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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Johan M.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Value chains for integrated production of liquefied bio-SNG at sawmill sites – Techno-economic and carbon footprint evaluation2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 206, p. 1590-1608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry's increasing demand for liquefied natural gas could be met in the future by liquefied methane produced from biomass feedstock (LBG - liquefied biogas). This study presents results from an investigation of value chains for integrated production of LBG at a generic sawmill site, based on gasification of sawmill waste streams and forest residues. The objective was to investigate the cost for, as well as the carbon footprint reduction associated with, production and use of LBG as a fuel. Five different LBG plant sizes were investigated in combination with three different sawmill sizes. The resulting cases differ regarding biomass feedstock composition, biomass transportation distances, LBG plant sizes, how efficiently the excess heat from the LBG plant is used, and LBG distribution distances. Pinch technology was used to quantify the heat integration opportunities and to design the process steam network. The results show that efficient use of energy within the integrated process has the largest impact on the performance of the value chain in terms of carbon footprint. The fuel production cost are mainly determined by the investment cost of the plant, as well as feedstock transportation costs, which mainly affects larger plants. Production costs are shown to range from 68 to 156 EUR/MW hfuel and the carbon footprint ranges from 175 to 250 kg GHG-eq/MW hnet biomass assuming that the product is used to substitute fossil LNG fuel. The results indicate that process integration of an indirect biomass gasifier for LBG production is an effective way for a sawmill to utilize its by-products. Integration of this type of biorefinery can be done in such a way that the plant can still cover its heating needs whilst expanding its product portfolio in a competitive way, both from a carbon footprint and cost perspective. The results also indicate that the gains associated with efficient heat integration are important to achieve an efficient value chain.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ernits, Heiti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stoltz Ehn, Anna-Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Från living labs till transition labs - En forskningsöversikt och kartläggning av innovationsmiljöer för hållbara städer2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällen ställs i allt större grad inför komplexa utmaningar som blir allt svårare att hanteramed befintliga resurser och arbetssätt. För att kunna skapa förutsättningar för ett välmående,ekologiskt och socialt hållbart samhälle, nu och i framtiden, behöver en omfattande kursändringske. Behovet av sociala, organisatoriska och tekniska innovationer, som på olika sättbidrar till att ersätta ohållbara energi- och transportsystem samt föråldrade sätt att producerasamhällstjänster och kunskap på, är stort.Den samhällsvetenskapliga forskningen lyfter fram vikten av bred samverkan mellan sektorsochmyndighetsgränser för att kunna ta sig an komplexa hållbarhetsutmaningar. Dagensstuprörstänkande försvårar gemensam kunskapsproduktion och problemlösning. Däremotfinns det tecken på att den traditionella, hierarkiska och centralistiska samhällsstyrningenhåller på att omformas till att bli mer nätverksbaserad, horisontell och samarbetsbaserad.Denna styrningsform - som i den engelska litteraturen kallas för governance - bygger i högre gradpå nätverkande och flernivåsamverkan mellan näringsliv, offentlig sektor och civilsamhället.När det gäller hållbar utveckling och innovation anses städerna spela en allt viktigare roll. Delsär städer kraftfulla påverkansnoder som främjar spridningen av radikala innovationer; dels bidrarstädernas unika synergier och tillgång till infrastruktur, kapital och kompetenser till ökadinnovationsförmåga. Hur skall städerna organisera sig för att kunna öka samverkan och främja ettexperimentellt förhållningssätt för att kunna ta sig an komplexa utmaningar? Hur skallstäderna organisera sig för att dra nytta av den ökade innovationsförmågan givet desamhällsutmaningar vi står inför?I Sverige och internationellt har nya typer av organisationsformer och arenor börjar växa framsom ett svar på ovan tecknade utmaningar: urban living labs, urban transition labs, social labs, policy labs,innovationsplattform för att ta några exempel. Alla dessa miljöer har som syfte att främja flernivåsamverkan,innovation och problemlösning. I Sverige främjas denna utveckling främst tackvare innovationsmyndigeten Vinnova som på olika sätt stödjer dessa framväxande försök atthitta nya typer av organisationsformer. I Europa sker stora satsningar på liknande miljöergenom Horizon 2020 och JPI Urban Europe. Syftet med den här rapporten är att ge en bild avhur dessa nya innovationsmiljöer växer fram som styrverktyg för att driva hållbar stadsutveckling.I anslutning till rapporten har även gjorts en kartläggning och klassificering avsvenska innovationsmiljöer för hållbara städer.

  • 3.
    Anderzén, Christina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hellström, Hanna
    Göteborgsregionens kommunalförbund.
    Blom, Angelika
    NSR.
    Matavfallets väg från bord till jord – en översiktlig kartläggning av olika insamlingssystem för källsorterat matavfall från hushåll2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid förbehandling av matavfall uppstår ofta en balansgång mellan att ta bort föroreningar och att minimera förluster av insamlat matavfall. Fler separeringssteg innebär större förluster. Mer kunskap behövs dock kring vilka faktiska förluster av matavfall som görs vid olika typer av förbehandling samt koppling till olika insamlingssystem. Ett väl sorterat matavfall med så lite ovidkommande material som möjligt underlättar fortsatt behandling och möjligheter till avsättning av biogödsel samtidigt som det skapar förutsättningar för mindre förluster. 

    Syftet med insamling av källsorterat matavfall är i första hand att återvinna växtnäring, vilket även kommer att säkerställa produktionen av biogas. I denna rapport följer vi påsen med matavfall från hushållet hela vägen till åkermarken. Projektet har gjort en ansats att försöka beskriva vad som händer längs vägen och utifrån detta bedöma hur det påverkar kvalitén samt vilka förluster som görs i olika steg. Resonemang förs även avseende skillnader mellan de i Sverige vanligaste insamlingssystemen för källsorterat matavfall; fyrfackskärl, separata kärl och olikfärgade påsar för optisk sortering.

    Målet är att kommunerna efter genomläsning ska få en bättre förståelse för hela kedjan ”från bord till jord”. Därmed också att utformningen av egna mål och val av insamlingssystem, i större utsträckning än idag, baseras på en helhetssyn avseende biologisk återvinning där även kvalitetssäkring och förutsättningar för återföring av växtnäring vägs in. Förhoppningen är även att kommuner som redan är igång med insamling av matavfall, ska finna stöd i arbetet med att säkra kvaliteten och mängder då ”från bord till jord” ger en överblick över de olika stegen. 

    Det är så klart önskvärt att så stor andel matavfall som möjligt samlas in och att det är rätt sorterat. Rapporten konstaterar att andra faktorer än typ av insamlingssystem, bl.a. hur man arbetar med information, är viktiga för vilket insamlingsresultat som uppnås. Därmed föreslås att informationsmodeller beaktas vid jämförande studier avseende utsorteringsgrad, mängd och kvalitet. Även resultat vid källsortering av matavfall i större mekaniska system såsom sopsug och underjordsbehållare anpassade för flerbostadshus/tätbebyggda områden bör utvärderas. Detta eftersom dessa system blir allt vanligare särskilt i storstadsregionerna. Förlust av biogaspotential då matavfall mellanlagras har inte utretts vidare i denna rapport och bör också studeras närmare. Vilken påverkan har exempelvis hämtningsintervall och transportsträcka mellan insamling och behandling?

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att det behövs mer kunskap och konkreta siffror längs hela kedjan för biologisk återvinning - från insamling till återföring av växtnäring – för att kunna sätta resultat och kostnader i ett systemperspektiv.

  • 4.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Implementation of the Bürger-Diehl settler model on the benchmark simulation platform2015Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lunds universitet.
    Astals, Sergi
    Advanced Management Centre, University of Queensland.
    Åmand, Linda
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Batstone, Damien
    Advanced Management Centre, University of Queensland.
    Jensen, Paul
    Advanced Management Centre, University of Queensland.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university.
    Substrate fractionation for modelling of anaerobic co-digestion with a plant-wide perspective2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Modellering av avloppsreningsverk för multikriteriebedömning av prestanda och miljöpåverkan2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By using detailed dynamic plant-wide models and combining results from one-year simulations of ’within-the-fence’ WWTPs (both water- and sludge lines) with life-cycle analysis, different operational strategies can be developed and evaluated based on the total environmental impact (including external activities) while maximizing resource recovery and energy efficiency, maintaining good effluent quality and keeping track of the operational costs. The methodology has been applied and tested in an extensive case study of Käppala WWTP.

