cellulosic fibers was evaluated with fluorescent imaging techniques in order to clarify the mechanism and time scales for the diffusion process. The bulk charge of the cellulosic fibers indirectly creates a driving force for diffusion into the porous fiber wall, which is entropic in nature due to a release of counterions as the polyelectrolyte adsorbs. The individual bulk charges in the fiber cell wall also interact with the diffusing polyelectrolyte, such that the polyelectrolyte diffuses to the first available charge and consequently adsorbs and remains fixed. Thus, subsequent polyelectrolyte chains must first diffuse through the adsorbed polyelectrolyte layer before adsorbing to the next available bulk charges. This behavior differs from earlier suggested diffusion mechanisms, by which polyelectrolytes were assumed to first adsorb to the outermost surface and then reptate into the pore structure. The time scales for polyelectrolyte diffusion were highly dependent on the flexibility of the chain, which was estimated from calculations of the persistence length. The persistence length ultimately depended on the charge density and electrolyte concentration. The charge density of the polyelectrolyte had a greater influence on the time scales for diffusion. High charge density polyelectrolytes were observed to diffuse on a time scale of months, whereas the diffusion of low charge density polyelectrolytes was measured on the order of hours. An influence of the chain length, that is, steric interactions due the persistence length of the polyelectrolyte and to the tortuosity of the porous structure of the fiber wall, could only be noted for low charge density polyelectrolytes. Increasing the electrolyte concentration increased the chain flexibility by screening the electrostatic contribution to the persistence length, in turn inducing a faster diffusion process. However, a significant change in the diffusion behavior was observed at high electrolyte concentrations, at which the interaction between the polyelectrolyte charges and the fiber charges was almost completely screened.

  • 36. Hultén, P.
    et al.
    Viström, Magnus
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Mejtoft, Thomas
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    New printing technology and pricing2009In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 253-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study analyzes five Swedish printing houses’ pricing with respect to their investments in new printing technology. The new printing technology made it possible for the printing houses to market new products and services to meet the demand for shorter delivery times and full service solutions. Although this demand was apparent, the printing houses’ opportunities to capitalize on their investments depended on the characteristics of the market segment that they served. Findings indicate that the new printing technology made it possible to change prices when the new services reduced delivery time and costs, and when there were substantial differences between the new services and available substitutes. Thus, customers accepted new pricing when the utilization of the new technology resulted in financial gains and time reductions.

  • 37. Jin, H.
    et al.
    Pääkkö, M.
    Netral, J.
    Berglund, L. A.
    Neagu, C.
    Bourban, P. -E
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Ikkala, O.
    Effects of different drying methods on textural properties of nanocellulose aerogels2009In: ICCM International Conferences on Composite Materials, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing research interest in nanocellulose aerogels because they have low density, hierarchical structure and they are biodegradable and biocompatible. Typically, aerogels are made by supercritical drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying. This work will report the effects that different drying methods have on textural properties of aerogels.

  • 38. Johnson, J.
    et al.
    Lestelius, M.
    Blohm, Erik
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Räättö, Peter
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Järnström, L.
    The interaction between water and liner and newsprint in flexographic CI-printing press2008In: Proceedings of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts: TAGA, 2008, p. 267-284Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printing with water-borne ink in a multicolor printing press subjects the substrate to water, because the water-borne ink contains water. The water in the ink can influence the surface properties, e.g. the roughness and compressibility, and can lead to dimensional changes. On the other hand, water derived from the ink can enhance or reduce some aspects of the final print quality depending on the properties of the substrate. In the present study, the manner in which the print quality of unsized paper substrates was influenced by pre-treatment with water and surfactant solution in flexographic printing was investigated. The experiment was designed to imitate the effects of multicolor printing using water-borne ink, since the water derived from the ink in an early printing unit influences the mechanical, dimensional and wettability properties of the paper and can thus influence the print quality in a later printing unit. This paper complements a previous paper, which showed a reduction of print mottle on a white top liner (with a low water absorptivity and wettability) when water and surfactant solution were applied just before the ink. The substrates investigated in the present paper were standard newsprint and a white top testliner, with high water absorptivity and wettability. The printing trials were performed in a central impression flexographic printing press using two of the six printing units. The first unit was used to apply water and a mixture of water and a surfactant and a second unit was used to transfer water-borne ink. The effects of water and surfactant pre-treatment were evaluated by measuring the print quality and the substrate properties. The pre-treatment by water and surfactant solution showed no effect on print mottle in the case of newsprint or testliner.

