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  • 1.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Byström, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Innovativa elsystem i byggnader: konsekvenser för brandsäkerhet2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sker en snabb teknikutveckling i den elektriska miljön i byggnader, framförallt i våra bostäder. Ett exempel är lokal produktion av el, där solcellsinstallationer blir alltmer populära. Sådan elproduktion medför även förändringar i övriga delar av byggnaders elektriska infrastruktur, såsom DC-nät och i vissa fall energilagring i batterisystem. Utvecklingen sker till stor del som ett svar på behovet av mer hållbara lösningar, ur ett växthuseffektperspektiv, för vår elförsörjning, och förstärks bland annat av statligt stöd och ökad tillgänglighet på marknaden.Ny elektrisk teknologi kan leda till ökad brandrisk och denna förstudie har haft som mål att undersöka denna problematik. Metoden har varit workshops med intressenter och experter inom området, intervjuer, samt litteraturstudier.Av de studerade områdena förefaller solcellsanläggningar skapa störst utmaningar i framtiden om inget görs. Detta beror dels på bristfälligt regelverk men även på att dessa system är distribuerade i byggnaderna med flera delar som kan orsaka brand och att delar är exponerade för utomhusklimat vilket får stora konsekvenser vad gäller uppkomst av fel.Brandsäkerheten i samhället har sett ur ett långt tidsperspektiv väsentligt förbättrats. Detta har huvudsakligen drivits fram med hjälp av ett förbättrat regelverk, som ofta inkluderat förbättrade provnings- och kvalificeringsmetoder. En generell observation i detta projekt är att regelverket inte hinner utvecklas i samma takt som tekniken. Detta är en ofta återkommande utmaning inom brandsäkerhet, men gäller speciellt för de teknikområden som behandlas i denna rapport där utvecklingen går mycket snabbt, och de ingående komponenterna nästan uteslutande har stor inneboende brandpotential. Rapporten konstaterar att för att skapa ett relevant regelverk behövs tillämpad forskning, så kallad prenormativ forskning, inom prioriterade områden för att besvara de frågor som ställs vid formulerandet av nya regler och standarder. Exempel på områden som bör prioriteras är 1) komplettering av det än så länge magra statistiska underlaget för bränder i solcellsinstallationer med olycksutredningar, och studier av redan befintliga olycksutredningar, 2) studier av branddynamiken i solcellsinstallationer, såväl byggnadsapplicerade som integrerade, och såväl tak- som fasadmonterade sådana, 3) studier av ljusbågars uppkomst och hur dessa kan undvikas, alternativt hur det kan undvikas att de ger upphov till bränder, 4) skapa underlag för säker installation av batterilager, samt 5) kvalitetssäkring av så kallade second-life batterier, dvs. begagnade batterier, som används i batterilager.

  • 2.
    Aspnes, Espen H.
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Ausen, Dag
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Høyland, Karin
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Mikalsen, Marius
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Schjølberg, Ingrid
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Svagård, Ingrid
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Walderhaug, Ståle
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Velferdsteknologi i boliger: Muligheter og utfordringer2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Målsettingen med denne rapporten er å belyse og diskutere muligheter og utfordringer med implementering av velferdsteknologi knyttet til boligløsninger og det å klare seg godt i egen bolig. Utvikling og implementering av velferdsteknologi forventes å være et viktig grep for å møte de kommende samfunnsutfordringene med en aldrende befolkning, endret sykdomsbilde og knapphet på helse- og omsorgspersonell.

    Etter å ha presentert nåværende og fremtidige teknologiske muligheter og utfordringer og drøftet disse i forhold til konkrete delmål med implementering av velferdsteknologi i boliger, avsluttes rapporten med å gi noen anbefalinger knyttet til Husbankens ulike roller som pådriver, kompetanseutvikler og kvalitetssikrer.

  • 3.
    Daaland Wormdahl, Espen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Baker, Greg
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Ulfsnes, Mette Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Brannsikkerhet i bygg med massivtre2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    I dette prosjektet er det gjennomført et litteraturstudie på brannsikkerhet ved bruk av massivtre i bygninger.   Problemstillingene det ble jobbet med var temperaturforløp i en naturlig brann, selvslokking og forkullingshastighet. Ut fra litteraturstudiet konkluderer vi med at kunnskapen om brannsikkerhet i forbindelse med massivtre i bygninger er mangelfull.  Det er spesielt rundt problemstillinger knyttet til ubeskyttet massivtre, forkullingshastigheter, delaminering og selvslokking det er flere ubesvarte spørsmål, og dette er forhold som kan ha stor innvirkning på brannsikkerheten i bygninger.   Vi anbefaler at det utarbeides retningslinjer for hvordan anvendelse av massivtre skal håndteres i prosjektering og risikoanalyse for nye bygg

  • 4.
    Eidissen Jensen, Ulla
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway .
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    The effect of fire retardants on smouldering fires in loose fill wood fibre building insulation2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Building insulation products produced from renewable biomass is becoming increasingly common in buildings due to environmental lifecycle requirements. Biomass insulation products are combustible and can contribute to fires through flaming and smouldering combustion. Incidents have been reported where insufficient spacing between combustible insulation and heat-producing electrical appliances has led to smouldering and subsequent development of flaming fires. Insulation materials often contain fire retardants, though their performance with regard to smouldering fire is not well understood. [1, 2] This study investigates the temperature exposure needed to initiate self-sustaining smouldering fires in loose fill wood fibre building insulation, focusing on the effect of fire retardant content and fibre size. The study is a part of the EMRIS (Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires) project. The test set-up is shown in Fig 1a [3]. The tested material was 100 grams, 34 kg/m3 spruce wood fibre loose-fill insulation with 4 and 9 % added ammonium polyphosphate fire retardant. Tests with short, fine fibres (Fig 1b) were compared to testst with long, thin fibres. The sample was heated from below until a given temperature was obtained 20 mm above the heater. Temperature and mass loss measurements as well as visual observations of the residue after test (Fig 1c) were used to characterize the onset of self-sustained smouldering. An iterative process was used, with 5 to 8 tests per product. It was found that a high level (9 %) of fire retardant gave an onset of smoldering at lower temperatures (225 °C) compared to a low level (4 %) of fire retardant (290 °C). The lower onset temperature indicates that the insulation with the highest fire retardant content is more prone to smouldering, which is contradictory to the expected performance of the fire retardant. For the same fire retardant content, the onset of self-sustained smouldering combustion was obtained at lower temperatures in insulation materials with smaller fiber sizes than in insulation with larger fiber size (225 vs 280 °C). This study is indicative, the absolute temperatures relate to the given test set-up. Further studies should include a range of fire retardant types and content, to obtain knowledge on their effect on smouldering fires.