  • 7.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund university, Sweden.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Sustainability Analysis forWastewater Heat Recovery - Literature Review2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report describes the literature review conducted on wastewater heat recovery (WWHR). As part of the urban water cycle, domestic hot water consumes the lion share – up to 90 % – of the total energy requirement for water management. Individual energy consumption of 780 to 1 150 kWh/cay/yr has been estimated in Sweden. Energy can be recovered from wastewater, in buildings close to the source or further downstream in the wastewater system. Depending on wastewater flow and temperature heat exchangers or heat pumps (or a combination of both) can be used for extracting heat the energy. Obstacles for utilizing this potential are for example: clogging and fouling of equipment, potentially negative system impacts and economic feasibility. Examples of various WWHR implementations have been found in Sweden, Switzerland and North America. Some installations have been running for a long time and technical function and financial viability has been evaluated and are reviewed in the report. Generally, heat pumps reach a coefficient of performance of 3 to 7, better the higher the wastewater temperature is, i.e. further up-stream.

    WWHR application in a wastewater system can be modelled. The domestic hot water requirement and associated energy use has been modelled previously and concepts can be adapted for modelling the larger system. Equations for calculating performance and output variables from heat recovery equipment have been reviewed and is presented. For the purpose of assessing single WWHR installations in sewers, detailed models have been developed and presented. There are reviewed in the text. Concepts for estimating temperature variations in sewers are essential to assess the impact on wastewater treatment plants. Performance of wastewater treatment plants and their temperature dependence can be modelled with existing process models. Temperature variations along the course of the treatment plant might be important to consider.

    In Sweden, there are currently some regulations related to WWHR. The temperature of hot water systems in buildings are regulated to prevent Legionella outbreaks. Furthermore, the practice of WWHR is limited in extent and requires a permit from the utility as by the contract between the consumer and the utility. Currently, this limits the implementation of WWHR in Sweden.

  • 8.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lunds university, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Multi-objective performance assessment of wastewatertreatment plants combining plant-wide process modelsand life cycle assessment2017In: Journal of Water and Climate Change, ISSN 20402244, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 715-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective performance assessment of operational strategies at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a challenging task. The holistic perspective applied to evaluation of modern WWTPs, including not only effluent quality but also resource efficiency and recovery, global environmental impact and operational cost calls for assessment methods including both on- and off-site effects. In this study, a method combining dynamic process models – including greenhouse gas (GHG), detailed energy models and operational cost – and life cycle assessment (LCA) was developed. The method was applied and calibrated to a large Swedish WWTP. In a performance assessment study, changing the operational strategy to chemically enhanced primary treatment was evaluated. The results show that the primary objectives, to enhance bio-methane production and reduce GHG emissions were reached. Bio-methane production increased by 14% and the global warming potential decreased by 28%. However, due to increased consumption of chemicals, the operational cost increased by 87% and the LCA revealed that the abiotic depletion of elements and fossil resources increased by 77 and 305%, respectively. The results emphasize the importance of using plant-wide mechanistic models and life cycle analysis to capture both the dynamics of the plant and the potential environmental impacts.

  • 9.
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bolin, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Norefjell, Fredric
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nyström, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Norrblom, Hans-Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tööj, Lars
    Industrial Development Center, Sweden.
    Cirkulära möbelflöden: Hur nya affärsmodeller kan bidra till hållbar utveckling inom offentliga möbler2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har en stark möbelindustri och en stolt tradition av att tillverka tidlösa och högkvalitativa möbler, ofta av naturmaterial. 2016 producerade Sverige möbler för 22,8 miljarder SEK, varav kontorsmöbler stod för nästan en fjärdedel1. Det saknas idag statistik över vad som händer med dessa möbler när de inte längre används, men det står klart att många av dem slängs i förtid när verksamheter flyttar eller när deras behov ändras. Samtidigt syns en tydlig utveckling mot att kunder mer och mer efterfrågar återbrukade eller renoverade möbler som en del i sitt hållbarhetsarbete. Denna utveckling var startpunkten för projektet ”Affärsmodell-innovation för cirkulära möbelflöden”.

    Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden är ett Vinnovafinansierat projekt som under åren 2015-2017 arbetat med att utveckla och testa koncept för cirkulära affärsmodeller för i första hand offentliga möbler. I projektet har tjugo aktörer från hela värdekedjan, från underleverantörer, möbelproducenter, återförsäljare och användare till forskare och branschorgan, samarbetat kring affärsutveckling, kundincitament, produktdesign, logistik, hållbarhets- och certifieringsfrågor.

    Den här skriften belyser hur nya affärsmodeller för mer cirkulära möbelflöden kan bidra till en mer hållbar utveckling och ger smakprov på slutsatser från projektet. Skriften riktar sig framför allt till producenter och återförsäljare av möbler för offentliga miljöer, men även kunder och inköpare tror vi kan ha stor nytta av skriften. Vi hoppas att den även kan fungera som inspiration för andra industrier och branscher som funderar på en övergång till mer cirkulära affärsekosystem.

  • 10.
    Berg, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Josell, Åsa
    Atria Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Fredrik, Davidsson
    Geoloc AB, Sweden.
    State of the Art Report Insects as Food and Feed2017In: Annals of Experimental Biology, ISSN ISSN:2348-1935, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FAO has considered insects as food since 2003 and is promoting consumption of insects (entomophagy) in the Western world because of the possibilities for sustainable production it offers. Insects as food are considered to leave smaller ecological footprints than conventional livestock (beef, pigs, and poultry) regarding feed, land and water needs, as well as greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions. As an example regarding water, taken from a recent TV documentary, if a family of four people got their protein need from insects one day a week instead of from conventional livestock, over a year they would save the planet about a million Liters of water. This is in agreement with figures above. One of the main reasons that insects for food in general have such positive environmental properties is that they are cold-blooded and thus use no energy to maintain their body temperature, in contrast to mammals (beef, pig) and birds (poultry), so their feed conversion is considerably more effective than that of conventional livestock. However, differences in feed conversion may also have other reasons, and are complicated to explain, as discussed in a recent review of Life Cycle Assessments of edible insects [9]. In addition, insects can be reared on organic side streams. For example, mealworms can recycle organic residues into high-quality potential feed rich in energy, protein and fat. Insects as food are generally considered as healthy, nutritious alternatives to conventional meats such as chicken, pork, and beef. They are rich in protein, 40-60% of dry matter, with content of essential amino acids similar to beef and soy. Unsaturated fat content is 10-30% of dry matter, and they are high in calcium, iron and zinc. However, there are significant differences depending on insect species, rearing method and feed, etc. .

  • 11.
    Björkmalm, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Byrne, Eoin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    van Niel, Ed
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    A non-linear model of hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus for diauxic-like consumption of lignocellulosic sugar mixtures2018In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 11, article id 175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is an attractive hydrogen producer suitable for growth on various lignocellulosic substrates. The aim of this study was to quantify uptake of pentose and hexose monosaccharides in an industrial substrate and to present a kinetic growth model of C. saccharolyticus that includes sugar uptake on defined and industrial media. The model is based on Monod and Hill kinetics extended with gas-to-liquid mass transfer and a cybernetic approach to describe diauxic-like growth.