  • 39. Johnson, O.
    et al.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Roos, A.
    Hugosson, M.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Consumer perceptions and preferences on solid wood, wood-based panels, and composites: A repertory grid study2008In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 663-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about consumer perception and preferences on solid wood, wood-based panels, and wood-based composites is important for product development and marketing. The aim of this study was to identify attributes and associations that people use to describe different types of wood materials and to explore how they relate to preferences. The study involved nine samples that were evaluated with the Kelly’s repertory grid technique and content analysis. Based on respondents’ answers, 19 core categories reflecting sample attributes were extracted. General preferences for each sample were also recorded. Principal component analysis generated two factors describing 1) naturalness, wood-likeness, softness, unprocessed origin, living, pleasant, and high value; and 2) solid and homogeneous impression. A third, preliminary factor included categories describing irregular pattern, sleekness, and smoothness. The wood samples were most liked, whereas composites and panels were not appreciated. Preferred core categories were naturalness, wood-likeness, smoothness, living impression, and value. The least liked core categories were processed, hard, and high weight. The implications of the results for product development and marketing are discussed. © 2008 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology.

  • 40.
    Kamel, H.
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Ström, Göran
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Schoelkopf, J.
    Gane, P. A. C.
    Characterization of ink adhesion failure; effect of pre-dampening of carbonate containing coatings2008In: TAPPI Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium Proceedings, TAPPI Press, 2008, p. 228-241Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To attain an improved knowledge about ink adhesion during offset printing we have developed a laboratory procedure to measure adhesion failure between ink and coated paper during ink setting. This paper describes the technique and a special case, where a normal coating and a coating with excess dispersing agent, in the form of sodium polyacrylate, have been printed. Characterization of the areas where the adhesion had failed at the pull-off points after tack testing was done by determining "white" spots in the retained print using image analysis. The "white" spots represent areas where ink has detached from the coating after contact with a rubber coated cylinder. This area is referred to as adhesion failure area (AFA). A minimum in AFA at the point of maximum in tack force was found for both coatings where the print was applied onto dried coating. When the coatings, however, were pre-damped, AFA increased on the normal coating over a short time period, independent of the dampening level. For the coating with excess dispersant, on the other hand, the higher dampening level strongly increased the AFA. The strong impact of excess dispersing agent in this work may be explained by a number of related effects, including increased polarity of the coating surface, and an associated moisture layer, and an effective reduction of fine pores due to water-swelling polyacrylate that blocks these pores.

  • 41.
    Karlholm, Ingeli
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindgren, Karin
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Water-soluble kraft lignin products through sulphomethylation2008In: 2008 Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference - Proceedings: NWBC 2008, 2008, p. 207-208Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42. Kirabira, J. B.
    et al.
    Jonsson, S.
    Drotz, Mattias
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Karathanasis, Michael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Norman, Bo
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Properties of super-calendered (SC) paper filled with Mutaka kaolin, Uganda2009In: Paper Technology, ISSN 0306252X, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 11-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experts from Makerere University (Mak) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) evaluated three mineral deposits for the production of fireclay refractories in Uganda and found that the Mutaka kaolin deposit in Uganda is of extraordinary quality. Ten tons of raw kaolin was mined at the Mutaka deposit and shipped in a container to STFI-Packforsk, Sweden. The kaolin was first dry sieved in a shaker to remove sand, mica and large particles. The sieved material was mixed with fresh water to a dry content of 15% and hydrocycloned to separate and remove coarse particles. The paper machine trials were carried out at STFI-Packforsk on the EuroFEX paper machine. The results indicate that the potential of exploiting the Mutaka kaolin deposit for paper filling is high. Paper filled with Mutaka clay resulted in a slightly lower opacity, however, with an optimized particles size distribution, this could be improved.

