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  • 1.
    Adhikari, Arindam
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Radhakrishnan, S
    Dopant induced effect on electrocatalytic reduction of nitrobenzene using conducting polypyrrole thin film electrodes2011Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 120, nr 2, s. 719-724Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polypyrrole electrodes were prepared by electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole on vacuum-metallized glass substrates. These electrodes were modified by doping with a range of metal halides as dopant ions having different electronegativity. Electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene using these electrodes was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry technique in acetonitrile medium containing aqueous HClO4 (0.1M) as supporting electrolyte. It was found that the electronegativity of the dopant ion played a very important role in the electrocatalytic activity. Polypyrrole doped with nickel chloride gave the highest anodic current at the reduction potential of nitrobenzene. The results were explained on the basis of charge transfer efficiency at the electrode-electrolyte interface, which was associated with the acceptor state created by the dopant in the semi-conducting polymer.

  • 2.
    Akesson, D.
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Skrifvars, M.
    University of Borås.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Preparation of thermoset composites from natural fibres and acrylate modified soybean oil resins2009Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 114, nr 4, s. 2502-2508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural composites with a high content of renewable material were produced from natural fibres and an acrylated epoxidized soybean oil resin. Composites were prepared by spray impregnation followed by compression moulding at elevated temperature. The resulting composites had good mechanical properties in terms of tensile strength and flexural strength. Tensile testing as well as dynamical mechanical thermal analysis showed that increasing the fibre content, increased the mechanical properties. The resin can be reinforced with up to 70 wt % fibre without sacrifice in processability. The tensile modulus ranged between 5.8 and 9.7 GPa depending on the type of fibre mat. The study of the adhesion by low vacuum scanning electron microscopy shows that the fibres are well impregnated in the matrix. The aging properties were finally evaluated. This study shows that composites with a very high content of renewable constituents can be produced from soy bean oil resins and natural fibres. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 3.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pupure, Liva
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Time-dependent properties of graphene nanoplatelets reinforced high-density polyethylene2021Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 138, nr 30, artikel-id 50783Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The deformation of polymers at constant applied stress is one of their major drawbacks, limiting their use in advanced applications. The study of this property using classical techniques requires extensive testing over long periods of time. It is well known that reinforced polymers show improved behavior over time compared to their neat counterparts. In this study, the effect of adding different amounts of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the time-dependent properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is investigated using short-term creep tests and load/unload recovery tests. The results are discussed in terms of the test profile and the influence of loading history. Viscoplasticity/viscoelasticity analysis is performed using Zapas model and by comparing creep, creep compliance and pure viscoelasticity curves. The results show that the reinforcement of 15 wt% GNP have the most significant effect on the time-dependent behavior, reducing the strain by more than 50%. The creep compliance curves show that nano-reinforced HDPE behaves nonlinearly viscoelastically even at very low stresses. In addition to demonstrating the effect of nano-reinforcement, the discussion of the results concludes that the influence of loading history can be quite significant and should not be neglected in the design and evaluation of material behavior. © 2021 The Authors.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Tetra Pak, Sweden.
    Hallin Holmgren, Max
    Tetra Pak, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wesslen, Bengt O.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Degradation of low density polyethylene during extrusion.: IV. Off-flavor compounds in extruded films of stabilized LDPE2005Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 95, nr 3, s. 583-595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was aimed at finding a correlation between the experienced off-flavor in packed foods and the presence of specific degradation products in LDPE pack-aging films. The possibility to trap degradation products by chemical reactions with scavengers, i.e., a zeolite additive or antioxidants, was investigated This would prevent degradation products from migrating to the polymer film surface and further into food in contact with the film. It was found that off-flavor noted in water packed in LDPE films depended on extrusion temperature and exposure time for the melt to oxygen, that is, the parameters that influence the contents of oxidation products that are able to migrate from the polymer film. It was also found that adsorption of oxidative degradation products in a zeolite additive or protection of LDPE by using antioxidants could prevent off-flavor in the packed product (water). However, the antioxidant should be selected with regard to extrusion temperature because thermal instability in the additive might jeopardize the intended effect. Multifunctional antioxidants seem to provide improved protection, the most effective one evaluated in this work being Irganox E201, i.e., vitamin E. Concentrations of oxidized degradation products are well correlated to the perceived off-flavor in the packed water. The highest correlation between off-flavor and oxidized components was found for ketones in the range of C 7 to C9 and aldehydes in the range of C6 to C9.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Tetra Pak, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wesslen, Bengt O.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Degradation of low density polyethylene during extrusion: III. Volatile compounds in extruded films creating off-flavor2005Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 95, nr 4, s. 847-858Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was aimed at finding a correlation between the experienced off-flavor in packaged foods and the presence of specific degradation products in PE packaging films. The possibility to trap degradation products by chemical reactions with scavengers, that is, zeolites and maleic anhydride grafted LLDPE, were investigated. This trapping would prevent the degradation products from migrating to the polymer film surface and further into food in contact with the film. This work concludes that off-flavor in water packed in LDPE-films depends on extrusion temperature and the content of oxidation products in the polymer film. At lower extrusion temperatures, reactive additives to the LDPE material could control the release of off-flavor giving compo nents. Adsorbents, such as zeolites, which are able to adsorb degradation products, are effective also at higher extrusion temperatures. The amount of oxidized degradation products in the films correlated well to the perceived off-flavor in the packed water. The presence of aldehydes and ketones have a clear impact on the off-flavor. The best correlation between off-flavor and oxidized components were found for C7-C9 ketones, and aldehydes in the range of C5 to C8.