    Results

    Mathematical expressions were developed to describe hydrogen production by C. saccharolyticus consuming glucose, xylose, and arabinose. The model parameters were calibrated against batch fermentation data. The experimental data included four different cases: glucose, xylose, sugar mixture, and wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) fermentations. The fermentations were performed without yeast extract. The substrate uptake rate of C. saccharolyticus on single sugar-defined media was higher on glucose compared to xylose. In contrast, in the defined sugar mixture and WSH, the pentoses were consumed faster than glucose. Subsequently, the cultures entered a lag phase when all pentoses were consumed after which glucose uptake rate increased. This phenomenon suggested a diauxic-like behavior as was deduced from the successive appearance of two peaks in the hydrogen and carbon dioxide productivity. The observation could be described with a modified diauxic model including a second enzyme system with a higher affinity for glucose being expressed when pentose saccharides are consumed. This behavior was more pronounced when WSH was used as substrate.

    Conclusions

    The previously observed co-consumption of glucose and pentoses with a preference for the latter was herein confirmed. However, once all pentoses were consumed, C. saccharolyticus most probably expressed another uptake system to account for the observed increased glucose uptake rate. This phenomenon could be quantitatively captured in a kinetic model of the entire diauxic-like growth process. Moreover, the observation indicates a regulation system that has fundamental research relevance, since pentose and glucose uptake in C. saccharolyticus has only been described with ABC transporters, whereas previously reported diauxic growth phenomena have been correlated mainly to PTS systems for sugar uptake.

  • 12.
    Björn-Hansen, Aksel
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Building Momentum: Scaling up Change in Community Organizations2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Addressing calls in Sustainable HCI to scale up our work in HCI targeting sustainability, and the current knowledge gap of how to do this practically, we here present a qualitative study of 10 sustainability-oriented community organizations that are working to scale up their change making. They are all loosely connected to a local Transition network, meaning that they are aiming at transforming current practices in society, through local and practical action, to meet challenges related to climate change. We wanted to know how they try to scale up their change making, and what role ICT plays in enabling scaling up. The study contributes new insights about three stages of scaling up, in which ICT plays different roles. We conclude with implications for HCI for how to support community organizations in scaling up, while keeping values important for working toward a more resilient society.

  • 13.
    Borgqvist, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ågren, Thomas
    ICA Fastigheter, Sweden.
    Westman, Bo
    INCERT, Sweden.
    Swartz, Harry
    Hållbar miljö & strategi, Sweden.
    Certifierad energikonsult livsmedelsbutiker2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie har undersökt förutsättningarna för en frivillig, ej ackrediterad certifiering av energikonsulter för livsmedelsbutiker. Det långsiktiga målet är att butiker med hjälp av certifierade energikonsulter skall få effektiva och kvalitativa energikartläggningar som innefattar såväl fastighetens som verksamhetens energianvändning och hur de olika delarna kan samverka för största möjliga energieffektivisering.

    Det finns en mycket stor potential att spara energi i butiker. Dagens genomsnittsbutik kan minska sin energianvändning med en tredjedel. Idag finns också en ökad miljömedvetenhet hos svenska livsmedelsbutiker, och med ett större behov av kyld mat har energifrågorna fått en allt större betydelse. Medlemmar i BELIVS Innovationskluster har länge efterfrågat en certifiering av energikonsulter för livmedelsbutiker, som utgår ifrån beställarnas behov. Detta för att öka andelen butiker med låg energianvändning, säker drift och liten miljöpåverkan.

    Förstudiens resultat består av; identifierade behov ur ett beställarperspektiv, en kravspecifikation som beskriver certifieringens kompetenskrav, en beskrivning av hur en certifiering är tänkt att gå till, samt ett exempel på hur ett certifieringsprov kan se ut. Dessutom har fyra stycken testcertifieringar genomförts, där exempelprovet har testats av energikonsulter. Tanken är att förstudiens resultat skall kunna användas som underlag för att ta fram ett färdigt certifieringsprogram.

    Den generella slutsatsen från förstudien är att certifieringen av energikonsulter för livsmedelsbutiker är genomförbar, men beställarna behöver efterfråga certifieringen i sina upphandlingar av konsulter om denna skall slå på marknaden. Baserat på diskussioner med representanter från konsultsidan, bedömer projektgruppen att det finns ett intresse för certifieringen så länge beställarna kommer att efterfråga detta. Att få fler beställare bakom den föreslagna certifieringen är den viktigaste åtgärden i ett nästa steg.

    RISE har drivit projektet tillsammans med INCERT, ICA Fastigheter, Coop och Hållbar Miljö & Strategi. Projektgruppen har haft kontakt med Bergendahls och Axfood vilka har deltagit vid enstaka arbetsmöten.

    Finansiärer av förstudien är Energimyndigheten, INCERT, ICA Fastigheter, Coop samt Bergendahls.

  • 14.
    Boss, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sacco, Francesco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Systematisk utvärdering av hållbarhet vid renovering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det europeiska fastighetsbeståndet är i behov av omfattande renoveringar för att uppnå minskade koldioxidutsläpp, men också för att skapa förbättrade livsvillkor för människor samtidigt som fastighetsägare drivs av ökad ekonomisk bärkraft. Men det är inte alltid lätt att veta hur mål av detta slag ska uppnås och balanseras. Därför har RISE tillsammans med partners i fastighetsbranschen tagit fram Renobuild – en beslutsmetod för att utvärdera renoveringar utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. I projektet har två versioner av metodiken tagits fram, testats och vidareutvecklats via fallstudier.

    Med hjälp av Renobuild Bostad utvärderas renoveringar av flerbostadshus och deras omgivningar med hänsyn till klimatpåverkan, livscykelkostnader och sociala faktorer så som trygghet, säkerhet, hälsa och sociala relationer. Med Renobuild Skola utvärderas skolrenoveringar och dess effekter på inte bara ekonomi och miljö, utan också med hänsyn till elevers lärande, trygghet och sociala relationer. Metodiken genererar en sammantagen hållbarhetsvärdering som ska ge fastighetsägare och samarbetspartners fördjupad förståelse för möjliga hållbarhetskonsekvenser av olika renoveringsalternativ samt tillfälle att diskutera och göra avvägningar mellan olika mål.

    Renobuild består av en Excelfil och en användarhandbok fritt tillgängliga för vem som helst att använda. Dessa nås via en webbplats, tillsammans med bakgrundsmaterial för den som vill få en djupare förståelse för hur metodiken har utvecklats. Förhoppningen är att metodiken nu ska spridas i fastighetsbranschen och därmed generera en större medvetenhet om hållbarhetsfrågor vid renoveringar.

  • 15.
    Boss, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sacco, Francesco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Folland, Anna
    Hedén, Alice
    Renobuild 2.0 – verktyg för systematisk hållbarhetsutvärdering vid renovering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fastighetsbeståndet i Sverige och resten av Europa är i behov av omfattande renoveringar för att uppnå minskade koldioxidutsläpp, skapa förbättrade livsvillkor för människor och öka dess ekonomiska bärkraft. Men det är inte alltid lätt att veta hur dessa mål ska uppnås och balanseras. Därför har RISE tillsammans med partners i fastighetsbranschen tagit fram Renobuild – en beslutsmetod för att utvärdera renoveringar utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. I projektet har två versioner av metodiken tagits fram, testats och vidareutvecklats via fallstudier. I Renobuild Bostad utvärderas renoveringar av flerbostadshus och deras omgivningar. Analysen tar hänsyn till klimatpåverkan, livscykelkostnader och sociala faktorer så som trygghet, säkerhet, hälsa och sociala relationer. Renobuild Skola utvärderar skolrenoveringar och dess effekter på ekonomi, miljö och sociala aspekter så som elevers lärande, trygghet och sociala relationer. Resultatet ger en sammantagen hållbarhetsvärdering som fördjupar fastighetsägares och samarbetspartners förståelse för möjliga konsekvenser av olika renoveringsalternativ. Renobuild består av ett Excelark och en användarhandbok som är fritt tillgängliga för vem som helst att använda. Dessa nås via en webbsida tillsammans med bakgrundsmaterial. En del av det materialet är den här rapporten som ämnar ge en djupare förståelse för hur metodiken har utvecklats. Rapporten beskriver vad användaren kan utvärdera med hjälp av dessa verktyg, hur verktyget behandlar indata, hur resultatet framställs och visualiseras samt hur den nya version 2.0 skiljer sig från en tidigare version. Här beskrivs också hur bakgrundsdata och teori har används för att utveckla innehållet i verktygen. Dessutom diskuteras det vilka avgränsningar som har gjorts i den miljömässiga, ekonomiska och sociala analysen – alltså reflektioner kring systemgränserna för respektive hållbarhetsdimension. Förhoppningen är att metodiken ska spridas i fastighetsbranschen och därmed generera en större medvetenhet om hållbarhetsfrågor vid renoveringar.

