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  • 1.
    Bacquart, Thomas
    et al.
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Rojo, Andres
    CEM Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Auprêtre, Fabien
    AREVA H2Gen, France.
    Gozlan, Bruno
    Paris-Saclay Research Center, France.
    Moore, Niamh
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Morris, Abigail
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Murugan, Arul
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Bartlett, Sam
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Doucet, Guillaume
    AREVA H2Gen, France.
    Laridant, Francoise
    AREVA H2Gen, France.
    Gernot, Eric
    AREVA H2Gen, France.
    Fernández, Teresa
    CEM Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Gómez, Concepcion
    CEM Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Carré, Martine
    Paris-Saclay Research Center, France.
    De Reals, Guy
    Paris-Saclay Research Center, France.
    Haloua, Frederique
    Laboratoire National de métrologie et d’Essais, France.
    Hydrogen fuel quality from two main production processes: Steam methane reforming and proton exchange membrane water electrolysis2019In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 444, article id 227170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The absence of contaminants in the hydrogen delivered at the hydrogen refuelling station is critical to ensure the length life of FCEV. Hydrogen quality has to be ensured according to the two international standards ISO 14687–2:2012 and ISO/DIS 19880-8. Amount fraction of contaminants from the two hydrogen production processes steam methane reforming and PEM water electrolyser is not clearly documented. Twenty five different hydrogen samples were taken and analysed for all contaminants listed in ISO 14687-2. The first results of hydrogen quality from production processes: PEM water electrolysis with TSA and SMR with PSA are presented. The results on more than 16 different plants or occasions demonstrated that in all cases the 13 compounds listed in ISO 14687 were below the threshold of the international standards. Several contaminated hydrogen samples demonstrated the needs for validated and standardised sampling system and procedure. The results validated the probability of contaminants presence proposed in ISO/DIS 19880-8. It will support the implementation of ISO/DIS 19880-8 and the development of hydrogen quality control monitoring plan. It is recommended to extend the study to other production method (i.e. alkaline electrolysis), the HRS supply chain (i.e. compressor) to support the technology growth.

  • 2.
    Berg, Helena
    et al.
    AB Libergreen, Sweden.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Perspectives on environmental and cost assessment of lithium metal negative electrodes in electric vehicle traction batteries2019In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 415, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a lithium metal negative electrode may give lithium metal batteries (LMBs), higher specific energy density and an environmentally more benign chemistry than Li-ion batteries (LIBs). This study asses the environmental and cost impacts of in silico designed LMBs compared to existing LIB designs in a vehicle perspective. The life cycle climate and cost impacts of LMBs show a similar pattern: the use phase has more climate and cost impacts than the production phase. As compared to LIBs and with respect to the positive electrode, Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) is preferable to Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP). The cell cost is highly dependent on the cost of lithium metal; a cost reduction of 50% causes a cell cost reduction of 8–22% depending on the choice of positive electrode material and if the cell is optimised for power or energy. For electric vehicle usage, the total cost per km is mainly dependent on the energy consumption per km and the capacity of the positive electrode, representing cost saving potentials of about 10%. These generic results can be used as a base for investigations of other battery technology using lithium metal electrodes.

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  • 3.
    Bertilsson, Simon
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furlani, Maurizio
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Albinsson, Ingvar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mellander, Bengt Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lithium-ion battery electrolyte emissions analyzed by coupled thermogravimetric/Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy2017In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 365, p. 446-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years the use of Li-ion batteries has increased rapidly, powering small as well as large applications, from electronic devices to power storage facilities. The Li-ion battery has, however, several safety issues regarding occasional overheating and subsequent thermal runaway. During such episodes, gas emissions from the electrolyte are of special concern because of their toxicity, flammability and the risk for gas explosion. In this work, the emissions from heated typical electrolyte components as well as from commonly used electrolytes are characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy and FT-IR coupled with thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, when heating up to 650 °C. The study includes the solvents EC, PC, DEC, DMC and EA in various single, binary and ternary mixtures with and without the LiPF6 salt, a commercially available electrolyte, (LP71), containing EC, DEC, DMC and LiPF6 as well as extracted electrolyte from a commercial 6.8 Ah Li-ion cell. Upon thermal heating, emissions of organic compounds and of the toxic decomposition products hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphoryl fluoride (POF3) were detected. The electrolyte and its components have also been extensively analyzed by means of infrared spectroscopy for identification purposes.

  • 4.
    Fridholm, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Wik, Torsten
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Robust recursive impedance estimation for automotive lithium-ion batteries2016In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 304, p. 33-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recursive algorithms, such as recursive least squares (RLS) or Kalman filters, are commonly used in battery management systems to estimate the electrical impedance of the battery cell. However, these algorithms can in some cases run into problems with bias and even divergence of the estimates. This article illuminates problems that can arise in the online estimation using recursive methods, and lists modifications to handle these issues. An algorithm is also proposed that estimates the impedance by separating the problem in two parts; one estimating the ohmic resistance with an RLS approach, and another one where the dynamic effects are estimated using an adaptive Kalman filter (AKF) that is novel in the battery field. The algorithm produces robust estimates of ohmic resistance and time constant of the battery cell in closed loop with SoC estimation, as demonstrated by both in simulations and with experimental data from a lithium-ion battery cell.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Loren, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Mellander, Bengt Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests2014In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 271, no Dec, p. 414-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial lithium-ion battery cells are exposed to a controlled propane fire in order to evaluate heat release rate (HRR), emission of toxic gases as well as cell temperature and voltage under this type of abuse. The study includes six abuse tests on cells having lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes and, as a comparison, one test on conventional laptop battery packs with cobalt based cathode. The influence of different state of charge (SOC) is investigated and a limited study of the effect of water mist application is also performed. The total heat release (THR) per battery energy capacity are determined to be 28-75 kJ Wh-1 and the maximum HRR values to 110-490 W Wh -1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is found in the released gases for all tests but no traceable amounts of phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) or phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5) are detected. An extrapolation of expected HF emissions for a typical automotive 10 kWh battery pack exposed to fire gives a release of 400-1200 g HF. If released in a confined environment such emissions of HF may results in unacceptable exposure levels.