  • 6.
    Bachinger, Angelika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Strid, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Systematic evaluation of bromine-free flame-retardant systems in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene2022Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 139, nr 13, artikel-id 51861Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic investigation of phosphorus-based flame-retardant (PFR) systems in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) is presented. The effect of various PFRs, combinations thereof and influence of different synergists is studied in terms of fire and mechanical performance, as well as toxicity of resulting ABS. Sustainable flame-retardant systems with a promising effect on the fire-retardant properties of ABS are identified: A combination of aluminum diethylphosphinate and ammonium polyphosphate is shown to exhibit superior flame-retardant properties in ABS compared to other studied PFRs and PFR combinations. Among a variety of studied potential synergists for this system, a grade of expandable graphite with a high-initiation temperature and a molybdenum-based smoke suppressant show the most promising effect, leading to a significant reduction of the peak heat release rate as well as the smoke production rate. Compared to current state-of-the-art brominated flame-retardant for ABS, the identified flame-retardant systems reduce the maximum smoke production rate by 70% and the peak heat release rate by 40%. However, a significant reduction of the impact performance of the resulting ABS is identified, which requires further investigation.

  • 7.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Identifying breach mechanism during air-gap spinning of lignin–cellulose ionic-liquid solutions2019Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, artikel-id 47800Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to produce highly oriented and strong fibers from polymer solutions, a high elongational rate during the fiber-forming process is necessary. In the air-gap spinning process, a high elongational rate is realized by employing a high draw ratio, the ratio between take-up and extrusion velocity. Air-gap spinning of lignin–cellulose ionic-liquid solutions renders fibers that are promising to use as carbon fiber precursors. To further improve their mechanical properties, the polymer orientation should be maximized. However, achieving high draw ratios is limited by spinning instabilities that occur at high elongational rates. The aim of this experimental study is to understand the link between solution properties and the critical draw ratio during air-gap spinning. A maximum critical draw ratio with respect to temperature is found. Two mechanisms that limit the critical draw ratio are proposed, cohesive breach and draw resonance, the latter identified from high-speed videos. The two mechanisms clearly correlate with different temperature regions. The results from this work are not only of value for future work within the studied system but also for the design of air-gap spinning processes in general.

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  • 8.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The challenge of predicting spinnability: Investigating benefits of adding lignin to cellulose solutions in air-gap spinning2021Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 138, nr 26, artikel-id 50629Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the underlying mechanism for improved spinnability when mixing lignin and cellulose in solution was investigated. Co-processing of lignin and cellulose has previously been identified as a potential route for production of inexpensive and bio-based carbon fibers. The molecular order of cellulose contributes to the strength of the fibers and the high carbon content of lignin improves the yield during conversion to carbon fibers. The current work presents an additional benefit of combining lignin and cellulose; solutions that contain both lignin and cellulose could be air-gap spun at substantially higher draw ratios than pure cellulose solutions, that is, lignin improved the spinnability. Fibers were spun from solutions containing different ratios of lignin, from 0 to 70 wt%, and the critical draw ratio was determined at various temperatures of solution. The observations were followed by characterization of the solutions with shear and elongational viscosity and surface tension, but none of these methods could explain the beneficial effect of lignin on the spinnability. However, by measuring the take-up force it was found that lignin seems to stabilize against diameter fluctuations during spinning, and plausible explanations are discussed

  • 9. Cho, DL
    et al.
    Claesson, PM
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Gölander, C-G
    Johansson, K
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Structure and surface properties of plasma polymerized acrylic acid layers1990Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 41, s. 1373-1390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin plasma polymerized layers of acrylic acid (PPAA) were deposited onto polyethylene and muscovite mica surfaces. Structure and surface properties of the deposited layer depend on the polymerization conditions. The content of carboxylic groups in the layer decreases, whereas the degree of crosslinking or branching increases, with increasing discharge power. A soft, sticky layer with a low contact angle against water is obtained when a low discharge power (5 W) is used. In contrast, a hard film with a rather high water contact angle is obtained when the discharge power is high (50 W). A surface force apparatus was employed to study some film properties including adhesion force, crack formation, and capillary condensation. The adhesion force between plasma polymerized acrylic acid layers prepared at a low discharge power is high in dry air. It decreases remarkably in humid air and no adhesion is observed in water. In dry air, the adhesion force between PPAA layers decreases as the discharge power increases.

  • 10.
    Cho, DL
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Ekengren, Ö
    Composite membranes formed by plasma-polymerized acrylic acid for ultrafiltration of bleach effluent1993Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 47, s. 2125-2133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite membranes were formed by deposition of plasma-polymerized acrylic acid (PPAA) films onto porous commercial membranes to improve the rejection, especially of chlorinated compunds, in ultrafiltration of E-stage bleach effluent. Although increased rejections were accompanied by reduced flux, in most cases, the reductionswere not significiant considering the extent of increased rejections. A good composite membrane showed the AOX removal of 94% (76% before the modification) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 84% (67% before the modification) with 33% reduction of the flux. The permeate was optically clean. The improved rejection is attributed to the tightly crosslinked network of a plasma polymer film and its negatively charged surface. Ultrathin film thickness and the hydrophilic property of a plasma polymer film minimize the reduction of flux.

  • 11. Cho, DL
    et al.
    Sjöblom, E
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Plasma treatment of wood1990Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 46, s. 461-472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood was treated with hydrophobic plasma polymers to reduce the water penetration. Due to the released water vapour and/or molecular weight components from wood under low pressures the efficiency of the plasma treatment was dependent on the evacuation time before plasma treatment. A long evacuation for the efficient treatment could be avoided by increasing the monomer pressure. Adhesion of a paint onto the hydrophobized wood was poor. The adhesion was improved by hydrophilic post-treatment at a sacrifice of the reduction of water penetration. However, a large reduction of water penetration and a good adhesion to a

  • 12. Cho, S.-W.
    et al.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE., Innventia.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Effects of glycerol content and film thickness on the properties of vital wheat gluten films cast at pH 4 and 112010Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 117, nr 6, s. 3506-3514Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the optical properties and plasticizer migration properties of vital wheat gluten (WG) films cast at pH 4 and 11. The films contained initially 8, 16, and 25 wt % glycerol and were aged at 23°C and 50% relative humidity for at least 17 weeks on a paper support to simulate a situation where a paper packaging is laminated with an oxygen barrier film of WG. The films, having target thicknesses of 50 and 250 Όm, were characterized visually and with ultraviolet/visible and infrared spectroscopy; the mass loss was measured by gravimetry or by a glycerol-specific gas chromatography method. The thin films produced at pH 4 were, in general, more heterogeneous than those produced at pH 11. The thin pH 4 films consisted of transparent regions surrounding beige glycerol-rich regions, the former probably rich in gliadin and the latter rich in glutenin. This, together with less Maillard browning, meant that the thin pH 4 films, in contrast to the more homogeneous (beige) thin pH 11 films, showed good contact clarity. The variations in glycerol content did not significantly change the optical properties of the films. All the films showed a significant loss of glycerol to the paper support but, after almost 9 months, the thick pH 11 film containing initially 25 wt % glycerol was still very flexible and, despite a better contact to the paper, had a higher residual glycerol content than the pH 4 film, which was also more brittle.