  • 43. Kostiainen, K.
    et al.
    Kaakinen, S.
    Saranpää, P.
    Sigurdsson, B. D.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Linder, S.
    Vapaavuori, E.
    Stem wood properties of mature Norway spruce after 3 years of continuous exposure to elevated [CO2] and temperature2009In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 368-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to investigate the interactive effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], and temperature on the wood properties of mature field-grown Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees. Material for the study was obtained from an experiment in Flakaliden, northern Sweden, where trees were grown for 3 years in whole-tree chambers at ambient (365 ÎŒmol mol-1) or elevated [CO2] (700 ÎŒmol mol-1) and ambient or elevated air temperature (ambient +5.6°C in winter and ambient +2.8°C in summer). Elevated temperature affected both wood chemical composition and structure, but had no effect on stem radial growth. Elevated temperature decreased the concentrations of acetone-soluble extractives and soluble sugars, while mean and earlywood (EW) cell wall thickness and wood density were increased. Elevated [CO2] had no effect on stem wood chemistry or radial growth. In wood structure, elevated [CO2] decreased EW cell wall thickness and increased tracheid radial diameter in latewood (LW). Some significant interactions between elevated [CO2] and temperature were found in the anatomical and physical properties of stem wood (e.g. microfibril angle, and LW cell wall thickness and density). Our results show that the wood material properties of mature Norway spruce were altered under exposure to elevated [CO2] and temperature, although stem radial growth was not affected by the treatments. © 2008 The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  • 44. Laaksometsä, C.
    et al.
    Axelsson, E.
    Berntsson, T.
    Lundström, Anders
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Energy savings combined with lignin extraction for production increase: Case study at a eucalyptus mill in Portugal2009In: Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, ISSN 1618-954X, E-ISSN 1618-9558, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 77-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous research by the authors, energy savings combined with lignin extraction as a means to debottleneck the recovery boiler were evaluated on a model mill. The study showed that this concept was a profitable alternative to recovery boiler upgrade. In the present paper the concept was taken one step further, and the potential for energy savings and possibilities for lignin extraction were evaluated at a real mill: a market pulp mill in Portugal. The energy-saving methods proved to be applicable also to the real mill and the steam-saving potential was 4.2 GJ/ADt or 33%. Lignin extraction trials with bench scale equipment showed that lignin extraction was fully viable at the studied mill. A full-scale lignin separation plant according to the LignoBoost concept, combined with energy savings, was simulated in a computer environment and compared to installation of a new recovery boiler. A new recovery boiler had an investment cost four times higher than the LignoBoost concept combined with energy savings, but the electricity production would be higher. The profitability for a production increase of 16% was calculated for both cases. Steam savings combined with LignoBoost were found to have better profitability unless the electricity price is very high. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  • 45.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Fahlcrantz, Carl-Magnus
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Forsgren, Gunnar
    Iggesund Paper Board.
    Making subjective assessments objective: A mottle ruler for calibration of panel assessments of perceived print mottle2008In: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon '08, 2008, Vol. 4, p. 2086-2124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to establish principles and procedures for: a) digital simulation and output of reference samples for perceived print mottle assessment, b) calibration of subjective assessments to a common unit of measurement. We decided to calibrate our scales using the just-noticeable difference (jnd) as the unit of subjective measurement and adapt a ruler system for the assessment of perceived print mottle as suggested by Keelan [1]. Jnd used in this context means the smallest difference in mottle required for 50 % of a test panel to genuinely detect a difference. Reference samples were designed in Matlab by adding a stochastic noise to a homogeneous gray (33 % reflectance) and a cyan image, that, when printed would have the resemblance of print mottle typically seen in offset printing. Digital images were converted to CMYK images, rasterized using a Best Color Rip, and printed on Epson Archival Matte paper on an Epson Stylus Photo 2100 ink-jet printer. The resulting prints were evaluated for the magnitudes of perceived visual mottle as well as for the just-noticeable differences, jnds, using panels of assessors. The prints were also evaluated for instrumental mottle using STFI-Packforsk’s image analysis based STFI-mottle software. Two mottle rulers were assembled. A mottle ruler is a set of 5 cm ח5 cm reference samples, varying widely in magnitudes of reflectance variation resembling real print mottle. Rulers were constructed for simulated K40 % (gray) and cyan 100 % (cyan) samples. The rulers are arranged with approximate twelve reference samples separated by intervals of three jnds each. A Round Robin evaluation of visually perceived print mottle was performed. Two rulers, cyan and gray, together with test samples to be evaluated against the rulers, were sent out to four participating companies. The test sets consisted of eight commercially produced samples (printed paper and board) and twelve simulated samples varying not only in the magnitude of mottle but also in character (e.g. coarseness and the orientation of the simulated noise). The purpose of using test samples with appearances that differed from the reference samples was to test the performance of the approach. The mottle rulers were also applied at Iggesund Paperboard during a test period of eight months in which more than 300 printed samples were assessed against the rulers. Round robin results showed good agreement between participating paper companies. The average standard deviations of the ratings against the rulers were ˜2.5 jnd units for the gray samples and ˜3.5 jnd units for the cyan samples. Some difficulties with the assessment technique were observed for the simulated samples, due to some samples having a very different visual character in terms of uncovered areas or noise that had a distinct orientation e.g. banding. Results from the testing period at Iggesund show less variability; average standard deviation for cyan 1.61 jnd and for gray 2.3 jnd. Overall, the calibration approach developed works very well, with the results showing a low variability of the ratings and a very good agreement between the different test panels, as well as a reasonably good correspondence between ratings of commercially produced samples and mottle measurements.

