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  • 1.
    Adhikari, Arindam
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Radhakrishnan, S
    Dopant induced effect on electrocatalytic reduction of nitrobenzene using conducting polypyrrole thin film electrodes2011In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 120, no 2, p. 719-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polypyrrole electrodes were prepared by electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole on vacuum-metallized glass substrates. These electrodes were modified by doping with a range of metal halides as dopant ions having different electronegativity. Electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene using these electrodes was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry technique in acetonitrile medium containing aqueous HClO4 (0.1M) as supporting electrolyte. It was found that the electronegativity of the dopant ion played a very important role in the electrocatalytic activity. Polypyrrole doped with nickel chloride gave the highest anodic current at the reduction potential of nitrobenzene. The results were explained on the basis of charge transfer efficiency at the electrode-electrolyte interface, which was associated with the acceptor state created by the dopant in the semi-conducting polymer.

  • 2.
    Akesson, D.
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Skrifvars, M.
    University of Borås.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Preparation of thermoset composites from natural fibres and acrylate modified soybean oil resins2009In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 2502-2508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural composites with a high content of renewable material were produced from natural fibres and an acrylated epoxidized soybean oil resin. Composites were prepared by spray impregnation followed by compression moulding at elevated temperature. The resulting composites had good mechanical properties in terms of tensile strength and flexural strength. Tensile testing as well as dynamical mechanical thermal analysis showed that increasing the fibre content, increased the mechanical properties. The resin can be reinforced with up to 70 wt % fibre without sacrifice in processability. The tensile modulus ranged between 5.8 and 9.7 GPa depending on the type of fibre mat. The study of the adhesion by low vacuum scanning electron microscopy shows that the fibres are well impregnated in the matrix. The aging properties were finally evaluated. This study shows that composites with a very high content of renewable constituents can be produced from soy bean oil resins and natural fibres. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 3. Andersson, T.
    et al.
    Holmgren, M.H.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wesslen, B.
    Degradation of low density polyethylene during extrusion.: IV. Off-flavor compounds in extruded films of stabilized LDPE2005In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 95, no 3, p. 583-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was aimed at finding a correlation between the experienced off-flavor in packed foods and the presence of specific degradation products in LDPE pack-aging films. The possibility to trap degradation products by chemical reactions with scavengers, i.e., a zeolite additive or antioxidants, was investigated This would prevent degradation products from migrating to the polymer film surface and further into food in contact with the film. It was found that off-flavor noted in water packed in LDPE films depended on extrusion temperature and exposure time for the melt to oxygen, that is, the parameters that influence the contents of oxidation products that are able to migrate from the polymer film. It was also found that adsorption of oxidative degradation products in a zeolite additive or protection of LDPE by using antioxidants could prevent off-flavor in the packed product (water). However, the antioxidant should be selected with regard to extrusion temperature because thermal instability in the additive might jeopardize the intended effect. Multifunctional antioxidants seem to provide improved protection, the most effective one evaluated in this work being Irganox E201, i.e., vitamin E. Concentrations of oxidized degradation products are well correlated to the perceived off-flavor in the packed water. The highest correlation between off-flavor and oxidized components was found for ketones in the range of C 7 to C9 and aldehydes in the range of C6 to C9. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 4. Andersson, T.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wesslen, B.
    Degradation of low density polyethylene during extrusion.: III. Volatile compounds in extruded films creating off-flavor2005In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 847-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was aimed at finding a correlation between the experienced off-flavor in packaged foods and the presence of specific degradation products in PE packaging films. The possibility to trap degradation products by chemical reactions with scavengers, that is, zeolites and maleic anhydride grafted LLDPE, were investigated. This trapping would prevent the degradation products from migrating to the polymer film surface and further into food in contact with the film. This work concludes that off-flavor in water packed in LDPE-films depends on extrusion temperature and the content of oxidation products in the polymer film. At lower extrusion temperatures, reactive additives to the LDPE material could control the release of off-flavor giving compo nents. Adsorbents, such as zeolites, which are able to adsorb degradation products, are effective also at higher extrusion temperatures. The amount of oxidized degradation products in the films correlated well to the perceived off-flavor in the packed water. The presence of aldehydes and ketones have a clear impact on the off-flavor. The best correlation between off-flavor and oxidized components were found for C7-C9 ketones, and aldehydes in the range of C5 to C8. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 5.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Identifying breach mechanism during air-gap spinning of lignin–cellulose ionic-liquid solutions2019In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, article id 47800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to produce highly oriented and strong fibers from polymer solutions, a high elongational rate during the fiber-forming process is necessary. In the air-gap spinning process, a high elongational rate is realized by employing a high draw ratio, the ratio between take-up and extrusion velocity. Air-gap spinning of lignin–cellulose ionic-liquid solutions renders fibers that are promising to use as carbon fiber precursors. To further improve their mechanical properties, the polymer orientation should be maximized. However, achieving high draw ratios is limited by spinning instabilities that occur at high elongational rates. The aim of this experimental study is to understand the link between solution properties and the critical draw ratio during air-gap spinning. A maximum critical draw ratio with respect to temperature is found. Two mechanisms that limit the critical draw ratio are proposed, cohesive breach and draw resonance, the latter identified from high-speed videos. The two mechanisms clearly correlate with different temperature regions. The results from this work are not only of value for future work within the studied system but also for the design of air-gap spinning processes in general. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 47800.