  • 13. Fernández, A.
    et al.
    Sánchez, M. D.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Lagaron, J. M.
    Effects of ionizing radiation in ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers and in composites containing microfibrillated cellulose2008Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 109, nr 1, s. 126-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on the effect of gamma radiation on morphological, thermal, and water barrier properties of pure ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH29 and EVOH44) and its biocomposites with the nanofiller microfibrillated cellulose (2 wt%). Added microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) preserved the transparency of EVOH films but led to a decrease in water barrier properties. Gamma irradiation at low (30 kGy) and high doses (60 kGy) caused some irreversible changes in the phase morphology of EVOH29 and EVOH44 copolymers that could be associated to crosslinking and other chemical alterations. Additionally, the EVOH copolymers and the EVOH composites reduced the number of hygroscopic hydroxyl functionalities during the irradiation processing and novel carbonyl based chemistry was, in turn, detected. As a result of the above alterations, the water barrier properties of both neat materials and composites irradiated at low doses were notably enhanced, counteracting the detrimental effect on water barrier of adding MFC to the EVOH matrix. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 14.
    Guo, Zengwei
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    An efficient recycling process of glycolysis of PET in the presence of a sustainable nanocatalyst2018Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 135, nr 21, artikel-id 46285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that the catalyst Perkalite F100 efficiently works as a nanocatalyst in the depolymerization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). After depolymerization of PET in the presence of ethylene glycol and the Perkalite nanocatalyst, the main product obtained was bis(2-hydroxylethyl) terephthalate (BHET) with high purity, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and NMR. The BHET monomers could serve directly as starting materials in a further polymerization into PET with a virgin quality and contribute to a solution for the disposal of PET polymers. Compared with the direct glycolysis of PET, the addition of a predegradation step was shown to reduce the reaction time needed to reach the depolymerization equilibrium. The addition of the predegradation step also allowed lower reaction temperatures. Therefore, the strategy to include a predegradation step before depolymerization is suitable for increasing the efficiency of the glycolysis reaction of PET into BHET monomers.

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  • 15.
    Guo, Zengwei
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Nilsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Melt spinning of PVDF fibers with enhanced β phase structure2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 130, nr 4, s. 2603-2609Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibers with a high amount of β phase crystal structure were prepared by melt spinning. With this technique, the cold drawing process is critical and efficient when aiming for a high amount of β phase. During the cold drawing process, more than 80% of the originally formed α phase crystal structure was converted into the β phase structure. In addition, the incorporation of 0.01 wt % of amino-modified double wall carbon nanotube (NH2-DWCNT) could further enhance the β phase content in the PVDF fibers. FTIR and DSC studies showed that the addition of NH2-DWCNT to PVDF fibers could increase both the total crystallinity and β phase fraction in PVDF. The addition of nanoclay was found to be less efficient in this respect.

  • 16.
    Gómez-Martínez, Diana
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. Universidad de Huelva, Spain.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Correlation between viscoelasticity, microstructure, and molecular properties of zein and pennisetin melts2012Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 125, nr 3, s. 2245-2251Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cereals are a large source of biopolymers, where mainly the starch is used for food and feed. A rapidly growing cereal application is the production of biofuel, mainly produced from corn in the US. The starch is fermented to ethanol leaving spent grain rich in cereal proteins as a by-product. The corn protein zein is currently extracted on a large scale and used in, for example, material applications. Similarly, pennisetin can be extracted from pearl millet, a crop critical for food security in sub-Saharan Africa. The formation of viscoelastic melts is crucial for (bio)plastics production and the viscoelasticity, microstructure, and molecular properties of zein and pennisetin melts were determined here. The proteins were mixed with plasticizers (polyethyleneglycol or glycerol/citric acid) to form melts. The melts displayed a phase separated microstructure with protein-rich and plasticizer-rich regions with distinctly separate T gs. The pennisetin melts formed cross-links at temperatures above 60°C, which could be related to the high content of cysteine and methionine, as compared to zein. As a consequence, pennisetin melts showed a more thermocomplex behavior than zein melts. For zein melts, the mixture of glycerol and citric acid interacted with protein in addition to being a plasticizer causing a high-molecular weight shoulder in the molecular weight distribution. The study showed that, although both zein and pennisetin form viscoelastic melts, the choice of plasticizer strongly affects both melt structure and physical properties.

  • 17. Gölander, C-G
    et al.
    Rutland, MW
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Cho, DL
    Johansson, A
    Ringblom, H
    Jönsson, S
    Structure and surface properties of diaminocyclohexane plasma polymer films1993Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 49, s. 39-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma polymers of three isomers of diaminocyclohexane (DACH) were deposited on polyethylene, SiO2, and mica at 20 °C. The deposition rate was measured as a function of plasma density and power; a maximum was observed in the latter function. The deposition rate was highest for the monomer with the highest flow rate. The film refractive index was observed to increase with both power density and the degree of fragmentation in the plasma. Film composition was measured by elementary analysis, and was found to be almost identical for each of the three isomers; a mechanism for the polymerization reaction is proposed. The percentage of primary amino groups decreased with increasing power density and with film thickness. Surface force measurements of the thickness and refractive index agreed well with the corresponding ellipsometry values in dry air, and an adhesive force, independent of power density, was measured. When the film was exposed to water vapor, it swelled considerably and the adhesion was determined by capillary forces. Associated with swelling, at high power, was an extremely regular 2-ply rope pattern of protruding material.