  • 46. Lindblad, M. S.
    et al.
    Dahlman, Olof
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Sjöberg, J.
    Albertsson, A. -C
    Modified galactoglucomannans from forestry waste-water for films and hydrogels2009In: American Chemical Society Symposium Series (ACS), ISSN 0097-6156, E-ISSN 1947-5918, Vol. 1017, p. 185-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemicelluloses are among the most abundant natural polymers in the world and are consequently a potential source for sustainable materials, that has so far been underexploited. Galactoglucomannans are the principal hemicelluloses in softwoods and can be found in, for example, industrial wood processing waste-water. Currently, we are investigating the fractionation and purification of O-acetylgalactoglucomannans from newsprint and fiberboard mill waste-waters, as well as the preparation of new barrier films with low oxygen permeation and hydrogel materials from the fractions obtained. Self-supporting films have been formed by solution-casting. Interesting oxygen barrier and mechanical strength properties were achieved for films obtained from a physical blend of O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan and either alginate or carboxymethylcellulose. To create oxygen barrier films with high resistance towards moisture, benzylated derivatives of O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan were made. A hydrogel is a polymeric material that swells in water but does not dissolve, valuable for applications including drug delivery. In order to obtain the right properties, we performed tailored cross-linking to create a flexible network structure. The chemical modification procedure involves a methacrylation reaction carried out under mild conditions. Herein we review past work and present some new data on fractionation and purification of galactoglucomannans. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  • 47.
    Lindfors, Eva-Lisa
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Iversen, Tommy
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Polysaccharide degradation in waterlogged oak wood from the ancient warship Vasa2008In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 57-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A rather extensive degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses was found in waterlogged oak wood samples from the ancient warship Vasa by size exclusion chromatography with the solvent system lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl/DMAc). The degradation has mainly occurred after salvage of the wreck, probably as a consequence of keeping iron contaminated wood in contact with air. The most likely explanation is Fenton type of reactions degrading the wood polymers and oxidising reduced sulphur forms to sulphuric acid. An increased degradation rate of the Vasa wood can be anticipated in the future if the sulphuric acid cannot be neutralised and the oxidative reactions cannot be quenched.

  • 48.
    Lindström, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Gamstedt, Kristofer
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Nobell, Nandi
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Razavi, Farvash
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Wickholm, Kristina
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Sustainable materials design2008In: 2008 Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference - Proceedings: NWBC 2008, 2008, p. 144-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally new materials have been developed in order to solve technological problems within the aerospace, military or medicine fields. Renewable materials are developed from another perspective; they are developed in order to meet the demands from a sustainable society. If they are developed to become replacement materials, they have to be better or cheaper in order to take market shares or there has to be a political willingness to promote them. Economical subsidies are never sound and a better strategy to introduce these new materials is to identify their unique properties and possibilities and to market them. One such strategy, materials design, will be discussed in this paper. Renewable materials open for new strategies in design. Traditionally, in the LCA perspective materials should be recycled as materials and preferably as the original material quality. This implies that there has to be a limited number of materials and they need to be identifiable in order to be sorted. Renewable, natural fibre reinforced materials will degrade during recycling materials and recycling. The consequence of this is that these materials should be recycled as energy. An integrated materials and product design will therefore be a new sustainable strategy. Researchers involved in R&D of new materials have been involved in discussions and collaborations with the R&D department of companies producing and marketing materials. In parallel, industrial designers and engineers involved in product development and design have had on-going discussion with the same companies, but through their marketing department. No communication between R&D and end-product designers. This paper suggest an R&D&D concept, Research and Development and Design, a hierarchical, integrated materials and product design strategy.

