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  • 1.
    Forsgren, Lilian
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thunberg, Johannes
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Boldizar, Antal
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Injection Molding and Appearance of Cellulose-Reinforced Composites2019In: Polymer Engineering and Science, ISSN 0032-3888, E-ISSN 1548-2634, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 5-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite materials based on an ethylene-acrylic acid (EAA) copolymer and 20 wt% cellulose fibers were compounded by two runs in a twin-screw extruder. The composite material with cellulose fibers (CF) and a reference of unfilled EAA were injection molded into plaques using three different temperature profiles with end zone temperatures of 170°C, 200°C, and 230°C. The injection molded samples were then characterized in terms of their mechanical properties, thermal properties, appearance (color and gloss), and surface topography. The higher processing temperatures resulted in a clear discoloration of the composites, but there was no deterioration in the mechanical performance. The addition of cellulose typically gave a tensile modulus three times higher than that of the unfilled EAA, but the strength and strain at rupture were reduced when fibers were added. The processing temperature had no significant influence on the mechanical properties of the composites. Gloss measurements revealed negligible differences between the samples molded at the different melt temperatures but the surface smoothness was somewhat higher when the melt temperature was increased. In general, addition of the cellulose to the EAA reduced the gloss level and the surface smoothness.

  • 2.
    Guo, Zengwei
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Preparation of polypropylene/nanoclay composite fibers2013In: Polymer Engineering and Science, ISSN 0032-3888, E-ISSN 1548-2634, Vol. 53, no 10, p. 2035-2044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melt spinning of nanoclay (NA)/polypropylene (PP) composites into textile fibers is studied. The synthetic NA Perkalite F100 is prone to be exfoliated in PP matrix. With the help of a maleic anhydride-grafted low-molecular-weight PP as compatibilizer (Epolene E43), a highly exfoliated PP/NA composite was successfully prepared. However, the prepared PP/NA composite shows a poor spinnability because of the phase separation between Epolene E43 and PP matrix. The combination of two different groups of compatibilizers, which are Polybond 1001 (acrylic acid-grafted PP) for the dispersion of NA and Epolene G3216 (maleic anhydride-grafted PP-based copolymer) for the exfoliation of NA, can solve this problem. The PP/NA composite prepared by these two compatibilizers can be smoothly spun into fiber at the NA concentration below 1.9 wt%, which is found to be the percolation concentration of formation of NA network structure in PP matrix.

  • 3.
    Römhild, Stefanie
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Gunnar
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    The effect of water activity on the sorption and diffusion of water in thermosets based on polyester, vinyl ester, and novolac resins2012In: Polymer Engineering and Science, ISSN 0032-3888, E-ISSN 1548-2634, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 718-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the transport properties of water in various thermoset resins typically used for fiber-reinforced plastic process equipment (vinyl ester, novolac, bisphenol-A-epoxy-based polyester, and urethane-modified vinyl ester) were systematically studied with a focus on the effects of water activity. Sorption and desorption studies were carried out in aqueous solutions (water activity = 0.78-1) with different salts (NaCl, MgCl 2, Na 2SO 4, and KCl) and one nonionic substance (sucrose) within the temperature interval 65-95°C. It was found that the water concentration in thermoset resins with different chemical structures could be predicted from the water activity, regardless of the actual solute (salt or sucrose) in the aqueous solution. The water quasi-equilibrium concentration decreased with decreasing water activity, whereas the average diffusion coefficient was considered to be independent of water activity in the studied water activity range. A relationship, based on a power law fit, was established describing the water concentration as a function of the water activity and the concentration of pure water. The relationship was independent of resin chemistry and temperature. © 2012 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  • 4.
    Strååt, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Boldizar, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Rigdahl, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hagström, Bengt
    Swerea IVF Institute of Research.
    Improvement of melt spinning properties and conductivity of immiscible polypropylene/polystyrene blends containing carbon black by addition of styrene-ethylene-butene-styrene block copolymer2011In: Polymer Engineering and Science, ISSN 0032-3888, E-ISSN 1548-2634, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 1165-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymeric materials prepared from immiscible blends, such as polypropylene (PP)/polystyrene (PS), together with carbon black (CB), are known to have a relatively high electrical conductivity, because of a selective distribution of CB (double percolation). Melt spinning of immiscible blends containing CB has, however, not been extensively reported on previously. An immiscible 1:1 blend of PP and PS to which 4 wt% CB was added exhibited a very low melt draw-down ratio at rupture compared wit PP with the same content of CB. By adding 5 wt% SEBS (styrene-ethylene-butene-styrene block copolymer), the ultimate melt draw-down ratio increased about 10 times, which made the material more suitable for melt spinning. As-extruded samples of the immiscible blends (with CB) did not have higher electrical conductivities than PP/CB. A heat treatment increased the conductivity of immiscible PP/PS/CB composites, and longer treatment times and higher temperatures promoted the conductivity. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2011. © 2011 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  • 5.
    Wolter, Nick
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Carrillo Beber, Vinicius
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Haubold, Thorben
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Goethals, Frederick
    CENTEXBEL, Belgium.
    Van Hove, Marc
    CENTEXBEL, Belgium.
    Jubete, Elena
    BRTA, Spain.
    Mayer, Bernd
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Koschek, Katharina
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Effects of flame-retardant additives on the manufacturing, mechanical, and fire properties of basalt fiber-reinforced polybenzoxazine2021In: Polymer Engineering and Science, ISSN 0032-3888, E-ISSN 1548-2634, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 551-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Basalt fiber-reinforced polybenzoxazines (BFRP) were manufactured through vacuum infusion using resorcinol bis (diphenyl phosphate) and poly-(m-phenylene methylphosphonate) together with bisphenol-F and aniline based benzoxazine. Different types and loadings of flame-retardant additives showed to have catalysis or dilution effects in viscosity measurements. BFRPs show well-penetrated fibers and near-zero porosity. Additive addition did not influence tensile properties, while apparent interlaminar shear strength decreased indicating a lower adhesion between fiber and matrix. BFRP's heat and smoke release properties increased, though time to ignition increased and flammability behavior improved by decreasing delamination yielding oxygen indices in between 72 and 91%. © 2020 The Authors. 

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