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  • 1.
    Heinonen, M.
    et al.
    MIKES, Finland.
    Anagnostou, Miltiadis
    Hellenic Institute of Metrology, Greece.
    Bell, Stephanie A.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Stevens, Mark
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Benyon, Robert
    Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Spain.
    Bergerud, Reidun Anita
    Norwegian Metrology Service, Norway.
    Bojkovski, Jovan
    MIRS/UL/FE-LMK, Slovenia.
    Bosma, Rien
    VSL, The Netherlands.
    Nielsen, Jan
    VSL, The Netherlands.
    Böse, Norbert
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Cromwell, Plunkett
    National Metrology Laboratory, Ireland.
    Dogan, Aliye Kartal
    Ulusal Metroloji Enstitüsü, Turkey.
    Aytekin, Seda Oguz
    Ulusal Metroloji Enstitüsü, Turkey.
    Uytun, Ali
    Ulusal Metroloji Enstitüsü, Turkey.
    Fernicola, V.
    INRiM, Italy.
    Flakiewicz, Krzysztof
    Central Office of Measures, Poland.
    Blanquart, Bertrand
    Centre Technique des Industries Aérauliques et Thermiques, France.
    Hudoklin, Domen
    Norwegian Metrology Service, Norway.
    Jacobsson, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Klimatsimulering (ETks ).
    Kentved, Anders Bonde
    Danish Electronics Light and Acoustics, Denmark.
    Lóio, Isabel
    Instituto Português da Qualidade, Portugal.
    Mamontov, George
    D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, Russia.
    Masarykova, Alexandra
    Slovak Institute of Metrology, Slovakia.
    Mitter, Helmut
    BEV/E+E Elektronik, Austria.
    Mnguni, Regina
    National Metrology Institute of South Africa, South Africa.
    Otych, Jan
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Steiner, Anton
    Swiss Federal Office of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Szilágyi Zsófia, Nagyné
    Hungarian Trade Licensing Office, Hungary.
    Zvizdić, Davor
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Investigation of the Equivalence of National Dew-Point Temperature Realizations in the -50 C to + 20 C Range2012Inngår i: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 33, nr 8-9, s. 1422-1437Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of humidity quantities, the first CIPM key comparison, CCT-K6 is at its end. The corresponding European regional key comparison, EUROMET.T-K6, was completed in early 2008, about 4 years after the starting initial measurements in the project. In total, 24 NMIs from different countries took part in the comparison. This number includes 22 EURAMET countries, and Russia and South Africa. The comparison covered the dew-point temperature range from -50 C to +20 C. It was carried out in three parallel loops, each with two chilled mirror hygrometers as transfer standards in each loop. The comparison scheme was designed to ensure high quality results with evenly spread workload for the participants. It is shown that the standard uncertainty due to the long-term instability was smaller than 0.008 C in all loops. The standard uncertainties due to links between the loops were found to be smaller than 0.025 C at -50 C and 0.010 C elsewhere. Conclusions on the equivalence of the dew-point temperature standards are drawn on the basis of calculated bilateral degrees of equivalence and deviations from the EURAMET comparison reference values (ERV). Taking into account 16 different primary dew-point realizations and 8 secondary realizations, the results demonstrate the equivalence of a large number of laboratories at an uncertainty level that is better than achieved in other multilateral comparisons so far in the humidity field.

  • 2.
    Holmsten, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Ivarsson, Jan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Falk, Roland
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Lidbeck, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Josefson, Lars-Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Inhomogeneity Measurements of Long Thermocouples using a Short Movable Heating Zone2008Inngår i: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 915-925Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Holmsten, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Ogura, Hideki
    National Metrology Institute of Japan, Japan.
    Klason, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Ljungblad, Sara
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Development and Evaluation of a Co–C Eutectic-Point Cell for Thermocouple Calibration2015Inngår i: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 36, nr 8, s. 1888-1894Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The cobalt–carbon (Co–C) eutectic point at 1324∘C has in previous studies proved to be suitable as a reference for thermocouple calibration above 1100∘C. For types S, R, and B, it fills the gap between the copper point and the palladium point, and for Pt/Pd thermocouples, it extends the range from the copper point. This work describes the implementation of the Co–C reference point at the Technical Institute of Sweden (SP). A Co–C cell was developed and manufactured at SP in a collaboration project with the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The principle of the cell is a hybrid design with double walls, both for the outer crucible and the inner thermometer well, with graphite foil between the walls. To evaluate the performance of the developed cell (SP cell), a comparison between the SP cell and another cell, manufactured and provided from the National Physics Laboratory (NPL) in England, is performed using Pt/Pd thermocouples as transfer standards. The comparison showed very good agreement, with differences below 40 mK, using the same furnace and two different thermocouples. The expanded uncertainty (k=2) for the comparison was estimated to be 70 mK.