  • 6. Cho, DL
    et al.
    Claesson, PM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Gölander, C-G
    Johansson, K
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Structure and surface properties of plasma polymerized acrylic acid layers1990In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 41, p. 1373-1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin plasma polymerized layers of acrylic acid (PPAA) were deposited onto polyethylene and muscovite mica surfaces. Structure and surface properties of the deposited layer depend on the polymerization conditions. The content of carboxylic groups in the layer decreases, whereas the degree of crosslinking or branching increases, with increasing discharge power. A soft, sticky layer with a low contact angle against water is obtained when a low discharge power (5 W) is used. In contrast, a hard film with a rather high water contact angle is obtained when the discharge power is high (50 W). A surface force apparatus was employed to study some film properties including adhesion force, crack formation, and capillary condensation. The adhesion force between plasma polymerized acrylic acid layers prepared at a low discharge power is high in dry air. It decreases remarkably in humid air and no adhesion is observed in water. In dry air, the adhesion force between PPAA layers decreases as the discharge power increases.

  • 7.
    Cho, DL
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Ekengren, Ö
    Composite membranes formed by plasma-polymerized acrylic acid for ultrafiltration of bleach effluent1993In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 47, p. 2125-2133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite membranes were formed by deposition of plasma-polymerized acrylic acid (PPAA) films onto porous commercial membranes to improve the rejection, especially of chlorinated compunds, in ultrafiltration of E-stage bleach effluent. Although increased rejections were accompanied by reduced flux, in most cases, the reductionswere not significiant considering the extent of increased rejections. A good composite membrane showed the AOX removal of 94% (76% before the modification) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 84% (67% before the modification) with 33% reduction of the flux. The permeate was optically clean. The improved rejection is attributed to the tightly crosslinked network of a plasma polymer film and its negatively charged surface. Ultrathin film thickness and the hydrophilic property of a plasma polymer film minimize the reduction of flux.

  • 8. Cho, DL
    et al.
    Sjöblom, E
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Plasma treatment of wood1990In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 46, p. 461-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood was treated with hydrophobic plasma polymers to reduce the water penetration. Due to the released water vapour and/or molecular weight components from wood under low pressures the efficiency of the plasma treatment was dependent on the evacuation time before plasma treatment. A long evacuation for the efficient treatment could be avoided by increasing the monomer pressure. Adhesion of a paint onto the hydrophobized wood was poor. The adhesion was improved by hydrophilic post-treatment at a sacrifice of the reduction of water penetration. However, a large reduction of water penetration and a good adhesion to a

  • 9. Cho, S.-W.
    et al.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Effects of glycerol content and film thickness on the properties of vital wheat gluten films cast at pH 4 and 112010In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 117, no 6, p. 3506-3514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the optical properties and plasticizer migration properties of vital wheat gluten (WG) films cast at pH 4 and 11. The films contained initially 8, 16, and 25 wt % glycerol and were aged at 23°C and 50% relative humidity for at least 17 weeks on a paper support to simulate a situation where a paper packaging is laminated with an oxygen barrier film of WG. The films, having target thicknesses of 50 and 250 Όm, were characterized visually and with ultraviolet/visible and infrared spectroscopy; the mass loss was measured by gravimetry or by a glycerol-specific gas chromatography method. The thin films produced at pH 4 were, in general, more heterogeneous than those produced at pH 11. The thin pH 4 films consisted of transparent regions surrounding beige glycerol-rich regions, the former probably rich in gliadin and the latter rich in glutenin. This, together with less Maillard browning, meant that the thin pH 4 films, in contrast to the more homogeneous (beige) thin pH 11 films, showed good contact clarity. The variations in glycerol content did not significantly change the optical properties of the films. All the films showed a significant loss of glycerol to the paper support but, after almost 9 months, the thick pH 11 film containing initially 25 wt % glycerol was still very flexible and, despite a better contact to the paper, had a higher residual glycerol content than the pH 4 film, which was also more brittle.

  • 10. Fernández, A.
    et al.
    Sánchez, M. D.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lagaron, J. M.
    Effects of ionizing radiation in ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers and in composites containing microfibrillated cellulose2008In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 126-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on the effect of gamma radiation on morphological, thermal, and water barrier properties of pure ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH29 and EVOH44) and its biocomposites with the nanofiller microfibrillated cellulose (2 wt%). Added microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) preserved the transparency of EVOH films but led to a decrease in water barrier properties. Gamma irradiation at low (30 kGy) and high doses (60 kGy) caused some irreversible changes in the phase morphology of EVOH29 and EVOH44 copolymers that could be associated to crosslinking and other chemical alterations. Additionally, the EVOH copolymers and the EVOH composites reduced the number of hygroscopic hydroxyl functionalities during the irradiation processing and novel carbonyl based chemistry was, in turn, detected. As a result of the above alterations, the water barrier properties of both neat materials and composites irradiated at low doses were notably enhanced, counteracting the detrimental effect on water barrier of adding MFC to the EVOH matrix. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 11.
    Guo, Zengwei
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    An efficient recycling process of glycolysis of PET in the presence of a sustainable nanocatalyst2018In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 135, no 21, article id 46285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that the catalyst Perkalite F100 efficiently works as a nanocatalyst in the depolymerization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). After depolymerization of PET in the presence of ethylene glycol and the Perkalite nanocatalyst, the main product obtained was bis(2-hydroxylethyl) terephthalate (BHET) with high purity, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and NMR. The BHET monomers could serve directly as starting materials in a further polymerization into PET with a virgin quality and contribute to a solution for the disposal of PET polymers. Compared with the direct glycolysis of PET, the addition of a predegradation step was shown to reduce the reaction time needed to reach the depolymerization equilibrium. The addition of the predegradation step also allowed lower reaction temperatures. Therefore, the strategy to include a predegradation step before depolymerization is suitable for increasing the efficiency of the glycolysis reaction of PET into BHET monomers.