  • 5.
    Fenstad, Jørn
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Almklov, Petter
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ishol, Herbjørg M.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Albrechtsen, Eirik
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Framtidens brann- og redningsvesen2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten diskuterer noen scenarier for framtidig organisering av brann‐ og redningsvesenet i Norge. Nåsituasjonen i ulike kommuner og regioner, utviklingstrekk i utfordringer og rammebetingelser og fordeler og ulemper med ulike organisasjonsmodeller diskuteres. Basert på intervjuer og arbeidsmøter med brannsjefer (og andre relevante aktører) trekker rapporten spesielt fram et ønske om større enheter som nødvendig for å møte både dagens utfordringer og framtidige krav til kompetanseutvikling, profesjonalisering og effektivisering. Både informantene og forskergruppen anser det som best om slike modeller etterstrebes med insentiver og icke tvang i utgangspunktet.

  • 6.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Fighting flameless fires: Initiating and extinguishing self-sustainedsmoldering fires in wood pellets2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent domestic, environmental and industrial hazards. This flameless form of combustion is more easily initiated than flaming, and is also more persistent and difficult to extinguish. The growing demand for non-fossil fuels has increased the use of solid biofuels such as biomass. This represents a safety challenge, as biomass self-ignition can cause smoldering fires, flaming fires or explosions.

    Smoldering and extinguishment in granular biomass was studied experimentally. The set-up consisted of a cylindrical fuel container of steel with thermally insulated side walls. The container was closed at the bottom, open at the top and heated from below by a hot surface. Two types of wood pellets were used as fuel, with 0.75-1.5 kg samples.

    Logistic regression was used to determine the transition region between non-smoldering and self-sustained smoldering experiments, and to determine the influence of parameters. Duration of external heating was most important for initiation of smoldering. Sample height was also significant, while the type of wood pellet was near-significant and fuel container height was not.

    The susceptibility of smoldering to changes in air supply was studied. With a small gap at the bottom of the fuel bed, the increased air flow in the same direction as the initial smoldering front (forward air flow) caused a significantly more intense combustion compared to the normal set-up with opposed air flow.

    Heat extraction from the combustion was studied using a water-cooled copper pipe. Challenges with direct fuel-water contact (fuel swelling, water channeling and runoff) were thus avoided. Smoldering was extinguished in 7 of 15 cases where heat extraction was in the same range as the heat production from combustion. This is the first experimental proof-of-concept of cooling as an extinguishment method for smoldering fires.

    Marginal differences in heating and cooling separated smoldering from extinguished cases; the fuel bed was at a heating-cooling balance point. Lower cooling levels did not lead to extinguishment, but cooling caused more predictable smoldering, possibly delaying the most intense combustion. Also observed at the balance point were pulsating temperatures; a form of long-lived (hours), macroscopic synchronization not previously observed in smoldering fires.

    For practical applications, cooling could be feasible for prevention of temperature escalation from self-heating in industrial storage units. This study provides a first step towards improved fuel storage safety for biomass. 

  • 7.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Studie av synlighet til høytmonterte markeringsskilt i brannrøyk2015Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Daaland Wormdahl, Espen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Stolen, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Jet fires and cryogenic spills: How to document extreme industrial incidents2019Ingår i: Sixth Magdeburg Fire and Explosion Days (MBE2019) conference proceedings, , 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrial plants, such as oil platforms, refineries or onboard vessels carrying fuel, a rupture event of a pipeline could have dramatic consequences, as was demonstrated both in the Piper Alpha and Deepwater Horizon accidents. If surfaces are exposed to extreme conditions, both extreme cold (cryogenic spills) and extreme heat (jet fires), this can affect exposed surfaces, and can cause a domino effect of severe events.

  • 9.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Ranneklev, Sissel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Branner i avfallsanlegg2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste facilities represent a vital function in society, but fires occur regularly. The aim of this study is to provide a knowledge base on risks associated with fires in waste facilities, and to identify measures that can prevent fire and limit the extent of fire damage and environmental impact.

    Information was obtained through meetings with the waste industry, two inspections at waste facilities, a survey, a literature review and a review of the events registered in the fire and rescue services' reporting solution BRIS, as well as communication with other stakeholders. The project included land-based waste management; facilities for the reception and storage of waste (N=661), reception and storage of hazardous waste (N=250), and treatment facilities for hazardous waste (N=38). Waste treatment plants (such as biogas- or incinerator plants) as well as landfills are not included.

    High-risk waste types have been found to be general, residual waste, batteries (especially batteries not correctly sorted), electrical and electronic (EE) waste, as well as paper, paperboard and cardboard. General, residual waste stands out as an important focus area for reducing the overall fire risk at Norwegian waste facilities, both based on reported frequency of fire ignition and potential consequences with regard to equipment, downtime, environment and health. Waste categorized as "Hazardous Waste" does

    not stand out, and is not ranked in the highest risk category in this study, since many preventive and damage reducing measures have been implemented, and appear to work. Chapter 9 provides details on rating of fire risk.

    In the period January 2016 - May 2019, 141 fires were reported in waste facilities in Norway in BRIS. The total number of fires (including small, medium and large fires) is unknown, but is believed to be far higher. Common sources of ignition have been found to be composting (self-ignition), thermal runaway in batteries, heat friction by grinding, human activity and unknown cause.

    Regularly occurring fires outdoors, increased use of indoor storage and new types of waste such as lithium batteries lead to a risk that is difficult to manage, which can be a challenge with regard to insurance of waste facilities. Increased use of indoor storage is motivated by consideration for the environment and neighbours, but it may conflict with fire safety, especially because it restricts the access for the fire fighters and because of possible high heat stress on the load-bearing structure of the building housing the waste.

    Any major fire, regardless of the type of waste burned, could potentially lead to the release of pollutants into the air, water or soil. All smoke from fires can be harmful to humans and exposure to it must be taken seriously. There is a need for more knowledge and expertise in assessing emissions and environmental consequences in connection with firefighting. The use of extinguishing foam can reduce the consumption of extinguishing water, but the foam itself can contribute to contamination if discharged into water. A more detailed list of chemical content in the foam product data sheet is needed in order to be able to assess environmental concerns during use.

    2

    © RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

    Measures have been proposed for the design of more firesafe facilities, for waste management and for limiting the environmental impact during and after a fire. Key measures that should be prioritized are detection and monitoring, limiting the amounts of waste, tidiness, sufficient training, reception control, available and properly dimensioned fire extinguishing equipment, as well as solutions to collect extinguishing water in order to prevent the release of environmental toxins. It has not been possible to verify the effect of individual measures based on available data and statistics. The industry’s own overall assessment has been found to be consistent with experience-based observations found in other studies, and this has been found to be the best available information on effective measures. The responsibility for most of the measures lies with the owner of the facility or the business, and the focus should be on the use of documented technical solutions and the assessment of whether measures are appropriate and practicable at each facility. A fire risk assessment, locally adapted to the respective facility is important, as there are large variations in the types of waste handled, the size and the design of facilities, as well as other local conditions that differ between waste facilities in Norway. The fire service should strive to achieve a close dialogue and cooperation with the waste facilities. The authorities should facilitate better knowledge transfer and learning after fires, between different fire departments. The authorities should also, in collaboration with the industry, develop a national attitude campaign to avoid faulty battery sorting.