  • 4.
    Klason, Peter
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Kok, Gertjan J.P.
    VSL, The Netherlands.
    Pelevic, Nikola R.
    Holmsten, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Lau, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Ljungblad, Sara
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Measuring Temperature in Pipe Flow with Non-Homogeneous Temperature Distribution2014Inngår i: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 35, nr 3-4, s. 712-724Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate temperature measurements in flow lines are critical for many industrial processes. It is normally more a rule than an exception in such applications to obtain water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. In this paper, a number of comparisons were performed between different 100 ohm platinum resistance thermometer (Pt-100) configurations and a new speed-of-sound-based temperature sensor used to measure the average temperature of water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. The aim was to achieve measurement deviations lower than 1 K for the temperature measurement of water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. By using a custom-built flow injector, a water flow with a hot-water layer on top of a cold-water layer was created. The temperature difference between the two layers was up to 32 K. This study shows that the deviations to the temperature reference for the average temperature of four Pt-100s, the multisensor consisting of nine Pt-100s, and the new speed-of-sound sensors are remarkably lower than the deviation for a single Pt-100 under the same conditions. The aim of reaching a deviation lower than 1 K was achieved with the speed-of-sound sensors, the configuration with four Pt-100s, and the multisensor. The promising results from the speed-of sound temperature sensors open the possibility for an integrated flow and temperature sensor. In addition, the immersion depth of a single Pt-100 was also investigated at three different water temperatures.

  • 5.
    Lidbeck, Mats
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Ivarsson, Jan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Interlaboratory Comparison of Reference Surface Temperature Apparatus at NMIs2008Inngår i: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 29, nr 29, s. 414-422Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Ljungblad, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Josefson, Lars-Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Holmsten, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Method for effective calibration of temperature loggers with automated data sampling and evaluation2011Inngår i: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 32, nr 11-12, s. 2495-2503Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Odille, Fabrice
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Process Development, Processutveckling och kristallisation. AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Stenemyr, Anna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Process Development, Processutveckling och kristallisation. AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Ponten, Fritiof
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Development of a grignard-type reaction for manufacturing in a continuous-flow reactor2014Inngår i: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 18, nr 11, s. 1545-1549Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the scale-up of a highly exothermic and fast reaction from a microreactor with an internal volume of less than 1 mL to a mesoreactor with an internal volume of 13.5 mL. The development of a continuous process for manufacturing a ketone from an ester using a Grignard reagent is described. The different steps undertaken and the considerations made to be able to operate in continuous mode and achieve a product output of ca. 0.5 kg are presented.

  • 8.
    Ogura, Kiteki
    et al.
    National Metrology Institute of Japan, Japan.
    Holmsten, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Klason, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Comparison of Co–C Eutectic-Point Cells for Thermocouple Calibration Between SP and NMIJ2014Inngår i: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 36, nr 2-3, s. 399-412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As recently reported, the metal–carbon eutectic points seem to be useful as practical reference points for calibrating thermocouples. The melting temperature of the cobalt–carbon eutectic point (Co–C, 1324◦C) is an ideal solution for a reference point being at approximately the middle between the freezing point of copper (1084.62◦C) and the melting point of palladium (1554.8◦C). In this study, a comparison of reference Co–C cells used for thermocouple calibration service was performed between the Technical Institute of Sweden (SP) and the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) by means of two circulating Pt/Pd thermocouples and one circulating Co–C cell in order to investigate the reliability of thermocouple calibration at the Co–C eutectic point. The reference Co–C cell at SP was designed and constructed in the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), and provided to SP, while the reference Co–C cell at NMIJ as well as the circulating cell was designed and constructed at NMIJ. The melting temperature of the reference Co–C cells at SP and NMIJ were evaluated by using the calibrated radiation thermometers at NPL and NMIJ, respectively, prior to the circulation of the thermocouples and the cell between SP and NMIJ. The temperature difference between the reference cells of SP and NMIJ, as measured by means of the circulating thermocouples, was found to be within 0.33◦C, while that measured by means of the circulating cell was found to be within 0.22◦C. The temperature of reference cells at SP and NMIJ was found to agree within an expanded uncertainty (k=2) in spite of different temperature traceability chains. This means that the calibration of thermocouples at the Co–C eutectic point was sufficiently reliable.

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