  • 16.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Falk, Petter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    What can LCA learnfrom service design: User integration?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a sustainable society, the use of resources and climate issues needs to be reduced, and the introduction of services seems to be the solution in the new “service” economy. Similar to products, services are designed to fulfill costumer needs. However, customers are seldom involved in the design of products, while they are in the process of service design. Here we look at the leisure service sector to find method concepts for sustainable analysis (Berlin & Brunklaus 2016).

    So far, a literature study and LCA studies on services (Brunklaus 2016) like the opera and theatre (Algehed et al 2010), tourist (Brunklaus et al 2015), and film (Brunklaus et al 2015) has been performed using a producer and consumer perspective, which led to discussion about the reuse of scenes at the opera, and discussion about tourist packages and discussion about film production design. To get this even further, we have looked into the area of service design.

    The purpose of this project is to further develop the various LCA based methods (E-LCA, S-LCA, LCC) in order to integrate user into the design process. The questions are: What can the life cycle methodology learn from service design? What are the similarities and differences?

    The service design includes several parts: Prepare and define the problem, capture the service and user through ethograpichly oriented research tools, Understand the employee and the user, Improve the working process, and Renew the user function (SP service LABs 2016). The life cycle methodology includes also several parts: Goal and scope including the problem and the system of study, the Inventory includes the technical system and environmental or social or economic data, the Impact Assessment includes indicators, and the Interpretation includes technical solutions and hot spot analysis of various kinds (Bauman and Tillman 2004).

    The results show that the service design is developed close to the customer, including study visits and observation, which the life cycle methodology seems to lack. On the other hand the life cycle methodology gains in the well-structured goal and scope. In order to develop the life cycle methodology further we therefore recommend integrating the user more and focusing on the implementation and visualization, similar to Service design.

  • 17.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Choice of social indicators within technology development – the case of mobile biorefineries in Europe2018In: Social LCA: People and Places for Partnership, 2018, p. 162-166Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ulmanen, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Aid, Graham
    Ragnsells, Sweden.
    The value of transdisciplinary perspectives duringtransition to a bio-based economy: The prospect for converting mixed food wasteinto bio-based chemicals2018In: Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products andPolicies: From Science to Innovation / [ed] Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton, Spinger , 2018, p. 327-335Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the current political and industrial transition to a bio-based

    economy, food waste can be an alternative resource for biobased chemicals. This

    chapter describes a case study that evaluates the prospect for Swedish production of

    biobased chemicals such as succinic acid from food waste. The evaluation is

    addressed from multiple systems perspectives. From a technical and resource

    system perspective, the results of the case study show that production seems possible.

    However, from a social system perspective succinic acid production currently

    lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for realizing

    development in Sweden. From an environmental and life cycle perspective, the

    scoping of the analysis is decisive for the results. The study shows that multiple

    perspectives complement each other when seeking a nuanced evaluation of technical

    innovation and give insights for the intended value chain.

  • 19.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Carlsson, Erica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    The future of Swedish food waste: An environmental assessment of existing and prospective valorization techniques2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 202, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the current dominant valorization of food waste is the production of biogas. However, as current production has low profitability, other options are sought to find more valuable uses of food waste, e.g. as the feedstock for bio-based chemicals. One example is the use of food waste in the production of bio-based succinic acid. In this paper, a LCA study is presented in order to highlight whether biogas production or the production of succinic acid has the lowest environmental impact as valorization option for mixed food waste, and if mixed food waste could be an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. The LCA study shows that the environmental results depend on the perspective. From a valorization perspective, food waste has the lowest environmental impact the biogas production. From a feedstock perspective, mixed food waste is an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. Although many uncertainties exist because production processes are still being developed, it can be concluded that mixed food waste seems to be a promising feedstock for bio-based chemicals from an environmental point of view, and is of interest to be included in future assessments of bio-based chemicals for the emerging bio-economy. © 2018

  • 20.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Riise, Ellen
    SCA, Sweden.
    Bio-based Materials Within the CircularEconomy: Opportunities and Challenges2018In: Designing SustainableTechnologies,Products and Policies : from Science to Innovation / [ed] Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton, 2018, p. 43-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a circular society, material consumption should be a circular processwhere renewable resources and waste streams are used for new bio-based materials.In such a society, bio-based materials are also reused, repaired, recycled, andremanufactured. Not only choices on resources, but also other life cycle choicespertaining to circularity must be done based on technological, environmental andeconomic basis. For this session, presentations and discussions regarding life cyclemanagement of bio-based materials were suggested. The session had five oralpresentations and six poster presentations that gave a general picture of a broaderenvironmental and a positive economic result on a life cycle basis when renewableraw materials are used, while further exploration of the technical aspects withincircularity and end-of-life challenges are needed in the future.

  • 21.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stahl, Selim
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Socio-economic analysis based on a life cycle perspective: The comparison of existing and emerging production process for trimethyl phosphite2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Byrne, Eoin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kovacs, Krisztyna
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Van Niel, Ed W. J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Svensson, Sven-Erik
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kreuger, Emma
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Reduced use of phosphorus and water in sequential dark fermentation and anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and the application of ensiled steam-pretreated lucerne as a macronutrient provider in anaerobic digestion2018In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Current EU directives demand increased use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector but restrict governmental support for production of biofuels produced from crops. The use of intercropped lucerne and wheat may comply with the directives. In the current study, the combination of ensiled lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) and wheat straw as substrate for hydrogen and methane production was investigated. Steam-pretreated and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw [WSH, 76% of total chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and ensiled lucerne (LH, 24% of total COD) were used for sequential hydrogen production through dark fermentation and methane production through anaerobic digestion and directly for anaerobic digestion. Synthetic co-cultures of extreme thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor species adapted to elevated osmolalities were used for dark fermentation. Results: Based on 6 tested steam pretreatment conditions, 5 min at 200 °C was chosen for the ensiled lucerne. The same conditions as applied for wheat straw (10 min at 200 °C with 1% acetic acid) would give similar sugar yields. Volumetric hydrogen productivities of 6.7 and 4.3 mmol/L/h and hydrogen yields of 1.9 and 1.8 mol/mol hexose were observed using WSH and the combination of WSH and LH, respectively, which were relatively low compared to those of the wild-type strains. The combinations of WSH plus LH and the effluent from dark fermentation of WSH plus LH were efficiently converted to methane in anaerobic digestion with COD removal of 85-89% at organic loading rates of COD 5.4 and 8.5 g/L/day, respectively, in UASB reactors. The nutrients in the combined hydrolysates could support this conversion. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the possibility of reducing the water addition to WSH by 26% and the phosphorus addition by 80% in dark fermentation with Caldicellulosiruptor species, compared to previous reports. WSH and combined WSH and LH were well tolerated by osmotolerant co-cultures. The yield was not significantly different when using defined media or hydrolysates with the same concentrations of sugars. However, the sugar concentration was negatively correlated with the hydrogen yield when comparing the results to previous reports. Hydrolysates and effluents from dark fermentation can be efficiently converted to methane. Lucerne can serve as macronutrient provider in anaerobic digestion. Intercropping with wheat is promising.

  • 23.
    Chen, Huijuan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stensson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Energy performance of door solutions2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project aim was to develop knowledge about the energy performance of different door solutions. The door types that we have focused on are automatic sliding doors and revolving doors. Losses through a door depend on its U-value, infiltration leakage through the seal when closed and unintended air exchange when the door is open and in use. It is the last factor, the unintended air exchange when in use, which is mostly addressed in this report and it is also the most significant part when it comes to energy losses through entrance doors.