  • 18. Hillerstrom, A.
    et al.
    Andersson, M.
    Pedersen, J.S.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Van Stam, J.
    Transparency and wettability of PVP/PDMS-IPN synthesized in different organic solvents2009Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 114, nr 3, s. 1828-1839Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) combining a hydrophobic polymer (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) and a hydrophilic polymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP) was synthesized in different solvents via a two-step preparation method. The solvent used during polymerization of the IPN showed a significant impact on the properties of the PVP/PDMS-IPN. The choice of solvent was affecting both the wettability and transparency of the PVP/ PDMS-IPN. The PVP/PDMS-IPNs turned hydrophilic in all the solvents used in this study, but the transition from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic PVP/PDMS-IPN occurred at lower PVP concentration if a solvent with similar solubility parameter as PVP was chosen. Also, the PVP/PDMS-IPNs were transparent when the samples were polymerized in a good solvent for PVP. It was concluded that the properties of the PVP/PDMS-IPN can be tuned by the selection of the solvent used during polymerization. The size of the PVP phase domains in the PVP/PDMS-IPNs were analyzed with X-ray scattering techniques (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the sizes of the domains were found to be smaller than 350 nm. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 19.
    Hillerström, A
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Kronberg, B
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    A two-step method for the synthesis of a hydrophilic PDMS interpenetrating polymer network2008Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 110, nr 5, s. 3059-3067Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A hydrophilic PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) surface was formed by the synthesis of an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) in a two-step process. In the first step, PDMS was loaded with crosslinker and initiator using a solvent that swells the PDMS. In the second step, the PDMS sample was submerged into a solution containing the hydrophilic monomer followed by a UV-polymerization step. The choice of solvent in the second step is critical to obtain a hydrophilic surface. It can be concluded that the solubility parameter of the solvent should be above a threshold value. Hence, in the second step only sufficiently polar solvents will result in hydrophilic PDMS-IPNs. These principles are illustrated by using N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone as the hydrophilic monomer forming PVP/PDMS-IPNs

  • 20.
    Härdelin, Linda
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wet spun fibers from solutions of cellulose in an ionic liquid with suspended carbon nanoparticles2015Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 132, nr 6, artikel-id 41417Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wet spun fibers from solutions of dissolving pulp in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) with up to 50 wt % (based on cellulose) suspended carbon black and graphene nanoplatelets particles were studied. Carbon fillers were dispersed by simple shearing in a Couette type mixer and the resulting spin dope was extruded into a hot water coagulation bath from a single hole spinneret. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity were assessed as a function of filler loading and discussed in comparison to melt spun fibers with similar fillers. The coagulation process and subsequent drying of wet spun fibers was found to produce a significant microporosity, more so the higher the filler loading. The electrical percolation threshold was quite high in the wet spun fibers and relatively modest values of conductivity were obtained with regard to the high filler loadings. Carbon black was found to be superior to graphene nanoplatelets. This was related to flow-induced orientation effects. The mechanical properties of the carbon-filled fibers were found to be similar or lower compared to the pure cellulose fibers because of low interfacial interactions and formation of microporosity.

  • 21.
    Härdelin, Linda
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Perzon, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of molecular weight and rheological behavior on electrospinning cellulose nanofibers from ionic liquids2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 130, nr 4, s. 2303-2310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolving pulp was depolymerized with 2.5M HCl into cellulose fractions with decreasing molecular weight relative to acid treatment time. The cellulose fractions were dissolved at various concentrations in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) with co-solvent DMSO at ratio 1: 1 (w/w) and electrospun. Size exclusion chromatography was used to evaluate the molecular weight distributions and the rheological properties were characterized with a cone-and-plate rheometer. Scanning electron microscope was used to evaluate the fiber morphology, and thereby spinnability. Zero shear viscosity as a function of cellulose concentration show that all the solutions in this study are in the entangled semi-dilute regime; where the polymer concentration is large enough for significant overlap necessary for chain entanglement. However, within the intervals studied, neither cellulose concentration nor molecular weight seems to be decisive for if a solution can be electrospun into fibers or not. It is rather the viscosity of the solution that is decisive for electrospinnability, even though the solution is in the entangled semi-dilute regime.

  • 22.
    Härdelin, Linda
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Thunberg, Johannes
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Perzon, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Westman, Gunnar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Electrospinning of cellulose nanofibers from ionic liquids: The effect of different cosolvents2012Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 125, nr 3, s. 1901-1909Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose was electrospun with various concentrations of ionic liquid and cosolvent. Three different cosolvents were used in this study; dimethylacetamide (DMAc), dimethyl formamide (DMF), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The cosolvents were added to modify the viscosity, electrical conductivity, and surface tension of the solutions. The solubility of cellulose in ionic liquids is highly affected by changes in solvent properties on the molecular level in the binary solvent systems. The difference in molecular structure of the cosolvents and the interactions between cosolvent and ionic liquid can explain the difference in dissolution power of the cosolvents. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to characterize electrospun cellulose fibers. For the systems tested the importance of having a rather high viscosity and high surface tension, and some degree of shear thinning to produce fibers is shown.

  • 23.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Idström, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    Alkhagen, Mårten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Cellulosic nonwovens produced via efficient solution blowing technique2020Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 137, nr 5, artikel-id 48339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for nonwoven materials has increased during the last few years and is expected to increase further due to its use in a broad range of new application areas. Today, the majority of nonwovens are from petroleum-based resources but there is a desideratum to develop sustainable and competitive materials from renewable feedstock. In this work, renewable nonwovens are produced by solution blowing of dissolved cellulose using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) as solvent. Properties of cellulose solutions and process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, air pressure, and distance to collector, are evaluated in respect to spinnability and material structural properties. Nonwovens with fiber diameters mainly in the micrometer range were successfully produced and it was shown that high temperature or low flow rate resulted in thinner fibers. The produced materials were stiffer (higher effective stress and lower strain) compared to commercial polypropylene nonwoven. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Applied Polymer Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 48339. © 2019 The Authors.