    Further work should study extinguishing techniques and extinguishing tactics that can limit the amount of water needed and that can be used during large-scale fires. Various detection and extinguishing solutions for use at waste facilities should be surveyed, assessed with regards to suitability and documented in cases where documentation is lacking. This should be made available on an openly accessible platform. There is also a need for further studies on the chemical composition of smoke from different types of waste fires, as well as studies on the extent and spread of fire smoke and environmental impacts from fires on water recipients.

    Increased fire safety at waste facilities could facilitate a better dialogue between industry and insurance providers by reducing potential financial losses. Good handling of fire risk in waste facilities will not only affect the plants themselves, but will also limit potential societal costs and consequences for health and the environment.

  • 10.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Hagen, Bjarne C.
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Synchronized smoldering combustion2018Ingår i: Europhysics letters, ISSN 0295-5075, E-ISSN 1286-4854, Vol. 121, nr 5, s. 50002-p1-50002-p2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized, pulsating temperatures are observed experimentally in smoldering fires.The entire sample volume (1.8 l) participates in the pulsations (pulse period 2–4 h). The synchronylasts up to 25 h and is followed by a spontaneous transition to either disordered combustion orself-extinguishment. The synchronization is obtained when the fuel bed is cooled to the brink ofextinguishment. Calculations for adiabatic conditions, including heat generation from combustion(nonlinear in temperature) and heat storage in sample (linear in temperature), predict divergingsample temperature. Experimentally, heat losses to surroundings (linear in temperature) preventtemperatures to increase without bounds and lead to pulsations.

  • 11.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires: Results from the EMRIS project2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent a severe, but often overlooked danger to society. Smoldering causes major economic losses for industrial facilities with production, transport and storage of biomass and biofuels worldwide. The smoke from post-flaming residual burning on the forest floor and in peatlands represents a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. [1]To prevent initiation of smoldering, and facilitate safe, efficient and complete extinguishment, a better fundamental understanding of smoldering is key. This is the aim of the research project EMRIS (Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires). The consortium consists of 6 research institutes and universities in 5 countries, coordinated by Western Norway University of Applied Sciences in Haugesund, Norway. EMRIS started in 2015 and is now in its final stage. We will here present some points of interest from the project.Materials in the study include wood pellets, other biopellets, cotton, waste (wood chips), coal, wood fiber insulation and various pyrolysis products. Both experimental and modeling work has been done.Experimental work in small-scale has studied the sensitivity of smoldering ignition to a range of parameters [2], the impact of changes in air flow on the combustion [3], the effect of fire retardant content and fiber size [4], the transition from smoldering to flaming fire [5,6], early detection of smoldering [7]and heat extraction from the fuel bed with successfulextinguishment [8,9]. In medium scale experiments, initiationand propagation of reaction fronts have been studied [10]. TheEMRIS team also studies how particulate matter fromsmoldering fires can affect large scale phenomena, such ascloud formations, climate and public health.A cellular automaton model has been found to give a realistic representation of smoldering spread [11]. The method is based on a network of cells that mimic processes taking place in the material, which is easier to program and requires less computing power than traditional tools.The EMRIS project therefore represents progress within many different aspects of fire safety science. A continuation of the project is very much of interest, we welcome interested parties to discuss with us.

  • 12.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Extinguishing smoldering fires in wood pellets through cooling2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Extinguishing smoldering fires is a severe challenge for fire brigades, and has proven to be difficult even on the lab scale. In this study, the influence of a closed water cooling loop located within the fuel bed was investigated experimentally. Increasing the cooling led to a system less prone to intense combustion at an early stage, and eventually to complete extinguishment of self-sustained smoldering fires. Extinguishment was obtained in half of the cases with maximum cooling. Extinguishment occurred soon after smoldering had been established, giving a significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to the self-sustained smoldering fires that continued to complete burn-out.

  • 13.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Smoldering combustion- from pulsations to extinguishment2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering is known as a slow, but unpredictable form of combustion. In this study we have looked at how smoldering is affected by water cooling of the fuel bed without direct contact between fuel and water flow. The study is a part of the EMRIS project, and its findings have possible implications for preventing and suppressing fires in industrial storage units.

  • 14.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Science, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Science, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Krause, Ulrich
    Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Science, Norway.
    Extinguishing Smoldering Fires in Wood Pellets with Water Cooling: An Experimental Study2019Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 257-284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires in stored or transported solid biofuels are very difficult to extinguish. The current study has explored heat extraction from the combustion zone as a method for extinguishing such flameless fires. Heat extraction from the sample was made feasible using water flowing through a metal pipe located inside the sample. The fuel container was a steel cylinder with insulated side walls, open at the top and heated from below. Wood pellets (1.25 kg, 1.8 l) was used as fuel. Results from small-scale experiments provide proof-of-concept of cooling as a new extinguishing method for smoldering fires. During self-sustained smoldering with heat production in the range 0 W to 60 W, the heat loss to the cooling unit was in the range 5 W to 20 W. There were only marginal differences between non-extinguished and extinguished cases. Up-scaling is discussed, cooling could be feasible for preventing smoldering fires in silos.

  • 15.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Stolen, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Brandt, Are W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Energieffektive bygg og brannsikkerhet2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Gjøsund, G.
    et al.
    NTNU, Norway.
    Almklov, P. G.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    False alarm?: Effects of reducing unnecessary dispatches by fire and rescue services2018Ingår i: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, s. 181-188Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and rescue services in Norway dispatch more often to false and unnecessary alarms than to real fires and accidents. In 2016, 60% of the emergency dispatches were conducted on the basis of false or unnecessary alarms. These unnecessary dispatches are costly in terms of time and resources spent, and can in some cases lead to a weakened preparedness towards real incidents. Also, the risk for traffic accidents increases when big vehicles rush through the streets on their way to where the alarm was triggered. Hence, there are good reasons to work to reduce the number of these kind of dispatches. On the other hand, one may also argue that there can be some positive effects of a certain number of mobilizations for the fire crews. Based on interviews with relevant actors connected to fire and rescue services, as well as on statistics collected through the BRIS reporting system, we will discuss possible consequences of reducing the number of false and unnecessary alarms and potential effects of implementing measures for decreasing unnecessary dispatches.