    To achieve environmental targets, energy use in buildings must be reduced. There is a gap regarding knowledge about the energy losses through the entrances and how it affects the total energy use of the building. The problems regarding entrances are neglected in calculations of low energy buildings, even though they in many cases may have a large impact on the energy use. Meanwhile, the unintended air exchange through the doors is a parameter that has a large uncertainty and that is difficult to predict in energy calculations. To achieve a better accuracy in calculated energy performance, better methods and estimations regarding the unintentional air exchange through the entrances is needed.

    In the project we measured air exchange rates through a revolving door and investigated the effect of temperature difference and door rotation speed in our laboratory, based on a reduced scale revolving door with the scaling 1:2.  Both temperature measurements and tracer gas measurements were performed, and the temperature measurements gave more stable results. The measured air exchange rate was affected more by the door rotation speed than the temperature difference, within the measuring ranges that was tested.

    Further, we have also analyzed and applied existing calculation models for entrance doors. Calculations for estimating the energy losses for a door was made for a simple case study of an office building in Gothenburg, based on a number of different calculation models for sliding doors and revolving doors. The calculation results for this specific study show that the revolving door can prevent up to 60-90% of the losses compared to a sliding door depending on which air flow scenario, i.e., single sided- or cross ventilation, is considered for the sliding door. Better knowledge is needed to understand the actual air flow profile of real cases when the sliding door is installed in a building. Furthermore, additional studies are needed for the revolving door to ensure the results from this study by e.g., extended laboratory measurements and also field tests. Also, how other parameters such as wind (magnitude, direction and incidence angle) and door usage affecting air exchange through a revolving door is needed to be investigated further. Next step to develop a reliable model for revolving doors is to repeat the measurements performed in this project on a full scale revolving door and with a larger test range.

  • 24.
    Coutiño, Ana Martha
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wahlberg, Alexander
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    McNamara, Greg
    Dublin City University, Ireland.
    Demonstration project to prove the techno-economic feasibility of using algae to treat saline wastewater from the food industry2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable is a process report of tasks 7.2 and 7.3 concerning the techno-economic and environmental evaluation of the SaltGae system. It also describes the plan forward to execute task 7.4 and 7.5 regarding the social and integrated sustainability assessments. The last section also includes a process report of the SaltGae Visualisation tool (SVT).

  • 25.
    Davidsson, Kent
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stålenheim, Annika
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Boman, Katarina
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Sotningsmetoder för pannor som använder besvärliga bbränslen2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Erfarenheter samt finansierings- och driftkostnader har tagits fram för en rad

    sotningsmetoder.

    Resultatet visar att av de studerade anläggningarna finns det ingen metod som generellt

    bara fungerar bra, eller generellt inte fungerar alls. Alla har sina för och nackdelar och

    fungerar olika bra på olika pannor. Kostnadsmässigt är det också stor spridning men det

    beror delvis på ett ganska litet underlag. I vissa fall blir kostnaderna väldigt höga om

    bristande funktion leder till mycket stilleståndstid eller att man exempelvis får minska

    lasten under sotningssekvensen, medan det i andra fall är relativt låga kostnader för

    samma metod.

    Ett trettiotal anläggningar av rost- och fluidbäddtyp, vilka eldades med avfall eller

    biobränsle har ingått i undersökningen.

  • 26.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hostile urban architecture: A critical discussion of the seemingly offensive art of keeping people away2017In: Etikk i praksis, ISSN 1890-3991, E-ISSN 1890-4009, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 27-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, some urban architecture has aimed to exclude unwanted groups of people from some locations. This type of architecture is called “defensive” or “hostile” architecture and includes benches that cannot be slept on, spikes in the ground that cannot be stood on, and pieces of metal that hinder one’s ability to skateboard. These defensive measures have sparked public outrage, with many thinking such measures lead to suffering, are disrespectful, and violate people’s rights. In this paper, it is argued that these views are difficult to defend and that much more empirical research on the topic is needed.

  • 27.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Justifying Antibiotic Resistance Interventions: Uncertainty, Precaution and Ethics2018In: Ethics and Drug-Resistant Infections:  Collective Responsibility for Global Public Health / [ed] Jamrozik E. och Selgelid M.J, Springer, 2018, 5Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter charts and critically analyses the ethical challenge of assessing how much (and what kind of) evidence is required for the justification of interventions in response antibiotic resistance (ABR), as well as other major public health threats. Our ambition here is to chart and briefly discuss main issues, and point to ways in which these need to be further advanced in future research. This will result in a tentative map of complications, underlying problems and possible challenges. This map illustrates that the ethical challenges in this area are much more complex and profound than is usually acknowledged, leaving no tentatively plausible intervention package free of downsides. This creates potentially overwhelming theoretical conundrums when trying to justify what to do. We therefore end by pointing out two general features of the complexity we find to be of particular importance, and a tentative suggestion for how to create a theoretical basis for further analysis.

  • 28.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Russell Hardin: Trust and trustworthiness2017In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 52-61Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 29.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Munthe, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nijsingh, Niels
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    TESTING INTERVENTIONS FOR DRASTICPUBLIC HEALTH THREATS: "SOCIAL VALUE", PRAGMATIC RISKS AND THE CHALLENGE OF HEALTH-RELATED RESEARCH ETHICS THE CASE OF DRUG RESISTANCE2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    de Jong, Sierk
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Hoefnagels, Ric
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Faaij, Andre
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Junginger, Martin
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 195, p. 1055-1070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations (i.e. supply chains with an intermediate pre-treatment step to reduce biomass transport cost). The model assessed biofuel production levels ranging from 1 to 150 PJ a−1 in the context of the existing Swedish forest industry. Biofuel was produced from forestry biomass using hydrothermal liquefaction and hydroprocessing. Simultaneous implementation of all cost reduction strategies yielded minimum biofuel production costs of 18.1–18.2 € GJ−1 at biofuel production levels between 10 and 75 PJ a−1. Limiting the economies of scale was shown to cause the largest cost increase (+0–12%, increasing with biofuel production level), followed by disabling integration benefits (+1–10%, decreasing with biofuel production level) and allowing unimodal truck transport only (+0–6%, increasing with biofuel production level). Distributed supply chain configurations were introduced once biomass supply became increasingly dispersed, but did not provide a significant cost benefit (<1%). Disabling the benefits of integration favors large-scale centralized production, while intermodal transport networks positively affect the benefits of economies of scale. As biofuel production costs still exceeds the price of fossil transport fuels in Sweden after implementation of all cost reduction strategies, policy support and stimulation of further technological learning remains essential to achieve cost parity with fossil fuels for this feedstock/technology combination in this spatiotemporal context. © 2017 The Authors

  • 31.
    Edo, Mar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    International perspectives of energy from waste: Challenges and trends2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Energy from waste technologies (EfW) constitute a meeting point for waste management and energy sectors to work together and benefit from each other in the most efficient manner. EfW technologies provide a solution for waste management; while generate energy (e.g. electricity, heat or fuel transport) to meet the actual fossil-free fuels high demand. Selection of the most suitable technology is based on social, economic and technical factors and environmental strategies to ensure the best outcomes.

    This paper describes the importance of EfW in today´s society, gives a picture of the situation of the EfW market in different regions all over the world and discuss the main challenges that the EfW market is facing.

  • 32.
    Ekman Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Macias Aragones, Marta
    Fundación Corporación Tecnológica de Andalucía, Spain; University of Seville, Spain.
    Arroyo Torralvo, Fatima
    University of Seville, Spain.
    Dunon, Vincent
    ARCHE Consulting, Belgium.
    Angel, Hanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Komnitsas, Konstantinos
    Technical University of Crete, Greece.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    A review of carbon footprint of Cu and Zn production from primary and secondary sources2017In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 168-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) with their unique propertiesare central for economic growth, quality of life and creation of new jobs. The base-metalproducing sector is, however, under growing public pressure in respect toenergy and water requirements and needs to meet several challenges, includingincreased demand and lower ore grades generally associated with larger resourceuse. The development of technologies for metal production from secondarysources is often motivated by increased sustainability and this paper aims to providefurther insights about one specific aspect of sustainability, namely climatechange. The paper presents a review of carbon footprints (CF) for Cu and Znproduced from primary and secondary raw materials, by analyzing data taken fromscientific literature and the Ecoinvent database. Comparisons are carried outbased on the source of data selected as reference case. In the case of Cu,reduced CF of secondary production is indicated, although there is large datavariation. As for Zn, production of this metal from secondary sources seems to bebeneficial but the number of data and cases to be compared is much smallercompared to Cu. The general variation of data suggests that standardization ofcomparison is needed when assessing the environmental benefits of production inline with the principles of waste valorization, zero waste approach andcircular economy.

