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  • 1.
    Chen, Genqiang
    et al.
    Shanghai University, China; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Wu, Guochao
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Chen, Lin
    Donghua University, China.
    Wang, Wei
    Donghua University, China.
    Jönsson, Leif
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hong, Feng
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Scale-up of production of bacterial nanocellulose using submerged cultivation2018In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 93, no 12, p. 3418-3427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: More extensive utilization of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is severely restricted by the low efficiency and small scale of the traditional static cultivation. Submerged fermentation in stirred-tank reactors (STRs) is potentially favourable for large-scale production of BNC, but scale-up of cultivation remains challenging. Even though the STR is most commonly used for submerged cultivation in the fermentation industry, there are few previous attempts to scale-up production of BNC to pilot scale using an STR. Furthermore, the question of how scale-up of submerged cultivation affects the properties of the BNC has received very little attention. RESULTS: Four strains were compared in 250-mL shake flasks. Strain DHU-ATCC-1 displayed the highest volumetric productivity, 0.56 g L−1 d−1, and was then cultivated in a 400-mL STR, showing a similar productivity of 0.55 g L−1 d−1. Scale-up using a 75-L STR pilot bioreactor resulted in enhancement of the BNC production rate from 0.056 g d−1 in the shake flasks to 17.3 g d−1 in the 75-L STR, although the productivity decreased to 0.43 g L−1 d−1. During scale-up from shake flasks to 400-mL STR and further on to 75-L STR, the BNC fibers formed more bundles, whereas the fiber diameter decreased from 25.6 to 21.7 nm. The BNC from the 75-L STR exhibited a higher degree of polymerization, specifically 3230, higher degree of crystallinity, specifically 83%, larger crystallites, and improved strength including higher tensile energy absorption index and superior stretch at break. CONCLUSION: It is possible to enhance BNC production, and maintain or improve its properties when scaling up submerged cultivation in STRs. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  • 2. Soudham, Venkata Prabhakar
    et al.
    Gräsvik, John
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Enzymatic hydrolysis of Norway spruce and sugarcane bagasse after treatment with 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium formate2013In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 88, no 12, p. 2209-2215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in lignocellulosic materials suffers from slow reaction rates due to limited access to enzyme adsorption sites and to the high crystallinity of the cellulose. In this study, an attempt was made to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis by pretreatment of cellulosic materials using the ionic liquid (IL) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium formate ([Amim][HCO2]) under mild reaction conditions. The effect of the IL was compared with that of thermochemical pretreatment under acidic conditions. RESULTS: The lignocellulosic substrates investigated were native and thermochemically pretreated Norway spruce and sugarcane bagasse. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) was included for comparison. The IL treatments were performed in the temperature range 45-120°C and, after regeneration and washing of the cellulosic substrates, enzymatic saccharification was carried out at 45°C for 72h. After 12h of hydrolysis, the glucose yields from regenerated native spruce and sugarcane bagasse were up to nine times higher than for the corresponding untreated substrates. The results also show positive effects of pretreatment using [Amim][HCO2] on the hydrolysis of xylan and mannan. Conclusion: The present work demonstrates that both native wood and agricultural residues are readily soluble in [Amim][HCO2] under gentle conditions, and that pretreatment with ionic liquids such as [Amim][HCO2] warrants further attention as a potential alternative to conventional pretreatment techniques. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

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