  • 24. Jönsson, S
    et al.
    Gölander, C-G
    Biverstedt, A
    Göthe, S
    Stenius, P
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Adhesion of photocurable acrylates to solid polymer substrates1989Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 38, s. 2037-2055Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 25. Kihlman Öiseth, S
    et al.
    Krozer, A
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Lausmaa, J
    Kasemo, B
    UV-light Treatment of Thin High-density Polyethylene Films Monitored with Quartz Crystal Microbalance2004Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 92, s. 2833-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Kleinhans, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE., Innventia.
    Development of lignin carbon fibers: Evaluation of the carbonization process2016Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 133, nr 38, artikel-id APP43965Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of lignin as a renewable resource for the production of less-expensive carbon fibers has in recent years attracted great interest. In order to develop the strength properties, the stabilization and carbonization processes have to be optimized. For this reason, the process parameters during carbonization have here been studied on stabilized lignin fibers in the temperature interval from 300 to 1300 °C. The effects of temperature, heating rate, and straining of fibers during carbonization on the strength properties of carbon fibers were investigated. The heating rate, in the range from 1 to 40 °C/min, was shown to have no effect on the property development of the fibers. During carbonization with no load applied to the fibers, a shrinkage of 20% was noted. Counteracting the shrinkage by imposing a load on the fibers during the carbonization resulted in fibers with a greater stiffness. The tensile strength was not, however, affected by this loading.

  • 27. Lam, S
    et al.
    Hellgren, A-C
    Sjöberg, M
    Holmberg, K
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Schoonbrood, HAS
    Unzué, MJ
    Surfactants in heterophase polymerization: A study of film formation using atomic force microscopy1997Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 66, s. 187-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Film formation of three different latices was studied using atomic force microscopy. The latices were made from a mixture of butyl acrylate, styrene and acrylic acid using either a polymerizable or an unreactive aionic surfactant as emulsifier. Sodium 11-crotonoyloxyundecan- 1-ylsulfate and sodium-3-(sulfopropyl)tetradecylmaleate were used as reactive surfactant and the unreactive surfactant was sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). The conventional surfactant was found to migrate to the surface of the latex film to a much greater extent than the reactive surfactants; however, also the latter were incompletely anchored to the particle. The maleate surfactant was bound to a higher degree than the crotonate, a finding which is in line with the relative reactivities of the two surfactants.

  • 28.
    Larsson, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    RISE., Innventia.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE., Innventia.
    Polylactide latex/nanofibrillated cellulose bionanocomposites of high nanofibrillated cellulose content and nanopaper network structure prepared by a papermaking route2012Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, nr 3, s. 2460-2466Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous attempts to use polylactide (PLA) latex particles and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) in papermaking processing have been limited to low NFC content. In the present study, a bionanocomposite material was successfully produced using a PLA latex and NFC. The components were mixed using a wet mixing method and bionanocomposite films were made by filtration followed by hot pressing. In composite materials, the dispersion of the reinforcing component in the matrix is critical for the material properties. Biopolymers such as PLA are non-polar and soluble only in organic solvents; NFC is, however, highly hydrophilic. By utilizing latex, i.e., an aqueous dispersion of biopolymer micro-particles, wet mixing is possible and the problem of aggregation of the hydrophilic nanocellulose in organic solvent is avoided. The properties of the resulting NFC/PLA latex bionanocomposite films were analyzed. Thorough blending resulted in good dispersion of the reinforcing component within the matrix. Adding increasing amounts of NFC improved the Young's modulus, tensile strength, and strain at break of the bionanocomposite material. The increase in the tensile properties was linear with increasing NFC content as a result of the good dispersion. The NFC also improved the thermal stability of the bionanocomposite material.