  • 17.
    Gjøsund, Gudveig
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Almkov, Petter Grytten
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Halvorsen, Kristin
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Vulnerability and prevention of fatal fires2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016.2017, Page 309 / [ed] Lesley Walls, Matthew Revie, Tim Bedford, 2017, s. 309-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire fatalities statistics in Norway show an overrepresentation of people considered as belonging  to a vulnerable group. Public services are in contact with vulnerable groups through a range of services, including home care and nursing; support services and counselling; and municipal housing. This paper reports the results from a study of municipal practices for the prevention of fatal fire among vulnerable citizens in Norway. The study explores a socio-technical model for fire safety and how collaboration between municipal services might improve fire safety for vulnerable groups.

  • 18.
    Guay, Fanny
    et al.
    DBI Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology, Denmark.
    Bouffier, Christian
    INERIS Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Mira da Silva, Miguel
    University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Petersen, Laura
    EMSC European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Theocharidou, Marianthi
    European Commission, Italy.
    Supporting disaster risk reduction through better critical infrastructure resilience2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fullskalatest av deteksjon av brann i fasade med varmedetekterende kabel og flammedetektor2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    I denne rapporten presenteres en fullskalatest gjennomført 31. januar 2017 der målet var å finne ut hvor stor brannen blir før den blir detektert av en varmedetekterende kabel montert i et stålrør og en flammedetektor.  Flammedetektoren detekterte brannen umiddelbart etter antenning i det oppsettet som ble testet. Den varmedetekterende kabelen montert i stålrør detekterer ikke brannen før brannen hadde spredt seg helt til røret.

  • 20.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Slokkeanlegg i kombinasjon med tidlig deteksjon i korridor2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Det er utviklet en testprotokoll basert på CEN/TS 14972:2011 og gjennomført en testserie for å teste detektorsystemer og forvarselsslokkeanlegg for bruk i korridorer som benyttes til opphenging av klær på skoler . Det er testet tre ulike detektorsystemer som har vist seg å fungere godt med de riktige innstillingene, men det er stor variasjon på deteksjonstid når innstillingene endres. Av slokkesystemene tilfredsstiller vanntåkesystemet fra Prevent Systems med Prev3exp-dyser og sprinkleranlegget fra Tyco med veggdyser av typen TY1334 kriteriene i testprotokollen.   Det er også gjennomført en fribranntest som viser hvor viktig det er å gjennomføre tiltak for å detektere og kontrollere brann i rømningsveier da forholdene i korridoren raskt gjør det vanskelig å rømme.

  • 21.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Techno-economic evaluation of biogas upgrading using ionic liquids in comparison with2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a full-scale test carried out 31 January 2017 in which the objective was to find out how much the fire progresses before it is detected by a heat detection cable mounted in a steel pipe, and a flame detector.  In the setup being tested the flame detector detected the fire almost immediately after ignition. The heat detection cables mounted in steel pipes did not detect the fire until it had spread all the way to the pipes.

  • 22.
    Hox, Kristian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Slokkemetoder med lite vann2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    SP Fire Research har i samarbeid med Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB), Regionalt forskningsfond Midt-Norge og Norsk brannbefals landsforbund (NBLF), utført et prosjekt for å få en bedre kunnskapsoversikt over nye slokkeverktøy både med hensyn på effekt, og hvor utbredt de er. Gjennom ulike aktiviteter kan prosjektet konkludere med følgende:Resultater fra en spørreundersøkelse avdekker at brannvesen i Norge har god kjennskap til nye slokkeverktøy, som CAFS og skjærslokker, men de blir i liten grad benyttet. Dette kan til en viss grad knyttes opp mot utilstrekkelig opplæring og manglende erfaring med utstyret. Videre indikerer tester at utvendig slokkeinnsats kan senke temperaturen i et brannrom betydelig, og eventuelt slokke brannen, dersom denne innsatsen blir utført i nærheten av brannen. Skjærslokkeren ble vurdert til å være det beste alternativet for å håndtere hulromsbranner. Resultatene viser også at det er mulig å designe gode testmetoder for å sammenligne ulike slokkerverktøy.

  • 23.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Theocharidou, Marianthi
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Giannopoulos, Georgios
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Incorporation of resilience assessment in critical infrastructure risk assessment frameworks2017Ingår i: Safety and Reliability - Theory and Applications - Proceedings of the 27th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2017, CRC Press/Balkema , 2017, s. 1031-1038Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the concept of Critical Infrastructure (CI) resilience and its relationship with current Risk Assessment (RA) processes. It proposes a framework for resilience assessment of CI, which integrates the resilience paradigm into the RA process according to ISO 31000. The framework consists of three levels, namely (a) asset (focus on individual CI assets), (b) system (focus on dependencies between CI assets) and (c) national or regional (focus on societal aspects). It is applicable to individual CI or their combinations, accounting both for existing RA processes, for interdependencies and their effect on interconnected CI, while at the same time employing current, available resilience analysis tools and methodologies. This approach is also compatible with the current European guidelines for national RA applied by the EU Member States. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