  • 12.
    Guo, Zengwei
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Nilsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Rigdahl, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Melt spinning of PVDF fibers with enhanced β phase structure2013In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 2603-2609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibers with a high amount of β phase crystal structure were prepared by melt spinning. With this technique, the cold drawing process is critical and efficient when aiming for a high amount of β phase. During the cold drawing process, more than 80% of the originally formed α phase crystal structure was converted into the β phase structure. In addition, the incorporation of 0.01 wt % of amino-modified double wall carbon nanotube (NH2-DWCNT) could further enhance the β phase content in the PVDF fibers. FTIR and DSC studies showed that the addition of NH2-DWCNT to PVDF fibers could increase both the total crystallinity and β phase fraction in PVDF. The addition of nanoclay was found to be less efficient in this respect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 13.
    Gómez-Martínez, Diana
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Correlation between viscoelasticity, microstructure, and molecular properties of zein and pennisetin melts2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 2245-2251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cereals are a large source of biopolymers, where mainly the starch is used for food and feed. A rapidly growing cereal application is the production of biofuel, mainly produced from corn in the US. The starch is fermented to ethanol leaving spent grain rich in cereal proteins as a by-product. The corn protein zein is currently extracted on a large scale and used in, for example, material applications. Similarly, pennisetin can be extracted from pearl millet, a crop critical for food security in sub-Saharan Africa. The formation of viscoelastic melts is crucial for (bio)plastics production and the viscoelasticity, microstructure, and molecular properties of zein and pennisetin melts were determined here. The proteins were mixed with plasticizers (polyethyleneglycol or glycerol/citric acid) to form melts. The melts displayed a phase separated microstructure with protein-rich and plasticizer-rich regions with distinctly separate T gs. The pennisetin melts formed cross-links at temperatures above 60°C, which could be related to the high content of cysteine and methionine, as compared to zein. As a consequence, pennisetin melts showed a more thermocomplex behavior than zein melts. For zein melts, the mixture of glycerol and citric acid interacted with protein in addition to being a plasticizer causing a high-molecular weight shoulder in the molecular weight distribution. The study showed that, although both zein and pennisetin form viscoelastic melts, the choice of plasticizer strongly affects both melt structure and physical properties. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 14. Gölander, C-G
    et al.
    Rutland, MW
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Cho, DL
    Johansson, A
    Ringblom, H
    Jönsson, S
    Structure and surface properties of diaminocyclohexane plasma polymer films1993In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 49, p. 39-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma polymers of three isomers of diaminocyclohexane (DACH) were deposited on polyethylene, SiO2, and mica at 20 °C. The deposition rate was measured as a function of plasma density and power; a maximum was observed in the latter function. The deposition rate was highest for the monomer with the highest flow rate. The film refractive index was observed to increase with both power density and the degree of fragmentation in the plasma. Film composition was measured by elementary analysis, and was found to be almost identical for each of the three isomers; a mechanism for the polymerization reaction is proposed. The percentage of primary amino groups decreased with increasing power density and with film thickness. Surface force measurements of the thickness and refractive index agreed well with the corresponding ellipsometry values in dry air, and an adhesive force, independent of power density, was measured. When the film was exposed to water vapor, it swelled considerably and the adhesion was determined by capillary forces. Associated with swelling, at high power, was an extremely regular 2-ply rope pattern of protruding material.

  • 15. Hillerstrom, A.
    et al.
    Andersson, M.
    Pedersen, J.S.
    Altskär, Annika
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Van Stam, J.
    Transparency and wettability of PVP/PDMS-IPN synthesized in different organic solvents2009In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 1828-1839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) combining a hydrophobic polymer (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) and a hydrophilic polymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP) was synthesized in different solvents via a two-step preparation method. The solvent used during polymerization of the IPN showed a significant impact on the properties of the PVP/PDMS-IPN. The choice of solvent was affecting both the wettability and transparency of the PVP/ PDMS-IPN. The PVP/PDMS-IPNs turned hydrophilic in all the solvents used in this study, but the transition from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic PVP/PDMS-IPN occurred at lower PVP concentration if a solvent with similar solubility parameter as PVP was chosen. Also, the PVP/PDMS-IPNs were transparent when the samples were polymerized in a good solvent for PVP. It was concluded that the properties of the PVP/PDMS-IPN can be tuned by the selection of the solvent used during polymerization. The size of the PVP phase domains in the PVP/PDMS-IPNs were analyzed with X-ray scattering techniques (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the sizes of the domains were found to be smaller than 350 nm. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 16.
    Hillerström, A
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Kronberg, B
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    A two-step method for the synthesis of a hydrophilic PDMS interpenetrating polymer network2008In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 110, no 5, p. 3059-3067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hydrophilic PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) surface was formed by the synthesis of an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) in a two-step process. In the first step, PDMS was loaded with crosslinker and initiator using a solvent that swells the PDMS. In the second step, the PDMS sample was submerged into a solution containing the hydrophilic monomer followed by a UV-polymerization step. The choice of solvent in the second step is critical to obtain a hydrophilic surface. It can be concluded that the solubility parameter of the solvent should be above a threshold value. Hence, in the second step only sufficiently polar solvents will result in hydrophilic PDMS-IPNs. These principles are illustrated by using N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone as the hydrophilic monomer forming PVP/PDMS-IPNs

  • 17.
    Härdelin, Linda
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wet spun fibers from solutions of cellulose in an ionic liquid with suspended carbon nanoparticles2015In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 132, no 6, article id 41417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wet spun fibers from solutions of dissolving pulp in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) with up to 50 wt % (based on cellulose) suspended carbon black and graphene nanoplatelets particles were studied. Carbon fillers were dispersed by simple shearing in a Couette type mixer and the resulting spin dope was extruded into a hot water coagulation bath from a single hole spinneret. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity were assessed as a function of filler loading and discussed in comparison to melt spun fibers with similar fillers. The coagulation process and subsequent drying of wet spun fibers was found to produce a significant microporosity, more so the higher the filler loading. The electrical percolation threshold was quite high in the wet spun fibers and relatively modest values of conductivity were obtained with regard to the high filler loadings. Carbon black was found to be superior to graphene nanoplatelets. This was related to flow-induced orientation effects. The mechanical properties of the carbon-filled fibers were found to be similar or lower compared to the pure cellulose fibers because of low interfacial interactions and formation of microporosity.