  • 29.
    Lindström, Tom
    et al.
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Banke, K.
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Glad-Nordmark, Gunborg
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Boldizar, A.
    Nanoclay plating of cellulosic fiber surfaces2008Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 108, nr 2, s. 887-891Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A basic problem in making cellulose-reinforced composites is achieving a dispersion of cellulosic fibers in an often olephinic polymer matrix. Drying cellulosic fibers results in the formation of fiber flocs/nodules because of their strong interfiber bonding, and this makes the hydrophilic cellulosic fibers difficult to disperse in a hydrophobic matrix material. One common approach to alleviate floe formation is to adsorb cationic surfactant onto anionically charged cellulose, which reduces the interfiber bonding, decreases floe formation and gives better compatibility with the matrix. In this report, a different approach is taken, namely to adsorb nanoclays onto the cellulosic fibers, and thereby reduce the natural hydrogen-bonding affinity between fibers. In a second report, the same technology will be shown to be advantageous to decrease floe formation in oleophinic composites reinforced with cellulosic fibers. This article summarizes experiments aimed at optimizing the chemistry of deposition of montmorillonite clay onto fiber surfaces. The aim was to optimize the chemical conditions for the heterodeposition of the anionic clay onto cationically charged fluff pulp. The experiments were designed to provide a theoretical framework for the deposition of the nanoclay onto the pulp fibers. High Mw p-DADMAC and an exfoliated clay (achieved by passing the clay through a homogenizer) were used. As expected, a certain degree of charge overcompensation by adding an electrolyte was necessary to bring about deposition. The adsorbed amount of clay could be calculated from the charge balance between the overcompensated charge and the net clay charge, constituting the theoretical framework for nanoclay heterodeposition. As expected, montmorillonite clay greatly destroyed the joint strength between fibers (determined by evaluating the strength of paper made from treated fibers). The surface coverage (determined by ESCA) was shown to be a linear function of the attached amount of clay, and ∌3% clay was required to fully cover the fiber surfaces. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 30.
    Lund, A.
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Melt spinning of β-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) yarns with and without a conductive core2011Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 120, nr 2, s. 1080-1089Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is to be used as a piezoelectric material, the processing must include the formation of polar β-phase crystallites, as well as the application of electrically conducting charge collectors, that is, electrodes. In this article, results from the melt spinning of PVDF yarns and a novel bicomponent PVDF-yarn with a conductive carbon black/polypropylene (CB/PP) core are presented. Melt spinning has been done under conditions typical for industrial large-scale fiber production. The effects on the resulting crystalline structure of varying the spinning velocity, draw rate, and draw temperature are discussed. The results show that, for maximum α-to-β phase transformation, cold drawing should take place at a temperature between 70 and 90°C, and both the draw ratio and the draw rate should be as high as possible. It was observed that the cold drawing necessary to form β-phase crystallinity simultaneously leads to a decrease in the core conductivity of the bicomponent yarns. In this work, the melt spinning of bicomponent fibers with high-β-phase PVDF in the sheath and a CB/PP core was successfully accomplished. The core material remained electrically conductive, paving the way for the use of a CB-polymer compound as inner electrode in the melt spinning of piezoelectric bicomponent fibers. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 31.
    Lund, Anja
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Borås, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Melt spinning of poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibers and the influence of spinning parameters on β‐phase crystallinity2010Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 116, nr 5, s. 2685-2693Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Lund, Anja
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Borås, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Melt spinning of β‐phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) yarns with and without a conductive core2010Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 120, nr 2, s. 1080-1089Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Lund, Anja
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Jonasson, Christian
    Haagensen, Daniel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Piezoelectric polymeric bicomponent fibers produced by melt spinning2012Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 126, nr 2, s. 490-500Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Melt spinning of a novel piezoelectric bicomponent fiber, with poly(vinylidene fluoride) as the electroactive sheath component, has been demonstrated. An electrically conductive compound of carbon black (CB) and high density polyethylene was used as core material, working as an inner electrode. A force sensor consisting of a number of fibers embedded in a soft CB/polyolefin elastomer matrix was manufactured for characterization. The fibers showed a clear piezoelectric effect, with a voltage output (peak-to-peak) of up to 40 mV under lateral compression. This continuous all-polymer piezoelectric fiber introduces new possibilities toward minimal single fiber sensors as well as large area sensors produced in standard industrial weaving machines.

  • 34.
    Lund, Anja
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Borås, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Haagensen, Daniel
    RISE., Swerea, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Piezoelectric polymeric bicomponent fibers produced by melt spinning2012Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 126, nr 2, s. 490-500Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Nilsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Oxfall, Henrik
    RISE., Swerea, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wandelt, Wojciech
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Rychwalski, Rodney W.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Melt spinning of conductive textile fibers with hybridized graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black filler2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 130, nr 4, s. 2579-2587Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, two different carbon fillers: carbon black (CB) and graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) are studied as conductive fillers for the preparation of conductive polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites. In order to obtain a homogenous dispersion of GNP, GNP/PP composites were prepared by two different methods: solid state mixing (SSM) and traditional melt mixing (MM). The result shows that MM is more efficient in the dispersion of GNP particles compared to SSM method. PP nanocomposites containing only one conductive filler and two fillers were prepared at different filler concentrations. Based on the analysis of electrical and rheological properties of the prepared nanocomposites, it shows that a hybridized composite with equal amounts of GNP and CB has favorable processing properties. Conductive fibers with a core/sheath structure were produced on a bicomponent melt spinning line. The core materials of these fibers are the hybridized GNP/CB/PP nanocomposite and the sheath is pure polyamide. It was found that GNPs were separated during melt and cold drawing which results in the decrease of conductivity. However, the conductivity could partly be restored by the heat treatment.

  • 36.
    Nilsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Electrically conductive polymeric bi-component fibers containing a high load of low-structured carbon black2015Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 132, nr 29, artikel-id 42255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Melt spinning at semi-industrial conditions of carbon black (CB) containing textiles fibers with enhanced electrical conductivity suitable for heating applications is described. A conductive compound of CB and high density polyethylene (HDPE) was incorporated into the core of bi-component fibers which had a sheath of polyamide 6 (PA6). The rheological and fiber-forming properties of a low-structured and a high-structured CB/HDPE composite were compared in terms of their conductivity. The low-structured CB gave the best trade-off between processability and final conductivity. This was discussed in terms of the strength of the resulting percolated network of carbon particles and its effect on the spin line stability during melt spinning. The conductivity was found to be further enhanced with maintained mechanical properties by an in line thermal annealing of the fibers at temperatures in the vicinity of the melting point of HDPE. By an adequate choice of CB and annealing conditions a conductivity of 1.5 S/cm of the core material was obtained. The usefulness of the fibers for heating applications was demonstrated by means of a woven fabric containing the conductive fibers in the warp direction. By applying a voltage of 48 V the surface temperature of the fabric rose from 20 to 30°C.

  • 37.
    Norberg, Ida
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Nordström, Ylva
    RISE., Innventia.
    Drougge, Rikard
    RISE., Innventia.
    Gellerstedt, Göran
    RISE., Innventia.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE., Innventia.
    A new method for stabilizing softwood kraft lignin fibers for carbon fiber production2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 128, nr 6, s. 3827-3830Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable resources, such as kraft lignin, have shown great potential as precursors for carbon fiber production. This manuscript reports an investigation into the stabilization of softwood kraft lignin (SKL) fibers and the determination of the difference in stabilization between hardwood- and softwood-based kraft lignin fibers. The stabilization was achieved either thermally by using only heat or oxidatively in the presence of air, at various heating rates. A heating rate of 4°C min-1 and a holding time of 30 min at 250°C were successfully used for the thermal stabilization experiments. Faster stabilization was achieved using oxidative conditions at a heating rate of 15°C min-1 and 30 min holding time at 250°C. Furthermore, stabilization and carbonization in a one-step process was performed on SKL fibers, which show great potential to reduce both production time and costs. The stabilized and carbonized fibers were evaluated using thermal, spectroscopic, and microscopic methods.