  • 6.
    Lund, Anja
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tian, Yuan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Darabi, Sozan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Müller, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A polymer-based textile thermoelectric generator for wearable energy harvesting2020In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 480, p. 228836-228836, article id 228836Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Mölmen, Live
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fast, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Eriksson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Contact resistance measurement methods for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates and power terminals2023In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 555, article id 232341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrical contact resistance is a key parameter for optimising both the bipolar plate of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the electrical contact of the power terminal of the stack. The contact resistance is affected by the conductivity, roughness, and hardness of the two contacting surfaces. Here, new, application-specific contact resistance measurement methods are proposed for both the stack power terminal, and the bipolar plate. The proposed methods are compared to methods from references as well as standards, and it is concluded that the uncertainty of the measurements can be reduced by changing the measurement setup, and that the influence of probe resistance on measurement results can be eliminated. Furthermore, the effect of different accelerated durability tests on the contact resistance of the power terminal is examined both on test coupons and on a prototype screw connection with an electroless NiP and an electroplated NiSn coatings. As expected, the NiSn coupons gives lower contact resistance after ageing as compared to the NiP. However, the increase in contact resistance seen on coupons after ageing is not observed on the prototype screw connection. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 8.
    Orlenius, Jessica
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lyckfeldt, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kasvayee, Keivan Amiri
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Water based processing of LiFePO 4/C cathode material for Li-ion batteries utilizing freeze granulation2012In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 213, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A water based solid state synthesis of LiFePO 4 has been conducted by utilizing freeze granulation. Various processing conditions were tested and achieved powder properties were characterized by density, XRD, specific surface area, carbon content, conductivity and SEM. Freeze granulation, a novel method for precursor preparation was shown to be an effective method to provide high degree of homogeneity prior to calcination and high ultimate yield of pure LiFePO 4. Cathodes were manufactured by water based as well as NMP system based tape casting. A commercial LiFePO 4/C powder was also characterized and used to manufacture cathodes as comparison in this study. Charge cycling tests showed promising results with high capacity and long term stability, well in the range of what the commercial powder provided. Post-milling of calcined powder prior to paste preparation for tape casting tended, however, to retard the capacity owing to disturbed carbon distribution and loss of conductivity of the LiFePO 4/C. In comparison with the solvent system for cathode manufacturing, the water based system gave similar cell performance, illustrating the possibility to apply a more environmentally sustainable processing of Li-battery cells.

  • 9.
    Prestat, Michel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Corrosion of structural components of proton exchange membrane water electrolyzer anodes: A review2023In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 556, article id 232469Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis is one of the low temperature processes for producing green hydrogen when coupled with renewable energy sources. Although this technology has already reached a certain level of maturity and is being implemented at industrial scale, its high capital expenditures deriving from the utilization of expensive corrosion-resistant materials limit its economic competitiveness compared to the widespread fossil fuel-based hydrogen production, such as steam reforming. In particular, the structural elements, like bipolar plates (BPP) and porous transports layers (PTL), are essentially made of titanium protected by precious metal layers in order to withstand the harsh oxidizing conditions in the anode compartment. This review provides an analysis of literature on structural element degradation on the oxygen side of PEM water electrolyzers, from the early investigations to the recent developments involving novel anti-corrosion coatings that protect more cost-effective BPP and PTL materials like stainless steels. © 2022 The Author

  • 10.
    Wik, Torsten
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fridholm, Björn
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Kuusisto, Hannes
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Implementation robustness of an analytically based battery state of power2015In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 287, p. 448-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today it is common practice to use simplified equivalent circuit models for predicting the short term behaviour of the voltage and current during charging and discharging battery cells. If the circuit parameters are assumed to be unchanged the response for a given open circuit voltage (OCV) will be the solution to a linear ordinary differential equation. This means that for given voltage limits the maximum charge and discharge powers can be analytically derived. In advanced battery management units, such as those used for hybrid electric vehicles, it is central to know how much that can be charged or discharged within a certain range of time, which is one definition of state of power (SoP). Using the linearizing assumption we derive a method for an adaptive estimation of the state of power based on incremental analysis. The method is easy to implement and have two tuning parameters that are straightforward to relate to. Using frequency analysis the method is analytically proven to have very strong robustness properties. The risk of exceeding voltage limits by effectively applying the maximum charge or discharge currents is marginal in spite of large circuit parameter errors, unmodelled hysteresis, unknown OCV and static nonlinearities.

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