  • 18.
    Härdelin, Linda
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Perzon, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Gatenholm, P.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Influence of molecular weight and rheological behavior on electrospinning cellulose nanofibers from ionic liquids2013In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 2303-2310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolving pulp was depolymerized with 2.5M HCl into cellulose fractions with decreasing molecular weight relative to acid treatment time. The cellulose fractions were dissolved at various concentrations in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) with co-solvent DMSO at ratio 1: 1 (w/w) and electrospun. Size exclusion chromatography was used to evaluate the molecular weight distributions and the rheological properties were characterized with a cone-and-plate rheometer. Scanning electron microscope was used to evaluate the fiber morphology, and thereby spinnability. Zero shear viscosity as a function of cellulose concentration show that all the solutions in this study are in the entangled semi-dilute regime; where the polymer concentration is large enough for significant overlap necessary for chain entanglement. However, within the intervals studied, neither cellulose concentration nor molecular weight seems to be decisive for if a solution can be electrospun into fibers or not. It is rather the viscosity of the solution that is decisive for electrospinnability, even though the solution is in the entangled semi-dilute regime. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 19.
    Härdelin, Linda
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Thunberg, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Perzon, Erik
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Westman, G.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Gatenholm, P.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Electrospinning of cellulose nanofibers from ionic liquids: The effect of different cosolvents2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 1901-1909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose was electrospun with various concentrations of ionic liquid and cosolvent. Three different cosolvents were used in this study; dimethylacetamide (DMAc), dimethyl formamide (DMF), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The cosolvents were added to modify the viscosity, electrical conductivity, and surface tension of the solutions. The solubility of cellulose in ionic liquids is highly affected by changes in solvent properties on the molecular level in the binary solvent systems. The difference in molecular structure of the cosolvents and the interactions between cosolvent and ionic liquid can explain the difference in dissolution power of the cosolvents. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to characterize electrospun cellulose fibers. For the systems tested the importance of having a rather high viscosity and high surface tension, and some degree of shear thinning to produce fibers is shown. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 20.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Idström, Alexander
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Alkhagen, Mårten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Cellulosic nonwovens produced via efficient solution blowing technique2019In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, article id 48339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for nonwoven materials has increased during the last few years and is expected to increase further due to its use in a broad range of new application areas. Today, the majority of nonwovens are from petroleum-based resources but there is a desideratum to develop sustainable and competitive materials from renewable feedstock. In this work, renewable nonwovens are produced by solution blowing of dissolved cellulose using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) as solvent. Properties of cellulose solutions and process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, air pressure, and distance to collector, are evaluated in respect to spinnability and material structural properties. Nonwovens with fiber diameters mainly in the micrometer range were successfully produced and it was shown that high temperature or low flow rate resulted in thinner fibers. The produced materials were stiffer (higher effective stress and lower strain) compared to commercial polypropylene nonwoven. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Applied Polymer Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 48339. © 2019 The Authors.

  • 21. Jönsson, S
    et al.
    Gölander, C-G
    Biverstedt, A
    Göthe, S
    Stenius, P
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Adhesion of photocurable acrylates to solid polymer substrates1989In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 38, p. 2037-2055Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Kihlman Öiseth, S
    et al.
    Krozer, A
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Lausmaa, J
    Kasemo, B
    UV-light Treatment of Thin High-density Polyethylene Films Monitored with Quartz Crystal Microbalance2004In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 92, p. 2833-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Kleinhans, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Development of lignin carbon fibers: Evaluation of the carbonization process2016In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 133, no 38, article id APP43965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of lignin as a renewable resource for the production of less-expensive carbon fibers has in recent years attracted great interest. In order to develop the strength properties, the stabilization and carbonization processes have to be optimized. For this reason, the process parameters during carbonization have here been studied on stabilized lignin fibers in the temperature interval from 300 to 1300 °C. The effects of temperature, heating rate, and straining of fibers during carbonization on the strength properties of carbon fibers were investigated. The heating rate, in the range from 1 to 40 °C/min, was shown to have no effect on the property development of the fibers. During carbonization with no load applied to the fibers, a shrinkage of 20% was noted. Counteracting the shrinkage by imposing a load on the fibers during the carbonization resulted in fibers with a greater stiffness. The tensile strength was not, however, affected by this loading.

  • 24. Lam, S
    et al.
    Hellgren, A-C
    Sjöberg, M
    Holmberg, K
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Schoonbrood, HAS
    Unzué, MJ
    Surfactants in heterophase polymerization: A study of film formation using atomic force microscopy1997In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 66, p. 187-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Film formation of three different latices was studied using atomic force microscopy. The latices were made from a mixture of butyl acrylate, styrene and acrylic acid using either a polymerizable or an unreactive aionic surfactant as emulsifier. Sodium 11-crotonoyloxyundecan- 1-ylsulfate and sodium-3-(sulfopropyl)tetradecylmaleate were used as reactive surfactant and the unreactive surfactant was sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). The conventional surfactant was found to migrate to the surface of the latex film to a much greater extent than the reactive surfactants; however, also the latter were incompletely anchored to the particle. The maleate surfactant was bound to a higher degree than the crotonate, a finding which is in line with the relative reactivities of the two surfactants.