  • 38.
    Nordström, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE., Innventia.
    Mechanical characterization and application of Weibull statistics to the strength of softwood lignin-based carbon fibers2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 130, nr 5, s. 3689-3697Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical characterization of the first generation of softwood kraft lignin-based carbon fibers (CF) was carried out. The single-fiber tensile tests of filaments with different diameters and length were performed to evaluate stiffness and strength of carbon fibers. The average mechanical properties were measured as follows: tensile strength of approximately 300 MPa, the elastic modulus of 30 GPa and a strain at failure within interval of 0.7-1.2%. The fiber strength data was evaluated by the two-parameter Weibull statistics and parameters of this distribution were obtained. Although strength of the produced fibers is still significantly lower than that of commercially available, the experimental results and predictions based on Weibull statistics show a fairly good fit.

  • 39.
    Nordström, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Norberg, Ida
    RISE., Innventia.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE., Innventia.
    Drougge, Rikard
    RISE., Innventia.
    A new softening agent for melt spinning of softwood kraft lignin2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 129, nr 3, s. 1274-1279Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft lignin obtained from the pulping of wood is an interesting new precursor material for carbon fiber production because of its high carbon content and ready availability. However, continuous spinning of softwood kraft lignin (SKL) has been impossible because of its insufficient softening characteristics and neat hardwood kraft lignin (HKL) has required extensive pretreatments to enable fiber formation. Softwood kraft lignin permeate (SKLP) and hardwood kraft lignin permeate (HKLP), fractionated by membrane filtration, were continuously melt spun into fibers. To improve the spinnability of SKL and HKL, HKLP was added as a softening agent. SKL- and HKL-based fibers were obtained by adding 3-98 wt % HKLP. A suitable temperature range for spinning was 20-85°C above the Tg of the lignin samples, and this range gave a flawless appearance according to the SEM analysis. Smooth, homogeneous fibers of SKLP, HKLP, and SKL with HKLP were successfully processed into solid carbon fibers.

  • 40.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Lindberg, H.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Influence of thermoplastic elastomers on adhesion in polyethylene-wood flour composites1998Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 68, nr 11, s. 1845-1855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of recycled low-density polyethylene/wood flour (LDPE/WF) composites are improved when a maleated triblock copolymer styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS-MA) is added as a compatibilizer. The composites' tensile strength reached a maximum level with 4 wt % SEBS-MA content. The compatibilizer had a positive effect on the impact strength and elongation at break but decreased the composites' stiffness. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), a lap shear adhesion test, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to investigate the nature of the interfacial adhesion between the WF/SEBS and between the WF/ SEBS-MA. Tan δ peak temperatures for the various combinations showed interaction between the ethylene/butylene (EB) part of the copolymer and the wood flour in the maleated system. The shear lap test showed that adhesion between the wood and SEBS-MA is better than between the wood and SEBS. The electron microscopy study of the fracture surfaces confirmed good adhesion between the wood particles and the LDPE/SEBS-MA matrix. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  • 41.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Wallström, L.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Berglund, Lars
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Morphology and mechanical properties of unidirectional sisal-epoxy composites2002Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 84, nr 13, s. 2358-2365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant fibers are of increasing interest for use in composite materials. They are renewable resources and waste management is easier than with glass fibers. In the present study, longitudinal stiffness and strength as well as morphology of unidirectional sisal-epoxy composites manufactured by resin transfer molding (RTM) were studied. Horseshoe-shaped sisal fiber bundles (technical fibers) were nonuniformly distributed in the matrix. In contrast to many wood composites, lumen was not filled by polymer matrix. Technical sisal fibers showed higher effective modulus when included in the composite material than in the technical fiber test (40 GPa as compared with 24 GPa). In contrast, the effective technical fiber strength in the composites was estimated to be around 400 MPa in comparison with a measured technical fiber tensile strength of 550 MPa. Reasons for these phenomena are discussed. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci.

  • 42.
    Paunonen, Sara
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Immonen, Kirsi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Poly(lactic acid)/pulp fiber composites: The effect of fiber surface modification and hydrothermal aging on viscoelastic and strength properties2020Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 137, nr 42, artikel-id 49617Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/kraft pulp fiber (30 wt%) composites were prepared with and without a coupling agent (epoxidized linseed oil, ELO, 1.5 wt%) by injection molding. The non-annealed composite samples, along with lean PLA, were exposed to two hydro-thermal conditions: cyclic 50% RH/90% RH at 23 and 50°C, both up to 42 days. The aging effects were observed by size exclusion chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic and tensile mechanical analysis, and fracture surface imaging. ELO temporarily accelerated the material's internal transition from viscous to an increasingly elastic response during the aging at 50°C. ELO also slowed down the tensile strength reduction of the composites at 50°C. These observations were explained with the hydrophobic ELO molecules' coupling and plasticizing effects at fiber/matrix interfaces. No effects were observed at 23°C.

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  • 43.
    Petersen, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Enebro, Jonas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Development of nanocomposites based on organically modified montmorillonite and plasticized PVC with improved barrier properties2016Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 133, nr 3, artikel-id 42876Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Montmorillonite (MMT) was organically modified with tributyl citrate (TBC). Organoclays (OMMTs) were processed with diisononyl phthalate (DINP)-plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to form polymer nanocomposites. The produced composite materials showed a contradictory change in properties to that expected of a layered silicate nanocomposite, with a decreased E-modulus and increased gas permeability compared with a material without OMMT. It was experimentally shown that the TBC modifier was extracted from the OMMT and was dispersed in the PVC/DINP matrix, whereupon the OMMT collapsed and formed micrometer-sized agglomerates. Further investigation revealed that TBC has a significant effect on the gas permeability and the E-modulus, even at low additions to a DINP-plasticized PVC. A PVC nanocomposite with the TBC acting as both the OM for MMT and as the primary plasticizer was produced. This material showed a significantly increased E-modulus as well as a decrease in gas permeability, confirming that it is possible to develop a nanocomposite based on plasticized PVC, if both the organo-modification of the MMT and the formulation of the matrix are carefully selected.