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Morandin, Matteo
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A feasibility study of improved heat recovery and excess heat export at a Swedish chemical complex site2018In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 1580-1593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New ambitious targets for reduced greenhouse gas emissions and increased energy efficiency in industry and in the stationary energy sector provide incentives for industrial plants to investigate opportunities for substantially increasing recovery and use of excess heat from their operations. This work investigates the economic feasibility of recovering industrial excess heat at a Swedish chemical complex site for increased site internal heat recovery or export to a regional district heating (DH) network. The work is based on investment cost data estimated in previous work by the authors. A site-wide heat collection and distribution system based on circulating hot water was envisioned, which is also connected to a regional DH network. With the help of multiobjective optimization, the optimal heat contributions from the individual plant sites were identified that minimize the total system cost for a large range of options involving different quantities of internally recovered heat and heat export to the DH system. A payback period analysis was conducted together with a risk assessment to take into account uncertainty regarding utility steam production cost and heat sale price. The results of the study indicate that a payback period of around 3 years can be achieved for a number of cases in which 30% to 50% of the total excess heat produced by the site plants is recovered. Although it seems more profitable to recover heat at the site rather than exporting heat to the DH system only, profitability appears to be maximized by hybrid solutions that allow a share of the excess heat to be sold to the DH system and some heat to be recovered at the site simultaneously.

  • 34.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Energy system models as a means of visualising barriers and drivers of forest-based biofuels: An interview study of developers and potential users2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-derived biofuels have been on the agenda for several decades. Despite extensive research and development efforts, forest biofuel concepts have nevertheless not yet been realized on any significant scale. The discrepancy between the expectations from the research community and the lack of momentum regarding biofuel production raises the question of if and how research results can be used to achieve such goals. Here, we report results from an interview study with the aim of evaluating how energy system models can be used to illustrate barriers and drivers for forest biofuels, with focus on Swedish conditions, using the BeWhere model as case. The study is framed as an example of expertise, and problematizes how energy system models are interpreted among expected users. While the interviews revealed some general scepticism regarding models, and what kinds of questions they can answer, the belief was also expressed that increased complexity might be an advantage in terms of being able to accommodate more barriers against forest biofuels. The study illustrates the complexity of this policy area, where an energy system model can answer some, but never all, 'what if.?' questions. The results reveal a need for reformation in energy system modelling in order to more explicitly make society the subject of the work, and also illustrate that the belief in expertise as a tool for consensus-building in decision-making should be questioned.

  • 35.
    Folkeson, Björn
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Vattenanvändning med energieffektiva blandare2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the short and long term impacts of domestic hot and cold water use and associated energy use when replacing conventional faucets in 100 apartments with energy efficient faucets labeled with energy class A-B according to the Swedish energy labeling system. The study included a behavioural study to increase the understanding of the users’ perception of the faucets and to investigate the underlying reasons for acceptance of the installed products.

     

    The results showed a reduction in domestic hot water use and energy use for domestic hot water of 28 %. No reduction of cold water use could be identified although changes in occupancy of the apartments might have contributed to this result. The savings in hot water use did not diminish over the measurement period.

     

    The acceptance of the energy efficient faucets did not increase over time, which was likely due to the lack of feedback on the assumption that the faucets provided the indicated savings. It was also indicated that the perception of the faucets differed between contexts in the home. The acceptance was also found to be linked to factors that could not be isolated from the faucet and its function.

  • 36.
    Fredenslund, Anders M
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hinge, Jørgen
    Teknologisk Institut AgroTech, Denmark.
    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rasmussen, Søren G.
    Teknologisk Institut AgroTech, Denmark.
    Scheutz, Charlotte
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    On-site and ground-based remote sensing measurements of methane emissions from four biogas plants: A comparison study2018In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 270, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for quantifying methane (CH4) emissions from biogas plants are needed, in order to ensure that emissions are within acceptable levels and to identify options for emission mitigation. Two emission measuring approaches were used at four biogas plants: an on-site approach, whereby emission sources were identified and subsequently quantified one at a time, and a ground-based remote sensing approach, which was applied to measure total CH4 emissions. The emissions were between 5.5 and 13.5 kg CH4 h−1 from the four plants, measured using ground-based remote sensing. Even though the measurements were performed on the same days at each facility, the sum of on-site emission rates varied between the remote sensing measurements (up to ∼100%). Several factors may have caused this difference: emission sources not measured using an on-site approach and short-time emission variation. On-site measurements showed that the majority of the emissions often occurred from just a few sources.

  • 37.
    Gall, Dan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pushp, Mohit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Davidsson, Kent O.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Pettersson, Jan B. C.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Online Measurements of Alkali and Heavy Tar Components in Biomass Gasification2017In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 8152-8161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tar and alkali metal compounds are released during biomass gasification and have a major impact on the operation and performance of gasification processes. Herein we describe a novel method for characterization of alkali and heavy tar compounds in the hot product gas formed during gasification. Gas is continuously extracted, cooled and diluted, which results in condensation of tar and alkali into aerosol particles. The thermal stability of these particles is subsequently evaluated using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) method. The technique is adopted from aerosol science where it is frequently used to characterize the thermal properties of aerosol particles. Laboratory studies show that pure and mixed alkali salts and organic compounds evaporate in well-defined temperature ranges, which can be used to determine the chemical composition of particles. The performance of the VTDMA is demonstrated at a 4 MWth dual fluidized bed gasifier using two different types of online sampling systems. Alkali metal compounds and a wide distribution of heavy tar components with boiling points above 400°C are observed in the product gas. Implications and potential further improvements of the technique are discussed.

  • 38.
    Gall, Dan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pushp, Mohit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Anton
    Göteborg Energi AB, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Pettersson, Jan B. C.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Online Measurements of Alkali Metals during Start-up and Operation of an Industrial-Scale Biomass Gasification Plant2018In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 532-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkali metal compounds may have positive influences on biomass gasification by affecting char reactivity and tar reforming but may also disturb the process by formation of deposits and agglomerates. We herein present results from online measurements of alkali compounds and particle concentrations in a dual fluidized bed gasifier with an input of 32 MWth. A surface ionization detector was used to measure alkali concentrations in the product gas, and aerosol particle measurement techniques were employed to study concentrations and properties of condensable components in the gas. Measurements were performed during start-up and steady-state operation of the gasifier. The alkali concentration increased to approximately 200 mg m-3 when fuel was fed to the gasifier and continued to rise during activation of the olivine bed by addition of potassium carbonate, while the alkali concentration was in the range from 20 to 60 mg m-3 during steady-state operation. Addition of fresh bed material and recirculated ash had noticeable effects on the observed alkali concentrations, and K2CO3 additions to improve tar chemistry resulted in increased levels of alkali in the product gas. Addition of elemental sulfur led to reduced concentrations of CH4 and heavy tars, while no clear influence on the alkali concentration was observed. The study shows that alkali concentrations are high in the product gas, which has implications for the fluidized bed process, tar chemistry, and operation of downstream components including coolers, filters, and catalytically active materials used for product gas reforming.