  • 25.
    Larsson, K.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Berglund, L.A.
    Ankerfors, M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Polylactide latex/nanofibrillated cellulose bionanocomposites of high nanofibrillated cellulose content and nanopaper network structure prepared by a papermaking route2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, no 3, p. 2460-2466Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lindström, Tom
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Banke, K.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Larsson, Tomas
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Glad-Nordmark, Gunborg
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Boldizar, A.
    Nanoclay plating of cellulosic fiber surfaces2008In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 108, no 2, p. 887-891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A basic problem in making cellulose-reinforced composites is achieving a dispersion of cellulosic fibers in an often olephinic polymer matrix. Drying cellulosic fibers results in the formation of fiber flocs/nodules because of their strong interfiber bonding, and this makes the hydrophilic cellulosic fibers difficult to disperse in a hydrophobic matrix material. One common approach to alleviate floe formation is to adsorb cationic surfactant onto anionically charged cellulose, which reduces the interfiber bonding, decreases floe formation and gives better compatibility with the matrix. In this report, a different approach is taken, namely to adsorb nanoclays onto the cellulosic fibers, and thereby reduce the natural hydrogen-bonding affinity between fibers. In a second report, the same technology will be shown to be advantageous to decrease floe formation in oleophinic composites reinforced with cellulosic fibers. This article summarizes experiments aimed at optimizing the chemistry of deposition of montmorillonite clay onto fiber surfaces. The aim was to optimize the chemical conditions for the heterodeposition of the anionic clay onto cationically charged fluff pulp. The experiments were designed to provide a theoretical framework for the deposition of the nanoclay onto the pulp fibers. High Mw p-DADMAC and an exfoliated clay (achieved by passing the clay through a homogenizer) were used. As expected, a certain degree of charge overcompensation by adding an electrolyte was necessary to bring about deposition. The adsorbed amount of clay could be calculated from the charge balance between the overcompensated charge and the net clay charge, constituting the theoretical framework for nanoclay heterodeposition. As expected, montmorillonite clay greatly destroyed the joint strength between fibers (determined by evaluating the strength of paper made from treated fibers). The surface coverage (determined by ESCA) was shown to be a linear function of the attached amount of clay, and ∌3% clay was required to fully cover the fiber surfaces. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 27.
    Lund, A.
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Melt spinning of β-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) yarns with and without a conductive core2011In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 120, no 2, p. 1080-1089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is to be used as a piezoelectric material, the processing must include the formation of polar β-phase crystallites, as well as the application of electrically conducting charge collectors, that is, electrodes. In this article, results from the melt spinning of PVDF yarns and a novel bicomponent PVDF-yarn with a conductive carbon black/polypropylene (CB/PP) core are presented. Melt spinning has been done under conditions typical for industrial large-scale fiber production. The effects on the resulting crystalline structure of varying the spinning velocity, draw rate, and draw temperature are discussed. The results show that, for maximum α-to-β phase transformation, cold drawing should take place at a temperature between 70 and 90°C, and both the draw ratio and the draw rate should be as high as possible. It was observed that the cold drawing necessary to form β-phase crystallinity simultaneously leads to a decrease in the core conductivity of the bicomponent yarns. In this work, the melt spinning of bicomponent fibers with high-β-phase PVDF in the sheath and a CB/PP core was successfully accomplished. The core material remained electrically conductive, paving the way for the use of a CB-polymer compound as inner electrode in the melt spinning of piezoelectric bicomponent fibers. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 28.
    Lund, A.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Haagensen, D.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Piezoelectric polymeric bicomponent fibers produced by melt spinning2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 126, no 2, p. 490-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melt spinning of a novel piezoelectric bicomponent fiber, with poly(vinylidene fluoride) as the electroactive sheath component, has been demonstrated. An electrically conductive compound of carbon black (CB) and high density polyethylene was used as core material, working as an inner electrode. A force sensor consisting of a number of fibers embedded in a soft CB/polyolefin elastomer matrix was manufactured for characterization. The fibers showed a clear piezoelectric effect, with a voltage output (peak-to-peak) of up to 40 mV under lateral compression. This continuous all-polymer piezoelectric fiber introduces new possibilities toward minimal single fiber sensors as well as large area sensors produced in standard industrial weaving machines. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 29.
    Lund, Anja
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Jonasson, Christian
    Haagensen, Daniel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Piezoelectric polymeric bicomponent fibers produced by melt spinning2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 126, p. 490-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melt spinning of a novel piezoelectric bicomponent fiber, with poly(vinylidene fluoride) as the electroactive sheath component, has been demonstrated. An electrically conductive compound of carbon black (CB) and high density polyethylene was used as core material, working as an inner electrode. A force sensor consisting of a number of fibers embedded in a soft CB/polyolefin elastomer matrix was manufactured for characterization. The fibers showed a clear piezoelectric effect, with a voltage output (peak-to-peak) of up to 40 mV under lateral compression. This continuous all-polymer piezoelectric fiber introduces new possibilities toward minimal single fiber sensors as well as large area sensors produced in standard industrial weaving machines.

  • 30.
    Nilsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Oxfall, Henrik
    RISE, Swerea, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wandelt, Wojciech
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Rychwalski, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Melt spinning of conductive textile fibers with hybridized graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black filler2013In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 2579-2587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, two different carbon fillers: carbon black (CB) and graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) are studied as conductive fillers for the preparation of conductive polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites. In order to obtain a homogenous dispersion of GNP, GNP/PP composites were prepared by two different methods: solid state mixing (SSM) and traditional melt mixing (MM). The result shows that MM is more efficient in the dispersion of GNP particles compared to SSM method. PP nanocomposites containing only one conductive filler and two fillers were prepared at different filler concentrations. Based on the analysis of electrical and rheological properties of the prepared nanocomposites, it shows that a hybridized composite with equal amounts of GNP and CB has favorable processing properties. Conductive fibers with a core/sheath structure were produced on a bicomponent melt spinning line. The core materials of these fibers are the hybridized GNP/CB/PP nanocomposite and the sheath is pure polyamide. It was found that GNPs were separated during melt and cold drawing which results in the decrease of conductivity. However, the conductivity could partly be restored by the heat treatment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 31.
    Nilsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Electrically conductive polymeric bi-component fibers containing a high load of low-structured carbon black2015In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 132, no 29, article id 42255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melt spinning at semi-industrial conditions of carbon black (CB) containing textiles fibers with enhanced electrical conductivity suitable for heating applications is described. A conductive compound of CB and high density polyethylene (HDPE) was incorporated into the core of bi-component fibers which had a sheath of polyamide 6 (PA6). The rheological and fiber-forming properties of a low-structured and a high-structured CB/HDPE composite were compared in terms of their conductivity. The low-structured CB gave the best trade-off between processability and final conductivity. This was discussed in terms of the strength of the resulting percolated network of carbon particles and its effect on the spin line stability during melt spinning. The conductivity was found to be further enhanced with maintained mechanical properties by an in line thermal annealing of the fibers at temperatures in the vicinity of the melting point of HDPE. By an adequate choice of CB and annealing conditions a conductivity of 1.5 S/cm of the core material was obtained. The usefulness of the fibers for heating applications was demonstrated by means of a woven fabric containing the conductive fibers in the warp direction. By applying a voltage of 48 V the surface temperature of the fabric rose from 20 to 30°C.

