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  • 1.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany; .
    Deveau, A.
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Splivallo, R.
    Nectariss Sàrl, Switzerland; Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany; .
    Geographical-based variations in white truffle Tuber magnatum aroma is explained by quantitative differences in key volatile compounds2021In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 230, no 4, p. 1623-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The factors that vary the aroma of Tuber magnatum fruiting bodies are poorly understood. The study determined the headspace aroma composition, sensory aroma profiles, maturity and bacterial communities from T. magnatum originating from Italy, Croatia, Hungary, and Serbia, and tested if truffle aroma is dependent on provenance and if fruiting body volatiles are explained by maturity and/or bacterial communities. Headspace volatile profiles were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–olfactometry (GC-MS-O) and aroma of fruiting body extracts were sensorially assessed. Fruiting body maturity was estimated through spore melanisation. Bacterial community was determined using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Main odour active compounds were present in all truffles but varied in concentration. Aroma of truffle extracts were sensorially discriminated by sites. However, volatile profiles of individual fruiting bodies varied more within sites than across geographic area, while maturity level did not play a role. Bacterial communities varied highly and were partially explained by provenance. A few rare bacterial operational taxonomical units associated with a select few nonodour active volatile compounds. Specificities of the aroma of T. magnatum truffles are more likely to be linked to individual properties than provenance. Some constituents of bacteria may provide biomarkers of provenance and be linked to nonodour active volatiles. © 2021 The Authors 

  • 2.
    Ratke, Christine
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Terebieniec, Barbara K
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Derba-Maceluch, Marta
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Schiffthaler, Bastian
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Ulvcrona, Thomas
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Özparpucu, Merve
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Switzerland.
    Rüggeberg, Markus
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Switzerland.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy.
    Street, Nathaniel R
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Leif J
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Mellerowicz, Ewa J
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Downregulating aspen xylan biosynthetic GT43 genes in developing wood stimulates growth via reprograming of the transcriptome2018In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 219, no 1, p. 230-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xylan is one of the main compounds determining wood properties in hardwood species. The xylan backbone is thought to be synthesized by a synthase complex comprising two members of the GT43 family. We downregulated all GT43 genes in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) to understand their involvement in xylan biosynthesis. All three clades of the GT43 family were targeted for downregulation using RNA interference individually or in different combinations, either constitutively or specifically in developing wood. Simultaneous downregulation in developing wood of the B (IRX9) and C (IRX14) clades resulted in reduced xylan Xyl content relative to reducing end sequence, supporting their role in xylan backbone biosynthesis. This was accompanied by a higher lignocellulose saccharification efficiency. Unexpectedly, GT43 suppression in developing wood led to an overall growth stimulation, xylem cell wall thinning and a shift in cellulose orientation. Transcriptome profiling of these transgenic lines indicated that cell cycling was stimulated and secondary wall biosynthesis was repressed. We suggest that the reduced xylan elongation is sensed by the cell wall integrity surveying mechanism in developing wood. Our results show that wood-specific suppression of xylan-biosynthetic GT43 genes activates signaling responses, leading to increased growth and improved lignocellulose saccharification.

  • 3.
    Urbancsok, János
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Donev, Evgeniy N.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sivan, Pramod
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    van Zalen, Elena
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Barbut, Félix R.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Derba-Maceluch, Marta
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Šimura, Jan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Gandla, Madhavi L.
    Umeå university, Sweden.
    Karady, Michal
    Institute of Experimental Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Czeck Republic; Palacký University, Czeck Republic.
    Ljung, Karin
    Umeå university, Sweden.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    Umeå university, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå university, Sweden.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    Umeå university, Sweden.
    Street, Nathaniel R.
    Umeå university, Sweden.
    Mellerowicz, Ewa J.
    Umeå university, Sweden.
    Flexure wood formation via growth reprogramming in hybrid aspen involves jasmonates and polyamines and transcriptional changes resembling tension wood development2023In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 240, p. 2312-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stem bending in trees induces flexure wood but its properties and development are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of low-intensity multidirectional stem flexing on growth and wood properties of hybrid aspen, and on its transcriptomic and hormonal responses. Glasshouse-grown trees were either kept stationary or subjected to several daily shakes for 5 wk, after which the transcriptomes and hormones were analyzed in the cambial region and developing wood tissues, and the wood properties were analyzed by physical, chemical and microscopy techniques. Shaking increased primary and secondary growth and altered wood differentiation by stimulating gelatinous-fiber formation, reducing secondary wall thickness, changing matrix polysaccharides and increasing cellulose, G- and H-lignin contents, cell wall porosity and saccharification yields. Wood-forming tissues exhibited elevated jasmonate, polyamine, ethylene and brassinosteroids and reduced abscisic acid and gibberellin signaling. Transcriptional responses resembled those during tension wood formation but not opposite wood formation and revealed several thigmomorphogenesis-related genes as well as novel gene networks including FLA and XTH genes encoding plasma membrane-bound proteins. Low-intensity stem flexing stimulates growth and induces wood having improved biorefinery properties through molecular and hormonal pathways similar to thigmomorphogenesis in herbaceous plants and largely overlapping with the tension wood program of hardwoods. 

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