  • 39.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    VTI, Sweden.
    Järlskog, Ida
    VTI, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    VTI, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys, Sweden.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys, Sweden.
    Road dust load dynamics and influencing factors for six winter seasons in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: Atmospheric Environment: X, ISSN 2590-1621, Vol. 2, article id 100014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic related non-exhaust particulate sources and road dust are an increasingly important source for PM10 air pollution as exhaust sources are decreasing due to regulations. In the Nordic countries, the road dust problem is enhanced by use of studded tyres, causing increased road wear and winter road maintenance including gritting. Efforts to reduce road dust emissions requires knowledge on temporal and spatial road dust load dynamics. The city of Stockholm, Sweden, has therefore financed seasonal (October to May) road dust sampling to be able to optimize their winter and spring time street operation measures for reduced road dust emissions. This work describes the outcome of six seasons (2011/2012–2016/2017) of road dust sampling in five central streets using the VTI wet dust sampler (WDS).The results show that road dust load, expressed as DL180 (dust load smaller than 180 μm) has a seasonal variation with the highest loads (up to 200 g/m2) in late winter and early spring and a minimum (down to about 15 g/m2) in early autumn and late spring. The dust load varies between streets and is depending on pavement surface properties. On a smaller scale the dust load has a high variability across streets due to differences in rates of suspension from different parts of the road surface, with low amounts in wheel tracks and higher in-between and outside the tracks. Between 2 and 30% of the DL180 is smaller than 10 μm and could directly contribute to PM10 emissions. In general, higher road surface texture leads to higher dust loads, but the condition of the pavement (e.g. cracks, aggregate loss) might also have an effect. A new, wear resistant pavement accumulated markedly higher road dust amounts than a several years old pavement. This paper closes with a discussion on the complex relation between road dust load and PM10 concentrations and a discussion on the challenges and comparability of road dust sampling techniques and measures. © 2019 The Authors

  • 40.
    Haddaway, Neal
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Johannesdottir, Solveig
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Piniewski, Mikolaj
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Macura, Biljana
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    What ecotechnologies exist for recycling carbon and nutrients from domestic wastewater?: A systematic map protocol 09 Engineering 0907 Environmental Engineering2019In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pollution of the Baltic Sea continues to be a problem. Major terrestrial sources of nutrient emissions to the Baltic Sea are agriculture and wastewater, both major causes of eutrophication. Wastewater contains nutrients and organic matter that could constitute valuable products such as agricultural fertilizers and source of energy. With the EU's action plan for circular economy, waste management and resource utilization is central. Thus the integration of resource recovery to wastewater management could create benefits beyond the wastewater sector. There is a growing interest in resource recovery from wastewater. However, there is no systematic overview of the literature on technologies to recover nutrients and carbon from wastewater sources done to date. Methods: This systematic map will identify a representative list of studies on ecotechnologies for reusing carbon and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from domestic wastewater, which includes e.g. sewage sludge and wastewater fractions. Searches will be performed in five bibliographic databases, one search engine and 38 specialist websites. Searches will mainly be performed in English, search for literature in specialist websites will also include Finnish, Polish and Swedish. Coding and meta-data extraction will include information on ecotechnology name and short description, reuse outcome (i.e. reuse of carbon, nitrogen and/or phosphorus), type of reuse (i.e. whether it is explicit or implicit), study country and location, latitude and longitude. All screening and coding will be done after initial consistency checking. The outcomes of this systematic map will be a searchable database of coded studies. Findings will be presented in a geo-informational system (i.e. an evidence atlas) and knowledge gaps and clusters will be visualised via heat maps.

  • 41.
    Haegermark, Maria
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Dalenbäck, Jan-Olof
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic rooftop systems in a complex setting: A Swedish case study2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 127, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An economic feasibility study of solar photovoltaic rooftop (PV) systems in Swedish multifamily buildings was carried out to examine the effects of current market conditions, incentive programmes, and building-specific parameters. Economic analyses were conducted for 108 electricity supply points for scenarios including (1) a tax rebate, (2) an investment subsidy, and (3) both tax rebate and subsidy. First, PV systems were sized and oriented to give the highest net present values, considering actual fuse sizes and hourly demands matched to simulated PV generation. This resulted in shares of profitable systems as follows: 33% with a tax rebate, 51% with a subsidy, and 93% with both. It was shown that the tax rebate programme promotes relatively large systems compared to the subsidy, although with a much higher risk. Thereafter, the influences of main fuse size and existing roofs were investigated. Most of the roofs were large enough to fit the previously sized PV systems. However, taking into account the slopes and directions of available rooftops considerably reduced the number of profitable systems. Finally, the study showed that in addition to support measures and other economic conditions, the PV system feasibility was highly sensitive to roof characteristics, electricity demand and fuse size.

  • 42.
    Haglund Stignor, Caroline
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Tiljander, Pia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lidbom, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Axell, Monica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Masgrau, M.
    Airec, Sweden.
    New type of energy efficient heat exchanger for indirectly cooled display cabinets - Laboratory and field tests2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 206-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a completely new type of air-to-liquid heat exchanger, adapted for obtaining good heat transfer performance even at a laminar flow regime on the liquid side has been evaluated in a display cabinet application. The heat exchanger consists of parallel plates, with liquid in every second passage and air in the other passages. Tests were performed with a traditional open vertical display cabinet, first with a traditional finned-tube coil and thereafter with the new type of heat exchanger, both in a climate chamber and thereafter in the field. The results from both tests showed that the liquid inlet temperature could be increased by around 6°C, from the range -8°C - -7°C with the traditional coil to the range -2°C -1°C with the new type of heat exchanger, which can lead to considerable energy savings and operation without the need for defrosting of the heat exchanger.

  • 43.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund University, Sweden.
    The third sector of R&D: literature review, basic analysis, and research agenda2017In: Prometheus, ISSN 0810-9028, E-ISSN 1470-1030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The third sector of national innovation systems comprises non-academic, publicly owned R&D organizations that complement universities and private-sector firms and are normally called ‘research institutes’. Scholarly attention to these organizations has been scarce, partly a consequence of the theoretical imbalance in favor of conceptualizations of innovation processes as requiring mainly universities, private-sector firms, and governmental authorities to occur and succeed. Similarly, while this third sector often makes up a significant share of national innovation systems, it receives less attention in national research and innovation policy than do, say, universities. This paper argues that the role(s) and function(s) of third sector research institutes deserve to be mapped and analyzed in greater detail in order to understand how various organizational actors interact to produce innovation. From a comprehensive literature review and basic analysis of three institute groups in three Nordic countries, the paper makes a first preliminary analysis of the topic. While this analysis yields some interesting conclusions, its main function is to point the way for future studies. In these, other actors in the system should be investigated in thorough empirical studies, armed with tools from classic sociological systems theory that enhance the conceptual strength of the innovation systems framework and enable the acknowledgement of the role(s) and function(s) of several important organizational actors, not least research institutes.

  • 44.
    Harris, Steve
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Mirata, Murat
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Sotenäs kommun, Sweden.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    A roadmap for increased uptake of industrial symbiosis in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Hennessy, Jay
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Towards smart thermal grids: Techno-economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies for district heating2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 766-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent improvements in low-temperature heat-to-power (LTHtP) technologies have led to an increase in efficiency at lower temperatures and lower cost. LTHtP has so far not been used in district heating. The aim of the study is to establish under what conditions the use of existing LTHtP technology is technically and economically feasible using a district heating system as the heat source. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is identified as the most interesting LTHtP technology, due to its high relative efficiency and the commercial availability of devices operating at temperatures in the district heating operating range. The levelised cost of electricity of several ORC devices is calculated for temperatures found in district heating, assuming a zero cost of heat. A case study from Sweden is used to calculate the levelised cost of electricity, the net present value and payback period, based on income from the electricity produced, excluding taxes. Hourly spot market electricity prices from 2017 are used, as well as forecast scenarios for 2020, 2030 and 2040. A sensitivity study tests the importance of electricity price, cost of heat and capital/installation cost. Based on the case study, the best levelised cost of electricity achieved was 26.5 EUR/MWh, with a payback period greater than 30 years. Under current Swedish market conditions, the ORC does not appear to be economically feasible for use in district heating, but the net present value and payback period may be significantly more attractive under other countries’ market conditions or with reduced capital costs. For a positive net present value in the Swedish market the capital cost should be reduced to 1.7 EUR/W installed, or the average electricity price should be at least 35.2 EUR/MWh, if the cost of heat is zero. The cost of heat is an important factor in these calculations and should be developed further in future work.

