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  • 1.
    Farajzadeh Khosroshahi, S.
    et al.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Zaccariotto, M.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Galvanetto, U.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Response of a helmet liner under biaxial loading2018In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 72, p. 110-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Helmets are the most effective protective item for motorcyclists. The liner of the helmet is the part of the helmet which dissipates most of the impact energy and mitigates the risk of head injuries. It has been proposed that the helmet test standards should include assessment of the helmets for oblique impacts that is not currently addressed in the standards. A conventional uniaxial compression test method is still used for characterization of the helmet liner material. However, compressive tests of EPS foams provide reliable results for normal loading on EPS, but do not provide a realistic result for oblique impacts. Therefore, we carried out experimental tests to measure the response of EPS foams, which are commonly used for helmet liners, under biaxial loading. The result of our experiments show that the shear response of EPS foams is a function of axial compression, and increasing the axial strain leads to increased shear stiffness, and thus higher levels of shear stress. We also showed that including shear-stiffening of EPS in the FE assessment of helmets may change the headform rotational acceleration by 25%. Therefore, such behavior of EPS foams should be included in FE analysis of helmets in the case of oblique impacts for a more realistic assessment of their performance.

  • 2.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Effects of artificial and natural ageing on impact modified polyvinyl chloride (PVC)2001In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 545-551Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Interlaboratory Test Programme - Reproducibility in Xenon Arc Weathering2000In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 729-753Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Linde, E.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Blomfeldt, Thomas
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Gedde, U.W.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Long-term performance of a DEHP-containing carbon-black-filled NBR membrane2014In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 34, p. 25-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A NBR membrane containing carbon black (36 wt.%) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP; 11 wt.%) that had been used at temperatures up to 45 C in pressurised air showed cracking after 2 years in service. Samples were aged in air at elevated temperatures and their mechanical properties were assessed by tensile testing, the glass transition temperature was obtained by DSC, and the DEHP content was determined by liquid chromatography. The loss of DEHP was controlled by the boundary conditions at low temperatures and the loss rate was constant at 90 C within a certain DEHP concentration range (8 to 11 wt.%). The presence of carbon black and DEHP made it impossible to determine oxidation products by infrared spectroscopy. Strain-at-break data were analysed in a way that enabled the effect of DEHP migration to be separated from the effect of thermal oxidation. This allowed extrapolation in both temperature and oxygen pressure domains of high temperature/low oxygen pressure data to the service conditions. The analysis showed that both DEHP evaporation and thermal oxidation had a significant impact on the strain-at-break, but that the latter was the more important. Data for the mechanical properties and the glass transition temperature indicated that oxidation was non-uniform with increasing depth in the specimens. This condition of the 4.5 mm thick samples meant that it was inappropriate to use the specimen Young's modulus for extrapolation purposes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5. Nestorson, A.
    et al.
    Leufven, A.
    Jarnstrom, L.
    Control of aroma permeability in latex coatings by altering the vinyl acid content and the temperature around Tg2007In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 916-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mass transport of four different aroma compounds (ethyl butyrate, 1-hexanol, heptanal and limonene) through styrene-acrylate latex dispersion coatings with different amounts of vinyl acid groups has been studied using a permeation cell. The permeation test was studied above and below the glass transition temperature of the styrene-acrylate latex films in order to study the influence of changes in free volume and polymer rigidity on the aroma permeation induced by glassy-rubbery transition. An increase in the carboxylic acid content of the latices reduced the diffusivity. The solubility of all the aroma compounds tended to increase with increasing carboxylic acid groups content in the latex films, including the non-polar limonene. Other factors than polarity and chemical attraction forces including volatility and molar volume of the aroma compounds thus affected the mass transfer. Since solubility and diffusion oppose each other, the differences in permeability towards aroma compounds between the latex films were small. Below the glass transition temperature, the free volume is less, resulting in a lower mobility of the permeants and, therefore, a lower diffusivity than above the glass transition. A small increase in solubility was seen at the lower temperature, probably due to the lower volatility of the aroma compounds. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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