  • 32.
    Norberg, Ida
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Nordström, Ylva
    RISE, Innventia.
    Drougge, Rikard
    RISE, Innventia.
    Gellerstedt, Göran
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    A new method for stabilizing softwood kraft lignin fibers for carbon fiber production2013In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, no 6, p. 3827-3830Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Nordström, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Joffe, R.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mechanical characterization and application of Weibull statistics to the strength of softwood lignin-based carbon fibers2013In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, no 5, p. 3689-3697Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Nordström, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Norberg, Ida
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    Drougge, Rikard
    RISE, Innventia.
    A new softening agent for melt spinning of softwood kraft lignin2013In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, no 3, p. 1274-1279Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Lindberg, H.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Influence of thermoplastic elastomers on adhesion in polyethylene-wood flour composites1998In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 68, no 11, p. 1845-1855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of recycled low-density polyethylene/wood flour (LDPE/WF) composites are improved when a maleated triblock copolymer styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS-MA) is added as a compatibilizer. The composites' tensile strength reached a maximum level with 4 wt % SEBS-MA content. The compatibilizer had a positive effect on the impact strength and elongation at break but decreased the composites' stiffness. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), a lap shear adhesion test, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to investigate the nature of the interfacial adhesion between the WF/SEBS and between the WF/ SEBS-MA. Tan δ peak temperatures for the various combinations showed interaction between the ethylene/butylene (EB) part of the copolymer and the wood flour in the maleated system. The shear lap test showed that adhesion between the wood and SEBS-MA is better than between the wood and SEBS. The electron microscopy study of the fracture surfaces confirmed good adhesion between the wood particles and the LDPE/SEBS-MA matrix. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  • 36.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Wallström, L.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Berglund, Lars
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Morphology and mechanical properties of unidirectional sisal-epoxy composites2002In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 84, no 13, p. 2358-2365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant fibers are of increasing interest for use in composite materials. They are renewable resources and waste management is easier than with glass fibers. In the present study, longitudinal stiffness and strength as well as morphology of unidirectional sisal-epoxy composites manufactured by resin transfer molding (RTM) were studied. Horseshoe-shaped sisal fiber bundles (technical fibers) were nonuniformly distributed in the matrix. In contrast to many wood composites, lumen was not filled by polymer matrix. Technical sisal fibers showed higher effective modulus when included in the composite material than in the technical fiber test (40 GPa as compared with 24 GPa). In contrast, the effective technical fiber strength in the composites was estimated to be around 400 MPa in comparison with a measured technical fiber tensile strength of 550 MPa. Reasons for these phenomena are discussed. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci.

  • 37.
    Petersen, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Enebro, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Development of nanocomposites based on organically modified montmorillonite and plasticized PVC with improved barrier properties2016In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 133, no 3, article id 42876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Montmorillonite (MMT) was organically modified with tributyl citrate (TBC). Organoclays (OMMTs) were processed with diisononyl phthalate (DINP)-plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to form polymer nanocomposites. The produced composite materials showed a contradictory change in properties to that expected of a layered silicate nanocomposite, with a decreased E-modulus and increased gas permeability compared with a material without OMMT. It was experimentally shown that the TBC modifier was extracted from the OMMT and was dispersed in the PVC/DINP matrix, whereupon the OMMT collapsed and formed micrometer-sized agglomerates. Further investigation revealed that TBC has a significant effect on the gas permeability and the E-modulus, even at low additions to a DINP-plasticized PVC. A PVC nanocomposite with the TBC acting as both the OM for MMT and as the primary plasticizer was produced. This material showed a significantly increased E-modulus as well as a decrease in gas permeability, confirming that it is possible to develop a nanocomposite based on plasticized PVC, if both the organo-modification of the MMT and the formulation of the matrix are carefully selected.

  • 38.
    Rasel, Hannah
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, Therese
    RISE, Innventia.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Newson, William
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Development of bioplastics based on agricultural side-stream products: Film extrusion of Crambe abyssinica/wheat gluten blends for packaging purposes2016In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 133, no 2, article id 42442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work was to add economic value to crambe meal, the protein-rich byproduct from the industrial extraction of Crambe abyssinica seed oil, by using it as a potential feedstock for oilseed meal-based plastics. The feasibility to produce continuous, flexible plastic films of glycerol-plasticized crambe meal blended with wheat gluten (WG) to improve extrudate properties and urea as a protein denaturant using extrusion was investigated. The effect of process parameters and blend composition were studied with regard to the extrusion performance and the film properties. Tensile properties and oxygen permeability were determined, and the film morphology was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. A die temperature between 125 and 130°C resulted in films with the most homogeneous surfaces and highest tensile strength and extensibility. The use of compression molding after extrusion improved the surface quality and film strength and lowered the oxygen permeability. A decrease in the plasticizer content (from 30 to 20 wt %) improved the extrudability and showed the highest tensile strength, whereas the extensibility was essentially unaffected. The importance of the presence of WG was shown by the fact that strength and extensibility decreased when the crambe content was increased from 60 to 80 wt %. It was shown that crambe-based biopolymer blends could be extruded as continuous flexible plastic films that exhibited promising mechanical and oxygen barrier properties. The operational window was, however, found to be narrow. The results provide a first basis to further develop the process and the blend toward industrial applications, for example, as packaging materials.

