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  • 1.
    Corkery, Robert W
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Blute, Irena A
    Friberg, Stig E
    Guo, Rong
    Emulsion inversion in the PIT range: Quantitative phase variations in a two-phase emulsion2010In: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, ISSN 0021-9568, E-ISSN 1520-5134, Vol. 55, no 10, p. 4471-4475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase-inversion temperature (PIT) phenomenon is for the first time given a quantitative treatment for systems having a sufficiently small surfactant content to be limited to two phases at the PIT. The results show that the early opinion of a phase transfer of the surfactant as the major event in the transversal of the temperature range is not entirely correct; the major phenomenon is instead an expulsion of water from the low-temperature aqueous micellar solution. In addition, the results unexpectedly give an indication of the existence of three phases at temperatures beneath the PIT, in spite of the the fact that system consists of only two phases at the actual PIT.

  • 2. Friberg, Stig E
    et al.
    Corkery, Robert W
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Blute, Irena A
    Phase inversion temperature (PIT) emulsification process2011In: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, ISSN 0021-9568, E-ISSN 1520-5134, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 4282-4290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative analysis is made of the phase changes during the phase inversion temperature (PIT) emulsification process of an aqueous hexadecane emulsion stabilized by a tetra-ethylene glycol dodecyl ether surfactant. The mechanical dispersion part of the process takes place at the PIT, at which temperature the emulsion contains three phases: (1) water, with only minute fractions of surfactant and hydrocarbon; (2) an inverse micellar solution, with modest fractions of solubilized water; and (3) a bicontinuous microemulsion, with large concurrent solubilization of both water and hydrocarbon. After the mechanical action at the PIT, the emulsion is immediately cooled to temperatures beneath the PIT range, reducing the number of phases in the emulsion to two, an oil/water (O/W) microemulsion with moderate surfactant and hydrocarbon content, and an inverse micellar hydrocarbon solution with a significantly greater surfactant fraction. The emulsion is characterized by its large fraction of extremely small oil drops, significantly smaller than expected from the mechanical process. These drops are commonly assumed to emanate from the hydrocarbon fraction of the original bicontinuous microemulsion, the small size of the oil drops being a rational consequence of the colloidal dispersion prior to the phase separation. The quantitative analysis of the phase fractions versus temperature revealed this assumption to be premature. The original water phase is not the final aqueous phase in the emulsion; this phase is instead formed from the microemulsion phase by absorbing the original water phase, gradually modifying its own structure to become water-continuous with the originally large hydrocarbon fraction reduced to modest levels. In the process, a part of the original microemulsion is separated, forming the small oil drops.

  • 3. Hull, A
    et al.
    Kronberg, B
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    van Stam, J
    Golubkov, I
    Kristensson, J
    Vapour-liquid equilibrium of binary mixtures. 1. Ethanol-1-butanol, ethanol + octane, 1-butanol + octane2006In: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, ISSN 0021-9568, E-ISSN 1520-5134, Vol. 51, p. 1996-2001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The activity coefficients of the binary mixtures ethanol + 1-butanol, ethanol + octane, and 1-butanol + octane were determined at temperatures of (308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K. The determination of the vapor phase composition at equilibrium was carried out using headspace gas chromatography analysis. Multiple headspace extraction was used to calibrate the headspace gas chromatograph. Comparison of the phase diagrams produced using standard Legendre orthogonal polynomial techniques with phase diagrams from the literature showed good agreement. The composition of the azeotropes were reported, where applicable.

  • 4. Hull, A
    et al.
    Kronberg, B
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    van Stam, J
    Golubkov, I
    Kristensson, J
    Vapour-liquid equilibrium of binary mixtures. 2. Ethanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, 1-butanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, and ethanol + o-xylene2006In: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, ISSN 0021-9568, E-ISSN 1520-5134, Vol. 51, p. 2002-2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The activity coefficients of the binary mixtures ethanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, 1-butanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, and ethanol + o-xylene were determined at temperatures of (308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K. The determination of the vapor phase composition at equilibrium was carried out using headspace gas chromatography analysis. Multiple headspace extraction was used to calibrate the headspace gas chromatograph. Comparison of the experimental phase diagrams with phase diagrams from the literature shows good agreement. The composition of the azeotropes are reported, where they exist. The molar Gibbs energy of mixing is reported for all mixtures studied. The infinite dilution activity coefficients are reported for all components of all mixtures. Some thermodynamic models (those of Wilson, NRTL, UNIQUAC, and Flory-Scatchard) have been compared with regard to their suitability for modeling the experimental data.

  • 5.
    Svärd, Michael
    et al.
    University of Limerick, Ireland; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hjorth, Timothy
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Process Development.
    Rasmuson, Åke C.
    University of Limerick, Ireland; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Calorimetric Properties and Solubility in Five Pure Organic Solvents of N-Methyl-d-Glucamine (Meglumine)2016In: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, ISSN 0021-9568, E-ISSN 1520-5134, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 1199-1204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solid-liquid solubility of the title compound has been measured by a gravimetric method in five pure organic solvents over the temperature range (283 to 323) K. The melting temperature and associated enthalpy of fusion have been determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the heat capacity of the solid and the melt have been determined over a range of temperatures by means of temperature-modulated DSC. Melting data and the extrapolated difference in heat capacity between the melt and the solid have been used to calculate the Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of fusion and the ideal solubility from below ambient temperature to the melting point. On the basis of estimated activity coefficients at equilibrium, solutions in all the five solvents are shown to exhibit positive deviation from Raoult's law. The highest mole fraction solubility is observed in methanol, and all van't Hoff solubility curves are nonlinear. Solubility data is well correlated by a recently proposed semiempirical regression model.

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