  • 24.
    Nordløkken, Per Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Wormdahl, Espen D.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Energibesparende bygg og brannsikkerhet2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Bouffier, C.
    INERIS Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Durgun, Özüm
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Guay, F.
    DBI Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology, Denmark.
    Ioannou, I.
    University College London, UK.
    Mira da Silva, M.
    University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Petersen, L.
    EMSC European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Theocharidou, M.
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Vigh, L. G.
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary.
    Infrastructures facing disaster risk: Pilot implementation of a new resilience management framework2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Friquin, Kathinka
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Brannsikkerhet ved bruk av krysslaminert massivtre i bygninger – en litteraturstudie2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    © RISE Research Institutes of SwedenAbstractFire safety in cross laminated timber buildings; a reviewKey words: Cross laminated timber; CLT; fire safety; exposed CLT; auto-extinction; charring; delamination; detailingThis literature study presents recent research on fire safety in cross laminated timber (CLT) buildings. Results from large fire experiments and other studies in the period 2010 - 2018 are summarized, with focus on the following research questions:• How do constructions consisting of protected or exposed CLT contribute to the fire development in a room?• How can contribution to the fire development from detailing of CLT be avoided?There is an increasing desire to use wooden structures in tall buildings, as a substitute for more traditional construction materials. However, the use of combustible construc-tions in buildings in Norwegian Fire Class 3 (usually five floors or more) is not pre-accepted in the guideline to Regulations on technical requirements for construction works (TEK17), and fire safety must therefore be documented by analysis in such structures. When designing tall and complex timber buildings, it must be taken into account that a fire involving a timber construction may have more severe consequences than in buildings with constructions of steel or concrete, if the fire design of the construction and detail solutions is insufficient. Several studies show that fire exposed CLT, or CLT with insufficient protection, can cause a fire to develop faster, be more intense and last longer than a fire where the only fuel is the furniture and fixtures in the fire room. It is shown that the amount of fire exposed timber in a room may have impact on the extent and duration of a fire, but the knowledge has not yet been sufficient enough to be used in fire modeling, design and analysis.Research on charring rates, delamination and auto-extinction, all of which are factors that can have major impact on fire development and the fire resistance of the construction, takes place in Europe, Australia and North America. Although extensive research has been carried out, it is based on few large fire experiments, and the literature is still pointing to several knowledge gaps. However, the research projects have increased the knowledge of fire in timber buildings, and have contributed to the design of detail solutions, guidelines and development of models for function-based design. Revision of EN 1995-1-2 is under preparation and expected to apply from 2022. A knowledge base for the audit can be found in the network COST Action FP1404 Fire Safety Use of Bio-Based Building Products (COST FP1404) Working Group 2 (WG2). They have published several guidelines relevant for the fire design of CLT, including e.g. calculation methods for the prediction of charring rates and depths, determination of reduced CLT cross-section, design of CLT detailing and a suggested test method for evaluating adhesive performance.Based on the literature review, the following conclusions and recommendations are given for CLT constructions:• The design phase must sufficiently consider protection of the construction and con-tribution of the construction to the fire energy, and to a greater extent include the assessment of detailing and ventilation conditions. It should be considered whether analytic fire engineering design also should be required for buildings in the Norwegian Fire Classes 1 and 2 where more than one CLT wall is exposed.• By protecting all CLT surfaces of the structure with cladding, the construction may retain the stability and the load bearing capacity during the required time of fire resistance.• In buildings with only one exposed CLT wall in each fire cell, it may also be appropriate to use solutions that satisfy the pre-accepted performances, but one must consider whether a somewhat longer and more intense heat radiation and flame exposure on the facade outside window openings will require measures beyond the pre-accepted performances given in the guideline to TEK17.• Rooms where two or more CLT walls in addition to the ceiling are exposed, are configurations that should be avoided.• The risk of delamination can be reduced by using heat-resistant glue.• There is generally a need for relevant documentation for fire-resistant solutions for joints between CLT walls and floors and service penetrations in CLT constructions.• Test methods for testing of joints and penetrations in CLT constructions should be standardized. For example, there exists no standardized test for corner joints. Tests of penetration seals for CLT constructions are scarce, although they can be tested according to EN 1366-3. However, CLT is not a standard supporting construction according to EN 1366-3, and this must be taken into consideration when the test results are evaluated. Joints in glulam constructions should also be tested because they are often used in conjunction with CLT elements.

  • 27.
    Rosenqvist, H.
    et al.
    Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology, Denmark.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Petersen, L.
    EMSC, France.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    ISRA: IMPROVER societal resilience analysis for critical infrastructure2018Ingår i: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, s. 1211-1220Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience of Critical Infrastructure (CI) has been a research focus for several years now, with efforts being made to develop methods for the analysis and assessment of CI resilience. However, these efforts are often carried out without consideration of enriching societal risk or resilience assessments with knowledge of the resilience of CI. Bearing in mind that the definition of CI according to the EU reflects the fact that it exists to deliver vital societal functions, the consideration of its resilience in isolation of the community it serves is only addressing part of the problem. The Horizon 2020 project IMPROVER has already developed methodologies for assessing and managing CI resilience. This paper proposes an evolution of the management framework for CI resilience which enriches societal resilience assessment with knowledge of the CI resilience. The framework and societal resilience analysis methodology are both described along with an application of the analysis method.

  • 28.
    Rød, Bjarte
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Pursiainen, Christer
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Mira da Silva, Miguel
    INOV INESC Inovação, Portugal.
    Evaluation of resilience assessment methodologies2017Ingår i: Safety and Reliability - Theory and Applications - Proceedings of the 27th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2017, CRC Press/Balkema , 2017, s. 1039-1052Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a wide range of different frameworks and methodologies for analysing Critical Infrastructure (CI) resilience, covering organisational, technological and social resilience. However, there is a lack of a clear methodology combining these three resilience domains into one framework. The final goal of the ongoing EU-project IMPROVER, ‘Improved risk evaluation and implementation of resilience concepts to Critical Infrastructure,’ is to develop one single improved and easy-to-use critical infrastructure resilience analysis tool which will be applicable within all resilience domains and to all types of critical infrastructure. This article presents part of this work, in which IMPROVER comprehensively evaluated, by demonstration and comparison, a selection of existing resilience methodologies in order to integrate their best features into the new methodology. The selected methodologies were The Benchmark Resilience Tool (BRT) (Lee et al., 2013), Guidelines for Critical Infrastructures Resilience Evaluation (CIRE) (Bertocchi et al., 2016) and the Critical Infrastructure Resilience Index (CIRI). The latter was developed within the consortium (Pursiainen et al., 2017). The results show that it is hard to evaluate and compare the different methodologies considering that the methodologies are not aiming to achieve the same thing. However, this evaluation shows that all the methodologies have pros and cons, and that the IMPROVER project should aim at combining, in so far as is possible and commensurable, the identified pros while avoiding the identified cons into a Critical Infrastructure resilience assessment framework compatible with the current guidelines for risk assessment in the Member States. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

  • 29. Sazegara, Shaz
    et al.
    Spearpoint, Michael
    Baker, Greg
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Benchmarking the Single Item Ignition Prediction Capability of B-RISK Using Furniture Calorimeter and Room-Size Experiments2017Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 1485-1508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper benchmarks B-RISK’s capability to predict item ignition in multiple object compartment fire simulations. A series of fire experiments have been conducted which measured single item ignition times under the furniture calorimeter and in the ISO 9705 room. These experiments used mock-up armchair, TV and cabinetry furniture items created from three common materials found in most households in New Zealand exposed to a 100 kW gas burner flame. B-RISK uses the flux-time product (FTP) method as the criterion to predict ignition of items, based on radiation received using the point source model (PSM). This paper presents an analysis of the B-RISK predictions compared to the experimental measurements. Due to the mathematical formulation of the PSM and FTP method, it is found that the predicted ignition time is sensitive to the distance between the radiative source and the item. Predicted ignition times of armchairs constructed of polyurethane foam were within 14% of the ISO 9705 room experimental results. However, for the furniture calorimeter experiments it is found that to get reasonable predictions of the ignition times for the mock-up armchair and TV items there is a need to account for the burner flame movement by adjusting the radial distance by 10–30 mm. Direct flame contact was required to ignite the mock-up cabinetry items and B-RISK was unable to successfully predict this ignition time.