  • 39.
    Römhild, Stefanie
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Bergman, Gunnar
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Short-term and long-term performance of thermosets exposed to water at elevated temperatures2010In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 116, no 2, p. 1057-1067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water-transport, mechanical, and chemical- structure changes in various vinyl ester, novolac, and urethane-modified vinyl ester thermosets exposed to water at 50 to 95°C for times up to 1000 days have been studied within the framework of a larger study of osmotic blistering in fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) process components. The water sorption saturation concentration did not reach a steady-state value but gradually increased in many cases upon long-term exposure. The diffusion coefficient was not significantly affected. Infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry indicated that the net mass loss from the thermosets on immersion in water was due to the leaching of non-reacted styrene, monomer, and additives. It is suggested that this, together with polymer relaxation processes (as measured on specimens under tension in water at 80°C), is the primary reason for the time-dependent increase in the water saturation concentration. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that, even at the highest temperatures, hydrolysis of the polymer ester groups was small. Correlations were found between the styrene content in the uncured thermosets, the estimated solubility parameters, and the sorption and diffusion coefficients. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 40. Siro, I.
    et al.
    Plackett, D.
    Hedenqvist, M.
    Ankerfors, M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Highly transparent films from carboxymethylated microfibrillated cellulose: The effect of multiple homogenization steps on key properties2011In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, no 5, p. 2652-2660Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Niemelä, P.
    VTT Electronics.
    Koskinen, R.
    University of Oulu.
    Hormi, O.
    University of Oulu.
    Process cure monitoring of unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl ester resins, and gel coats by Raman spectroscopy2004In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 1285-1292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The curing process of unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl ester resins, and gel coats was studied by using a process Raman spectrometer, equipped with a remote fiber-optic probe. The resins were cured and Raman spectra were recorded during the curing reaction. The spectral changes were identified and, from the intensities, the cure process could be monitored. Gel times given by the resin suppliers correlated well with the Raman results. It could also be seen that the curing process continues for a long time, up to several weeks. Postcuring will finally complete the curing process, White and lightly colored gel coats could easily be monitored by Raman spectroscopy, but fluorescent problems were encountered with heavily colored pigments. The curing of laminates containing 50-70 wt % glass fiber mat could also be followed by Raman spectroscopy. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 42.
    Sterley, M.
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Trey, S.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Lundevall, Åsa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Olsson, S.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Influence of cure conditions on the properties of a one-component moisture-cured polyurethane adhesive in the context of green gluing of wood2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 126, no SUPPL. 1, p. E296-E303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commercial one-component moisture-cured polyurethane-urea wood adhesive was investigated under different curing environments to simulate parameters during green gluing, that is, gluing of freshly sawn and undried timber. This process is an eco-efficient and waste eliminating process in which only the finished wood product properties have been tested; however, not the adhesive itself. Therefore, the effect of moisture and postcuring heat treatment on the adhesive properties such as cure, chemical, and physical characteristics, and adhesion to wood were studied. It was determined by rheometry that the water content was proportional to the time to gel point, with moisture content of 2.6-5.6 wt % water, resulting in a higher initial storage modulus of the adhesive. Additionally, it was found that the strength of the wet glued bonds was significantly higher after the heat treatment, corresponding to the increase in ordered bidentate groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), higher storage modulus (rheometry), and higher T g (dynamic mechanical thermal analysis). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 43.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Trey, Stacy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Lundevall, Åsa
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Olsson, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Influence of cure conditions on the properties of a one-compenent moisture-cured polyurethane adhesive in the context of green gluing of wood2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 126, no S1, p. E297-E304Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Stevanic, J.S.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Joly, C.
    Mikkonen, K.S.
    Pirkkalainen, K.
    Serimaa, R.
    Remond, C.
    Toriz, G.
    Gatenholm, P.
    Tenkanen, M.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bacterial nanocellulose-reinforced arabinoxylan films2011In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, no 2, p. 1030-1039Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Strååt, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Rigdahl, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Conducting bicomponent fibers obtained by melt spinning of PA6 and polyolefins containing high amounts of carbonaceous fillers2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 936-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melt spinning of conductive polymer composites (CPCs) is coupled with some difficulties such as a decrease of conductivity upon drawing and a reduced spinnability with increasing filler concentration. Applying bicomponent technology may provide the possibility to produce fibers from CPCs with a high filler concentration. A pilot-scale bicomponent melt spinning set-up was used to produce core/sheath fibers with fiber titers between 13 and 47 dtex. The sheath material was polyamide 6 (PA6) or polypropylene (PP) and the core material was a CPC. Two CPCs were used, polypropylene (PP) with carbon black (CB), denoted by PP/CB, and polyethylene (PE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), denoted by PE/MWNT. The results showed that both materials could be used with a filler concentration of 10 wt % to obtain melt draw ratios up to 195. The volumetric fraction of core material in the bicomponent structure was 28%. A heat treatment of PP/CB fibers restored the conductivity to the level of the undrawn material, corresponding to an increase in conductivity by a factor 5. The same heat treatment had a positive effect on the conductivity of PE/MWNT fibers although the conductivity was not restored. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 46. Sundberg, DC
    et al.
    Casassa, AP
    Pantazopoulos, J
    Muscato, MR
    Kronberg, B
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Berg, J
    Morphology development of polymeric microparticles in aqueous dispersions. I. Thermodynamic considerations1990In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 41, p. 1425-1442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thermodynamic analysis of polymer particle morphology highlights the role of interfacial tensions in controlling particle structure. The influence of the surfactant and the nature of the incompatible polymers is seen through their individual and collective effects upon these interfacial tensions. It has been found that by simply changing the type of surfactant used in the emulsion the particle morphology can change from core-shell to hemispherical, in agreement with thermodynamic predictions. Several apparently different morphologies (hemispherical, sandwich, multiple lobes) have been found to coexist at the same time within a single emulsion, suggesting that they may be simply different states of phase separation and not thermodynamically stable, unique morphologies. The thermodynamic analyses are independent of particle size and method of emulsion processing. Experimental evidence shows that the morphology of particles formed via in situ polymerization ( as in a synthetic latex) is controlled by interfacial tensions in the same manner as those particles formed via solvent evaporation from a solution of an incompatible polymer pair ( as in an artificial latex or microencapsulation).