  • 46.
    Hennessy, Jay
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Mälardalen University,Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University,Sweden.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University,Sweden.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University,Sweden.
    Räftegård, Oskar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies suitable for use in district heating networks2017In: Energy Procedia, p. 1721-1727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent improvements in heat-to-power (HtP) technologies have led to an increase in efficiency at lower temperatures and lower cost. HtP is used extensively in power generation via the steam Rankine cycle, but so far has not been used in district heating (DH). The aim of the study is to analyze the economic feasibility of using HtP technologies in a DH network. This is achieved by establishing suitable technologies and calculating the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) under conditions that may be found in DH. The result, for the vendors, temperatures and assumptions considered, is a range of 25-292 €/MWh, excluding the cost of heat. The breadth of this range in part reflects the importance of selecting appropriate products to match the heat source temperature.

  • 47.
    Hesselgren, Lars
    et al.
    PLP Architecture, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Ingemar
    LogistikCentrum, Sweden.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Prieto Rábade, Miguel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    NuMo – New Urban Mobility: New urban infrastructure support for autonomous vehicles2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreword All transport systems have a certain capacity determined by its configurations. For cars the most efficient current form is constant speed driving, e.g. the motorway. Its capacity is limited by the time separation between vehicles. Any transport system that stops because of congestion or other causes by definition sees its capacity reduced to zero. Hence traffic jams are hugely disruptive. Public transport operates on a model inherited from the 19 th Century. Vehicles (buses, trams, railways, metros) run on a regular (timetabled) basis and stops at every station (bus stop). Since there is no pre-booking and the need of transport is hard to foresee, the vehicles are often almost empty, at other times hugely congested. The NuMo technology emerges from decades of work across the whole transportation industry. Autonomous electric vehicles (AEVs) equipped with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication can safely keep shorter distances. In practical terms this means that a platooned car system has the same capacity in one lane as a double-lane motorway. Automated intelligent controls ensure that the NuMo systems never stops, thus achieving the highest capacity. Instead of waiting for the mass deployment of fully automated vehicles, NuMo starts with dedicated networks that integrate tightly with existing infrastructure for step-wise smooth transition to fully automated transport system. NuMo includes an on-demand public transport system which only runs when it is needed. The system will take advantage of close-spacing possible with robot controls – vehicles can run close together and also use less road width by less wiggling. Equally importantly stations and access to the normal road network is arranged such that the traffic flow never stops. The urban impact can be imagined by understanding the impact of modern public transport systems currently under construction. Some of them are underground to avoid disrupting the street patterns. Some are elevated, some rely on physical separation at grade. One interesting option is to use tunnels underground or in water to further reduce disruption. Many cities are abandoning the traditional port infrastructure giving huge opportunities to again regard water as a connector rather than something to cross. The NuMo system uses all of those techniques and detailed design studies are under way for each of those options. NuMo will make an important contribution to environmental sustainability in many respects. Firstly, it will accelerate adoption of electric propulsion; secondly it will encourage vehicle sharing; and thirdly by only running when needed will save on unnecessary movements and finally its construction costs will be less than conventional systems. Sketches of NuMo networks are presented on places as diverse as Stockholm, Gothenburg and New York. Naturally the system will also be crucial in the development of new cities. This report is a summary of the studies performed within the project “New urban infrastructure support for autonomous vehicles” financed by Vinnova through the Strategic Innovation Program InfraSweden2030. The aim is to explore the infrastructure support to accelerate the introduction of autonomous electric vehicles for future mobility.

  • 48.
    Holgersson, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mälarporten, termiska lager i fjärrvärmesystemet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I området Mälarporten har en storskalig förändring påbörjats. Området har tidigare bestått av gamla, till viss del nedlagda industrier, och kommer till stor del ersättas med bostäder, men också i viss mån kontor. Energi- och effektbehovet i området kommer att förändras mot tidigare vilket innebär att även fjärrvärmesystemet behöver förnyas. Vidare är det troligt att fjärrvärmenätet kommer arbeta med lägre temperaturer då nya fastigheter är av lågenergityp.

    Uppdraget i denna studie är att komplettera Mälarenergis arbete kring det kommande fjärrvärmenätet i området Mälarporten, Västerås med en kort utredning av termiska lager. Studien syftar till att öka kunskapen kring termiska lagers funktion i fjärrvärmenät inför ombyggnationen av fjärrvärmenätet i Mälarporten. Övergripande belyses teknik, viktiga parametrar och nuläget.

    Det finns flera tillämpningar på termiska lager i fjärrvärmesystem. Dels för att utjämna dygnsvariationerna i lasten i nätet, men också variationen över säsong. Vidare finns potential att använda ett termiskt lager i områden där det inte är möjligt med höga termiska effektuttag.

    De flesta installerade lagren idag är av typen sensibla lager men utvecklingen av latenta och termokemiska lager går fort. De latenta lagren är mer tillämpbara än de termokemiska som mestadels befinner sig på forskningsstadiet. Ett exempel på latent lager är snö vilket tillämpas idag i Sundsvall för fjärrkyla. En positiv bieffekt är att ett sådant lager kan underlätta rening av smältvattnet i en stad.

    Både KTH och Chalmers bedriver forskning för att utveckla latenta lagers tillämpningar i fjärrvärme/fjärrkylasystem. Det borde också vara intressant för Mälarenergi att titta närmare på SaltX installation i Berlin samt borrhålslagret i Linköping och befintliga groplager i Malung och Danmark.

  • 49.
    Isaksson, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. University West, Sweden.
    The neglected practice: uncertainties encountered by occupants in a new energy efficient building2017In: eceee 2017 Summer Study proceedings: Consumption, efficiency and limits, 2017, p. 1055-1062Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical and performance related uncertainties that come with an increased number of components and system complexity are often thoroughly examined and tested in demonstration buildings. On the contrary, and despite the energy research literature stressing the importance to understand the requirements and context of the users, the uncertainties that occupants encounter while adapting to new energy efficient buildings are seldom examined and identified in depth.

    This paper will highlight the usefulness of seeing the technologies for buildings from the users’ point of view. From a social practice perspective and the concept of domestication the paper examines various types of uncertainties encountered by occupants when managing technologies for buildings, such as bedrock heat pump, photovoltaic panels and LED-lighting, in a new energy efficient house.

    The result demonstrates that it is demanding and tiresome to tackle uncertainties and learn how to handle technologies for building, as well as to contact professionals for support. It might in fact be more convenient to "leave it as it is", with the consequences that no one is managing the technologies. Instead of assuming that carrying out this practice is straightforward, it would be better to work on an approach where this is not the case. In fact, the later approach creates much better conditions for extended learning and product development than the former.

  • 50.
    Isaksson, Charlotta
    et al.
    University West, Sweden.
    Hiller, Carolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Active, passive, non-existing or conditional?: Social relations shaping energy use at workplaces2019In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 51, p. 148-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency concerns the entire workplace and a cooperative approach is important for achieving ambitious energy reduction targets. Despite this, many organisations still mainly regard energy efficiency as a technical issue involving just a few specialists. A focus on the social relations and processes that shape work on energy issues is lacking. The aim of this paper is to illuminate and explore social relations between the staff driving energy issues and their co-workers. The analysis presented is based upon two features shaping their mutual engagement for reducing energy use: the communication strategy on energy issues undertaken by the workplace and the support for energy efficiency and conservation among the staff. The study provides insights gained from an interview study done in a Swedish organisation as well as from social science research in the field. The result is a conceptual framework that describes four relationships between the drivers of change and their co-workers. These relationships are characterized as active, passive, non-existing and conditional engagement in energy efficiency and conservation. The framework can be used as a tool for identifying social constraints and possibilities for reducing the use of energy at workplaces as well as in other contexts.

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v. 2.35.5