  • 44.
    Rasel, Hannah
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Johansson, Therese
    RISE., Innventia.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE., Innventia.
    Newson, William
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Development of bioplastics based on agricultural side-stream products: Film extrusion of Crambe abyssinica/wheat gluten blends for packaging purposes2016Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 133, nr 2, artikel-id 42442Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work was to add economic value to crambe meal, the protein-rich byproduct from the industrial extraction of Crambe abyssinica seed oil, by using it as a potential feedstock for oilseed meal-based plastics. The feasibility to produce continuous, flexible plastic films of glycerol-plasticized crambe meal blended with wheat gluten (WG) to improve extrudate properties and urea as a protein denaturant using extrusion was investigated. The effect of process parameters and blend composition were studied with regard to the extrusion performance and the film properties. Tensile properties and oxygen permeability were determined, and the film morphology was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. A die temperature between 125 and 130°C resulted in films with the most homogeneous surfaces and highest tensile strength and extensibility. The use of compression molding after extrusion improved the surface quality and film strength and lowered the oxygen permeability. A decrease in the plasticizer content (from 30 to 20 wt %) improved the extrudability and showed the highest tensile strength, whereas the extensibility was essentially unaffected. The importance of the presence of WG was shown by the fact that strength and extensibility decreased when the crambe content was increased from 60 to 80 wt %. It was shown that crambe-based biopolymer blends could be extruded as continuous flexible plastic films that exhibited promising mechanical and oxygen barrier properties. The operational window was, however, found to be narrow. The results provide a first basis to further develop the process and the blend toward industrial applications, for example, as packaging materials.

  • 45.
    Römhild, Stefanie
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Bergman, Gunnar
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Short-term and long-term performance of thermosets exposed to water at elevated temperatures2010Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 116, nr 2, s. 1057-1067Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The water-transport, mechanical, and chemical- structure changes in various vinyl ester, novolac, and urethane-modified vinyl ester thermosets exposed to water at 50 to 95°C for times up to 1000 days have been studied within the framework of a larger study of osmotic blistering in fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) process components. The water sorption saturation concentration did not reach a steady-state value but gradually increased in many cases upon long-term exposure. The diffusion coefficient was not significantly affected. Infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry indicated that the net mass loss from the thermosets on immersion in water was due to the leaching of non-reacted styrene, monomer, and additives. It is suggested that this, together with polymer relaxation processes (as measured on specimens under tension in water at 80°C), is the primary reason for the time-dependent increase in the water saturation concentration. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that, even at the highest temperatures, hydrolysis of the polymer ester groups was small. Correlations were found between the styrene content in the uncured thermosets, the estimated solubility parameters, and the sorption and diffusion coefficients. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 46. Siro, I.
    et al.
    Plackett, D.
    Hedenqvist, M.
    Ankerfors, M.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Lindström, T.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Highly transparent films from carboxymethylated microfibrillated cellulose: The effect of multiple homogenization steps on key properties2011Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, nr 5, s. 2652-2660Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Niemelä, P.
    VTT Electronics.
    Koskinen, R.
    University of Oulu.
    Hormi, O.
    University of Oulu.
    Process cure monitoring of unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl ester resins, and gel coats by Raman spectroscopy2004Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 93, nr 3, s. 1285-1292Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The curing process of unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl ester resins, and gel coats was studied by using a process Raman spectrometer, equipped with a remote fiber-optic probe. The resins were cured and Raman spectra were recorded during the curing reaction. The spectral changes were identified and, from the intensities, the cure process could be monitored. Gel times given by the resin suppliers correlated well with the Raman results. It could also be seen that the curing process continues for a long time, up to several weeks. Postcuring will finally complete the curing process, White and lightly colored gel coats could easily be monitored by Raman spectroscopy, but fluorescent problems were encountered with heavily colored pigments. The curing of laminates containing 50-70 wt % glass fiber mat could also be followed by Raman spectroscopy. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 48.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Trey, Stacy
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Lundevall, Åsa
    RISE., Swerea, IVF.
    Olsson, Sara
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Influence of cure conditions on the properties of a one-compenent moisture-cured polyurethane adhesive in the context of green gluing of wood2012Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 126, nr S1, s. E297-E304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Stevanic, J.S.
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Joly, C.
    Mikkonen, K.S.
    Pirkkalainen, K.
    Serimaa, R.
    Remond, C.
    Toriz, G.
    Gatenholm, P.
    Tenkanen, M.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Bacterial nanocellulose-reinforced arabinoxylan films2011Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, nr 2, s. 1030-1039Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 50.
    Strååt, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Rigdahl, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Conducting bicomponent fibers obtained by melt spinning of PA6 and polyolefins containing high amounts of carbonaceous fillers2012Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 123, nr 2, s. 936-943Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Melt spinning of conductive polymer composites (CPCs) is coupled with some difficulties such as a decrease of conductivity upon drawing and a reduced spinnability with increasing filler concentration. Applying bicomponent technology may provide the possibility to produce fibers from CPCs with a high filler concentration. A pilot-scale bicomponent melt spinning set-up was used to produce core/sheath fibers with fiber titers between 13 and 47 dtex. The sheath material was polyamide 6 (PA6) or polypropylene (PP) and the core material was a CPC. Two CPCs were used, polypropylene (PP) with carbon black (CB), denoted by PP/CB, and polyethylene (PE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), denoted by PE/MWNT. The results showed that both materials could be used with a filler concentration of 10 wt % to obtain melt draw ratios up to 195. The volumetric fraction of core material in the bicomponent structure was 28%. A heat treatment of PP/CB fibers restored the conductivity to the level of the undrawn material, corresponding to an increase in conductivity by a factor 5. The same heat treatment had a positive effect on the conductivity of PE/MWNT fibers although the conductivity was not restored. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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