  • 30.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Evergren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Brannsikkerhet ved bruk av gassbeholdere i bygg2018Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet på oppdrag fra Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB). DSB har bedt RISE Fire Research om å bistå med evalueringer knyttet til bruken av gassbeholdere ved serveringssteder, overnattingssteder og forsamlingslokaler.

  • 31.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjær, Sindre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Mapping of gas concentrations, effect of deadair space and effect of alternative detection technology in smouldering fires2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight out of ten fire-related fatalities occur in dwellings. It is a fact that smoke detectors save lives, which emphasizes the importance of every home having a functioning smoke detector. In Norway, smoke detectors in dwellings are mandatory, and recommendations on which detector technology to use and the position of the detectors are given. Smoke detectors should be installed on the ceiling, outside of dead-air space (close to walls). In this study, ten smouldering fire experiments have been conducted to: • investigate if smoke detectors with CO sensing can alert residents at an earlier stage than photoelectric smoke detectors, consequently increasing chances of egress and survival for a sleeping person. • measure concentrations of toxic gases in a room where a smouldering fire occurs and investigate if tenability limits are exceeded when n photoelectric smoke detector is activated. • investigate if smoke detectors placed within dead-air space are activated at a later stage than smoke detectors placed according to the recommendations.

  • 32.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Røykvarslere for bruk i bolig: Kartlegging av forskningsfront2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    I byggeforskrift av 1985 ble det innført krav til røykvarslere i nye boliger. I Forskrift om brannforebyggende tiltak og brannsyn (FOBTOB) av 1990, ble det i tillegg innført krav om røykvarslere i eksisterende boliger.

     

    Et litteraturstudium har blitt gjennomført for å kartlegge teknologistatus for røykvarslere i boliger. Det er lagt vekt på hvilken forskning og utvikling som er gjort med tanke på røykvarslere for boliger siden år 2000. Hvilke deteksjonsprinsipper kan benyttes, og kan ny teknologi gjøre detektorene bedre?

     

    Rapporten oppsummerer litteraturstudiet, innenfor forskjellige fokusområder, og gir i tillegg forslag til videre forskning på temaet.

  • 33.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Investigation of the use of smoke alarms in Norwegian dwellings2016Ingår i: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, s. 387-388Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey mapping the use of smoke alarms and residents’ awareness of their legal obligations for protecting their dwellings with smoke alarms has been carried out. A total of 628 individual households geographically distributed throughout Norway were included in this study. The results demonstrated that factors such as level of education, age, gender, and if the dwelling is owned or rented by the resident, affects the awareness and compliance with the regulations and recommendations for the use of smoke alarms in dwellings.

  • 34.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    Fjær, Sindre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Kartlegging av gasskonsentrasjoner, effekt av dødluftsrom og effekt av alternativt deteksjonsprinsipp ved ulmebrann2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Åtte av ti som omkommer i brann dør i hjemmet. Det er stadfestet at røykvarslere redder liv, noe som understreker hvor viktig det er at alle hjem har fungerende røykvarsler. I Norge er det krav om at fungerende røykvarsler er installert i alle boliger, og det er også gitt anbefalinger om deteksjonsprinsipp og plassering av røykvarslere. Det er anbefalt å benytte optiske røykvarslere fremfor ioniske, og at disse monteres i tak, utenfor dødluftsrom (nær vegg). I denne studien er det utført ti forsøk med ulmebrann i et testrom innredet med en seng for å: • undersøke om røykdetektorer med CO-sensor kan varsle beboer på et tidligere tidspunkt enn optiske detektorer, og følgelig øke sjansene for evakuering. • kartlegge nivået av giftige gasser i et rom hvor ulmebrann oppstår, og undersøke om grenseverdiene for forgiftning er overskredet når en tradisjonell, optisk røykvarsler går til alarm. • undersøke om røykdetektorer som er plassert i dødluftsrom reagerer tregere enn detektorer som er plassert i henhold Norsk brannvernforenings anbefalinger.

  • 35.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Aamnes Mostue, Bodil
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Vurdering av brannvesenet: Kvaliteten i brannvesenets brannforebyggende arbeid2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Säter Böe, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Utvendig brannbekjempelse i Midtbykvartalet – En mulighetsstudie2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    External fire-fighting in Midtbykvartalet – A feasibility study

    The property developer E. C. Dahls Eiendom (ECDE) plans a building complex in a quarter in the city centre in Trondheim, the "Midtbykvartalet". The building will be enclosed by existing building blocks which to varying degrees hinder the fire service's access and efforts. Also, since the new building is intended for residential purposes, it will be necessary to install windows in fire rated walls against adjacent building. These factors result in deviations from a number of performance requirements in the guidelines to the regulations on technical requirements for construction works and there is therefore a need to find alternative solutions. It must be documented that these alternative solutions have at least as good an effect on fire safety as pre-accepted solutions would have. A potential side-effect of new, alternative solutions is that these can also, to some extent, protect the existing wooden buildings in the quarter.

    The aim of this report has been to identify the state-of-the-art within active fire protection measures for external fire-fighting and to obtain an overview of existing solutions and manufacturers and to carry out an assessment of the potential of these solutions.

    Risk scenarios

    An overview of existing buildings in the Midtbykvartalet is presented as well as an overall description of the plans for development. Based on this, several scenarios have been identified to reveal the potential fire-spread hazard between the existing buildings and the planned building. Furthermore, a qualitative risk assessment has been carried out.

    A literature study describes the state-of-the-art in water-based extinguishing systems for outdoor use. It deals with fixed extinguishers (facade sprinklers, water curtains), dynamic extinguishers, foam extinguishers, fire gels, as well as with sprinkler systems' effect and reliability. Furthermore, existing solutions (e.g. facade sprinklers, water curtains, water cannons and water mist turbines) have been surveyed, existing documentation described and assessed regarding suitability for use in the Midtbykvartalet.

    From the identified scenarios, it appears that fires in existing buildings are more likely to spread to the new building than a fire from the new building to existing buildings. The greatest danger to the new building will be if a fire spreads in existing buildings, up through the roof, through windows or along the facade to the roof. In many cases, the fire service will have good access with their ladder trucks etc. to perform extinguishing efforts, at least in the early phase of the fire. But the risk of rapid internal fire spread, which may include several of the older buildings, can create a challenging situation for the fire service and a risk for the new building. In case of fire spread to the new building, the fire department will, due to the position and height of the building, have difficulty with aerial rescue and evacuation from the new building's higher floors.

    Concept for the Midtbykvartalet

    A combination of a static and a dynamic extinguishing system will provide the best balance between system robustness, extinguishing effect and flexibility for the Midtbykvartalet. Facade sprinklers are considered the most suitable static system solution. Facade sprinklers will primarily cool the facade of the new building and absorb heat radiation from a potential fire in the existing buildings, but will not be suitable for extinguishing or actively fighting a fire within the existing buildings. The design and planning of facade sprinklers shall take the design of windows, balconies and roof terraces into account, which have been identified as vulnerable points in the firewalls.