  • 47.
    Syrový, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Pardubice, Czech Republic.
    Maronová, Stanislava
    University of Pardubice, Czech Republic.
    Kuberský, Petr
    University of West Bohemia, Czech Republic.
    Ehman, Nanci
    Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Vallejos, Maria
    Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Pretl, Silvan
    University of West Bohemia, Czech Republic.
    Felissia, Fernando
    Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Area, Maria
    Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Wide range humidity sensors printed on biocomposite films of cellulose nanofibril and poly(ethylene glycol)2019In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, article id 47920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibril (CNF) films were prepared from side streams generated by the sugarcane industry, that is, bagasse. Two fractionation processes were utilized for comparison purposes: (1) soda and (2) hot water and soda pretreatments. 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl-mediated oxidation was applied to facilitate the nanofibrillation of the bagasse fibers. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was chosen as plasticizer to improve the ductility of CNF films. The neat CNF and biocomposite films (CNF and 40% PEG) were used for fabrication of self-standing humidity sensors. CNF-based humidity sensors exhibited high change of impedance, within four orders of magnitude, in response to relative humidity (RH) from 20 to 90%. The use of plasticizer had an impact on sensor kinetics. While the biocomposite film sensors showed slightly longer response time, the recovery time of these plasticized sensors was two times shorter in comparison to sensors without PEG. This study demonstrated that agroindustrial side streams can form the basis for high-end applications such as humidity sensors, with potential for, for example, packaging and wound dressing applications. 

  • 48.
    Thorvaldsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Engström, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Gatenholm, P.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Walkenstöm, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Controlling the architecture of nanofiber-coated microfibers using electrospinning2010In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 511-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows that electrospinning nanofibers onto single microfibers allows for careful tailoring of material properties that may suit a wide variety of applications. The nanofiber-coated microfibers are created by electrospinning nanofibers alongside a microfiber toward a collector that rotates around the microfiber. This force the nanofibers to be collected around the microfiber, creating a hierarchical structure that can be modified at nano scale. In this study, control of nanofiber diameters, nanofiber alignment, and nanofiber loading was evaluated. It was seen that varying polymer concentration affected the nanofiber diameters, collecting the nanofiber-coated microfibers at different speeds changed the degree of alignment of the nanofibers and that changing the polymer feeding rate affected the loading density of the nanofibers collected. The carefully designed nanofiber-coated microfibers have great potential in creation of highly porous materials with tailored properties down to nano scale. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 49.
    Thorvaldsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Silva-Correia, J.
    University of Minho.
    Oliveira, J.M.
    University of Minho.
    Reis, R.L.
    University of Minho.
    Gatenholm, P.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Development of nanofiber-reinforced hydrogel scaffolds for nucleus pulposus regeneration by a combination of electrospinning and spraying technique2013In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 128, no 2, p. 1158-1163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work a new method is presented to efficiently produce hydrogel scaffolds reinforced with nanofibers to show enhanced mechanical properties and improved structural integrity. The method is based on a combination of air brush spraying of a hydrogel and electrospinning of nanofibers. With air brush spraying the controllability is enhanced and the potential for scale-up increased. The developed method was used to successfully reinforce gellan gum hydrogels with electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers. Optical and rheological evaluations were performed and showed that parameters such as the amount of incorporated nanofibers, gellan gum concentration and calcium chloride (crosslinker) concentrations could be used to modulate material properties. Incorporation of a small amount of nanofibers had a reinforcing effect and resulted in a hydrogel with rheological properties similar to the human nucleus pulposus (NP). The method is flexible and carries potential for designing scaffolds for e.g. NP tissue regeneration. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 50. Thunwall, M.
    et al.
    Boldizar, A.
    Rigdahl, M.
    Banke, Karl
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Tufvesson, H.
    Högman, S.
    Processing and properties of mineral-interfaced cellulose fibre composites2008In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 918-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polypropylene (PP) or, in some cases, poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were compounded with cellulosic fibres. The amount of fibres used was in the range 10-30 vol % and, in case of PP, a series of compounds was prepared with a minor amount of maleated PP as a compatibiliser. This matrix was denoted MAPP. Before compounding the polymers and the fibres, undelaminated bentonite (industrial scale) or delaminated clay (nanoclay) was deposited on the fibres in different amounts to improve the dispersion of the fibres in the polymer matrix, i. e., to avoid detrimental fibre bundles. The PP-based compounds were either extruded or injection moulded, whereas the PLA-compounds were only injection moulded. The mechanical properties were primarily evaluated for the injection moulded specimens. In general, the fibres had a strong effect on the mechanical behaviour of the materials, especially in the case of PLA and MAPP. Treating the fibres with undelaminated clay or nanoclay improved to some extent the dispersion of the fibres and the mechanical performance of the composites, but further optimization of the function of the mineral in this respect is probably required. The combination of the mineral treatment with a debonding agent appeared to be an interesting route here. With such a combination, a visually very good dispersion of the fibres in the PP-based matrix could be obtained, partly at the expense of the mechanical performance. The compounding of the cellulosic fibres with PP led in this case to a marked decrease in the fibre length. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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