  • 49.
    Lindström, Tom
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Banke, K.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Larsson, Tomas
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Glad-Nordmark, Gunborg
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Boldizar, A.
    Nanoclay plating of cellulosic fiber surfaces2008In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 108, no 2, p. 887-891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A basic problem in making cellulose-reinforced composites is achieving a dispersion of cellulosic fibers in an often olephinic polymer matrix. Drying cellulosic fibers results in the formation of fiber flocs/nodules because of their strong interfiber bonding, and this makes the hydrophilic cellulosic fibers difficult to disperse in a hydrophobic matrix material. One common approach to alleviate floe formation is to adsorb cationic surfactant onto anionically charged cellulose, which reduces the interfiber bonding, decreases floe formation and gives better compatibility with the matrix. In this report, a different approach is taken, namely to adsorb nanoclays onto the cellulosic fibers, and thereby reduce the natural hydrogen-bonding affinity between fibers. In a second report, the same technology will be shown to be advantageous to decrease floe formation in oleophinic composites reinforced with cellulosic fibers. This article summarizes experiments aimed at optimizing the chemistry of deposition of montmorillonite clay onto fiber surfaces. The aim was to optimize the chemical conditions for the heterodeposition of the anionic clay onto cationically charged fluff pulp. The experiments were designed to provide a theoretical framework for the deposition of the nanoclay onto the pulp fibers. High Mw p-DADMAC and an exfoliated clay (achieved by passing the clay through a homogenizer) were used. As expected, a certain degree of charge overcompensation by adding an electrolyte was necessary to bring about deposition. The adsorbed amount of clay could be calculated from the charge balance between the overcompensated charge and the net clay charge, constituting the theoretical framework for nanoclay heterodeposition. As expected, montmorillonite clay greatly destroyed the joint strength between fibers (determined by evaluating the strength of paper made from treated fibers). The surface coverage (determined by ESCA) was shown to be a linear function of the attached amount of clay, and ∌3% clay was required to fully cover the fiber surfaces. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 50.
    Lindström, Tom
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) sizing: A review2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 202-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years, there have been great efforts to try to develop cellulose reactive sizing agents. The assumption in these developments have been that the covalent linkage allows permanent attachment of hydrophobic groups in a highly oriented state, which makes sizing possible at very low levels of added chemical. The main requirement of the molecule is that it should have a balance between the reactivity towards water, because of the necessity of making stable emulsions or dispersions, and its reactivity towards cellulose. These assumptions are to some extent mutually exclusive and a compromise must be sought. Although, many different types have been tried out over the years the most important sizes used are the Alkyl Ketene Dimers (AKD) and the Alkenyl Succinic Anhydrides (ASA). These sizing agents are at the opposite in terms of stability of hydrolysis and reactivity towards cellulose, where AKDs are the least reactive species and fairly stable towards hydrolysis, whereas ASAs are very reactive towards cellulose, but also sensitive to hydrolysis. The mechanism of action is fairly well known for AKD, but less known for ASA and AKD-sizing can be regarded as a pretty mature field from a scientific point of view. The aim of this contribution is to summarize the fundamental features of AKD-sizing and discuss and highlight the most important aspects for the practical papermaker. Over the years there have been many reviews (e.g. (Dumas 1975; Reynolds 1989; Eklund and Lindström 1991; Hodgson 1994; Roberts 1997; Hubbe 2006)) in the field of AKD-sizing, but there have been extensive recent research activities over the past 10 years and there is a need for a comprehension of these research activities.

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