    Dynamic systems such as water cannons and water mist turbines can be used to cool facades and to actively fight a fire over relatively long distances. In addition, such systems can be established so that the fire service can take over control of the extinguishing system as needed. This property is important, because of the height of the new building and because of how it is surrounded by existing buildings.

    Both water cannons and water mist turbines can be combined with an automatic control that allows you to fight a fire at an early stage, even before the arrival of the fire service, as long as early detection is achieved. A fire that spreads within the existing buildings will not be possible to extinguish with permanently installed dynamic systems. Therefore, the cooling and extinguishing effect of such systems must be evaluated based on the scenario of a large fire in the neighbouring building, which has not been done before.

    The cooling and extinguishing effects for both systems are largely dependent on their control system. The control system must be capable of aiming the water cannon or the water mist turbine at the fire, if required compensating for wind effects and selecting an appropriate water jet mode. Therefore, in order to adapt the control system to the Midtbykvartalet, it is necessary to quantify the cooling and extinguishing effect of such a system in advance and with regard to a potentially large fire in the adjacent existing buildings.

    Selected water mist turbines have the option of operating in a full jet mode, like a water cannon. Therefore, such systems are considered more flexible than water cannons. However, water mist turbines set large amounts of air in motion and generate turbulence that can affect the fire. It is therefore important to investigate if and in which cases this can aggravate the fire and have a negative effect on other areas in the quarter.

  • 37.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Säter Böe, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Utvendig brannbekjempelse i Midtbykvartalet – En mulighetsstudie2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The property developer E. C. Dahls Eiendom (ECDE) plans a building complex in a quarter in the city centre in Trondheim, the "Midtbykvartalet". The building will be enclosed by existing building blocks which to varying degrees hinder the fire service's access and efforts. Also, since the new building is intended for residential purposes, it will be necessary to install windows in fire rated walls against adjacent building. These factors result in deviations from a number of performance requirements in the guidelines to the regulations on technical requirements for construction works and there is therefore a need to find alternative solutions. It must be documented that these alternative solutions have at least as good an effect on fire safety as pre-accepted solutions would have. A potential side-effect of new, alternative solutions is that these can also, to some extent, protect the existing wooden buildings in the quarter.

    The aim of this report has been to identify the state-of-the-art within active fire protection measures for external fire-fighting and to obtain an overview of existing solutions and manufacturers and to carry out an assessment of the potential of these solutions.

    Risk scenarios

    An overview of existing buildings in the Midtbykvartalet is presented as well as an overall description of the plans for development. Based on this, several scenarios have been identified to reveal the potential fire-spread hazard between the existing buildings and the planned building. Furthermore, a qualitative risk assessment has been carried out.

    A literature study describes the state-of-the-art in water-based extinguishing systems for outdoor use. It deals with fixed extinguishers (facade sprinklers, water curtains), dynamic extinguishers, foam extinguishers, fire gels, as well as with sprinkler systems' effect and reliability. Furthermore, existing solutions (e.g. facade sprinklers, water curtains, water cannons and water mist turbines) have been surveyed, existing documentation described and assessed regarding suitability for use in the Midtbykvartalet.

    From the identified scenarios, it appears that fires in existing buildings are more likely to spread to the new building than a fire from the new building to existing buildings. The greatest danger to the new building will be if a fire spreads in existing buildings, up through the roof, through windows or along the facade to the roof. In many cases, the fire service will have good access with their ladder trucks etc. to perform extinguishing efforts, at least in the early phase of the fire. But the risk of rapid internal fire spread, which may include several of the older buildings, can create a challenging situation for the fire service and a risk for the new building. In case of fire spread to the new building, the fire department will, due to the position and height of the building, have difficulty with aerial rescue and evacuation from the new building's higher floors.

    © RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

    Concept for the Midtbykvartalet

    A combination of a static and a dynamic extinguishing system will provide the best balance between system robustness, extinguishing effect and flexibility for the Midtbykvartalet. Facade sprinklers are considered the most suitable static system solution. Facade sprinklers will primarily cool the facade of the new building and absorb heat radiation from a potential fire in the existing buildings, but will not be suitable for extinguishing or actively fighting a fire within the existing buildings. The design and planning of facade sprinklers shall take the design of windows, balconies and roof terraces into account, which have been identified as vulnerable points in the firewalls.

    Dynamic systems such as water cannons and water mist turbines can be used to cool facades and to actively fight a fire over relatively long distances. In addition, such systems can be established so that the fire service can take over control of the extinguishing system as needed. This property is important, because of the height of the new building and because of how it is surrounded by existing buildings.

    Both water cannons and water mist turbines can be combined with an automatic control that allows you to fight a fire at an early stage, even before the arrival of the fire service, as long as early detection is achieved. A fire that spreads within the existing buildings will not be possible to extinguish with permanently installed dynamic systems. Therefore, the cooling and extinguishing effect of such systems must be evaluated based on the scenario of a large fire in the neighbouring building, which has not been done before.

    The cooling and extinguishing effects for both systems are largely dependent on their control system. The control system must be capable of aiming the water cannon or the water mist turbine at the fire, if required compensating for wind effects and selecting an appropriate water jet mode. Therefore, in order to adapt the control system to the Midtbykvartalet, it is necessary to quantify the cooling and extinguishing effect of such a system in advance and with regard to a potentially large fire in the adjacent existing buildings.

    Selected water mist turbines have the option of operating in a full jet mode, like a water cannon. Therefore, such systems are considered more flexible than water cannons. However, water mist turbines set large amounts of air in motion and generate turbulence that can affect the fire. It is therefore important to investigate if and in which cases this can aggravate the fire and have a negative effect on other areas in the quarter.

  • 38.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Analyse av dødsbranner i Norge i perioden 2005 - 20142017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    I denne studien er informasjon fra brannstatistikk og andre kilder fra perioden 2005 – 2014 analysert, for å få mer detaljert kunnskap om hvem som omkommer i brann og hvorfor de omkommer. Dermed kan tiltak iverksettes mer målrettet for å redusere antall omkomne.  Følgende spørsmål er forsøkt besvart i studien: 1. Hvilke risikofaktorer forbindes med de som omkommer i branner i Norge? 2. Hva er årsakene til dødsbranner i Norge? 3. Hvordan kan dødsbranner best forebygges?  I den aktuelle perioden er det registrert 517 branner med 571 omkomne. Vi har kartlagt informasjon fra 347 politirapporter, identifisert 387 omkomne og trukket ut informasjon fra pasientjournalene til 248 av de omkomne.

  • 39.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil- and gas production on the Norwegian shelf2018Ingår i: Safety and Reliability: Safe Societies in a Changing World / [ed] Stein Haugen, Anne Barros, Coen van Gulijk, Trond Kongsvik, Jan Erik Vinnem, 2018, Vol. 1, s. 1847-1854Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire is a major threat in the petroleum industry. However, little has been published about the fire related incidents that have occurred in the Norwegian petroleum sector. To gain more knowledge, data from 985 incidents in the 1997 - 2014 period has been analysed. Examples of factors studied are type of facility involved, involved area or system, consequences and severity level. The analysis of the fire incidents reveals that even though many incidents are reported, the large majority of these have not imposed risks for severe fire accidents. It has also provided valuable information regarding possible dangerous situations, commonly in-volved areas, types of equipment as well as types of activity that were involved. Twenty-nine percent of the incidents were false alarms, which must be regarded as a high number in an industry where any production stop could be extremely costly.

  • 40.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil-and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf2018Ingår i: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, s. 1847-1854Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire is a major threat in the petroleum industry. However, little has been published about the fire related incidents that have occurred in the Norwegian petroleum sector. To gain more knowledge, data from 985 incidents in the 1997–2014 period has been analysed. Examples of factors studied are type of facility involved, involved area or system, consequences and severity level. The analysis of the fire incidents reveals that even though many incidents are reported, the large majority of these have not imposed risks for severe fire accidents. It has also provided valuable information regarding possible dangerous situations, commonly involved areas, types of equipment as well as types of activity that were involved. Twenty-nine percent of the incidents were false alarms, which must be regarded as a high number in an industry where any production stop could be extremely costly.

  • 41.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Analysis of fatal fires in Norway in the 2005 – 2014 period2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, information from fire statistics and other sources has been analyzed to get more detailed knowledge than before about who dies in fires and why. This will help to implement more targeted measures in order to reduce the number of people perishing in fires.  The study attempted to answer the following questions: 1. What risk factors are associated with those who perish in fires in Norway? 2. What are the causes of fatal fires in Norway? 3. How can fatal fires best be prevented?  A total of 517 fires with 571 fatalities are registered in the official fire statistics in the 2005 – 2014 period. We have examined 347 police investigation reports, identified 387 deceased and  extracted information from 248 medical records.

  • 42.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Analysis of fatal fires in Norway over a decade, – A retrospective observational study2018Ingår i: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, s. 2837-2844Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Five-hundred-and-seventy-one fatalities were registered in the official fire statistics in Norway between 2005–2014. However, little is known about the victims. This study collected information from several sources to build a holistic database and gain more knowledge about the technical and social aspects of the incidents, forming a basis for more targeted measures. Human behaviour greatly affects the risk of fire, which supports why social aspects of incidents should be considered when identifying risk factors associated with the victims. The results showed a clear distinction between victims above and below the age of 67 with respect to risk factors. For the elderly, reduced mobility, impaired cognitive ability, mental disorders and smoking were observed risk factors. For the younger victims known substance abuse, mental illness, alcoholic influence and smoking were observed, mostly in combination. This shows that fire is a social problem, and should be prevented by initiating customised measures

  • 43.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Evaluation of an industrial building inferno – A case study2019Ingår i: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 44.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Evaluering av brannen i BASA-Huset, Tønsberg2016Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [no]

    Torsdag 23. juli 2015 brøt det ut brann i BASA-Huset i Tønsberg. BASA-Huset var et næringsbygg hvor ca. 70 firma hadde tilhold. Størsteparten av bygget brant ned, og forsikringserstatningene er anslått til å være i størrelsesorden flere hundre millioner kroner. Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap og Direktoratet for byggkvalitet har bedt SP Fire Research om å evaluere brannen med tanke på hvorfor brannen ble så stor som den ble, og hvilke nasjonale læringspunkt som kan dras ut av hendelsen.

  • 45.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Utredning - branntekniske ytelser for kledninger og overflater2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    I denne utredning er de preaksepterte ytelsene som gjelder for kledninger og overflater vurdert, jf. TEK17 § 11-9. Både innvendige og utvendige (fasader) kledninger og overflater er behandlet. Utredningen er gjort med bakgrunn itidligere og eksisterende norsk regelverk, i tillegg har vi også undersøkthvordan kledningsklassene anvendes og tolkes i svenske og danskebyggeregler.

    I utredningen er også dagens preaksepterte ytelse, klasse B-s3,d0, for utvendig kledning inkludert hulrom på fasader vurdert, med utgangspunkt i de britiske undersøkelsene etter brannen i Grenfell Tower i London i juni 2017. Det er i tillegg gjort en enkel vurdering av hvordan fasadeløsningene som ble testet i henhold til britisk standard BS 8414-1 ville oppført seg ved testing i henhold til metoden SP FIRE 105.

    Utredningen konkluderer med flere anbefalinger til endringer av tekst iveiledningen til TEK17

  • 46.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Bøe, Andreas G.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Stensaas, Jan P.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    Hva kan vi lære av brannen i Lærdal i januar 2014?: Vurdering av brannspredningen2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Jensen, Ulla Eidissen
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Smouldering Combustion inLoose-Fill Wood Fibre Thermal Insulation: An Experimental Study2018Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 1585-1608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A bench-scale experimental setup has been used to study the conditions necessary

    for smouldering ignition in four types of loose-fill wood fibre thermal insulation, and

    to study the development of the smouldering process. The products varied with regard to

    wood species, grain size and fire retardant chemical additives. The test material was

    placed in an insulated open top container and heated from below. Temperatures within

    the sample and mass loss were measured during the tests. Both the fibre size and the level

    of added fire retardant seem to influence the smouldering ignition. Two different types of

    smouldering were identified in this study. Materials undergoing smouldering Type 1

    obtained maximum temperatures in the range 380C to 440C and a total mass loss of

    40 wt% to 50 wt%. Materials undergoing smouldering Type 2 obtained maximum temperatures

    in the range 660C to 700C and a total mass loss of 80 wt% to 90 wt%. This

    implies that Type 2 smouldering involves secondary char oxidation, which represents a

    risk for transition to flaming combustion and thereby a considerable fire hazard. This has

    been an exploratory project and the results must therefore be considered as indicative.

    The findings may, however, have implications for fire safety in the practical use of loosefill

    wood fibre insulation in buildings, and further experimental studies should be performed

    with this in mind to obtain more knowledge about the topic.

  • 48.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjær, Sindre
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Brann i snøoverbygg på Hallingskeid2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 49.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Stensaas, Jan Paul
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjær, Sindre
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Elektriske kabler og brannrisiko: Branntekniske egenskaper til kabler, ledningssystemer og kapslinger2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Brannsikkerhet for risikogrupper - en kunnskapsstatus2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
12 1 - 50 av 87
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