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  • 1. Carlsson, CMG
    et al.
    Johansson, KS
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Surface modification of plastics by plasma treatment and plasma polymerization and its effect on adhesion1993In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 20, p. 441-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adhesion between plasma-modified polyethylene (PE) and different polar polymers, as well as aluminium and steel, has been studied. The PE was modified by either oxygen plasma treatment or plasma polymerization of acrylic acid. The results show the importance of introducing polar groups on the surface of the non-polar PE in order to improve the adhesion to polar polymers as well as metals. Laminates made of plasma-modified PE and polyamide 6 (PA-6) or poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) (EVAL-G) showed failure in PA-6 or EVAL-G when delaminated. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), which is not as polar as PA-6 or EVAL-G, showed an adhesive failure when the PE was treated with either of the plasma methods. However, when both the PET and the PE were modified, the failure occurred in the PET upon delamination. Oxygen plasma treatment of PE resulted in an increased adhesion when laminated with cellophane, with no observed material failure. The laminates composed of plasma-modified PE and aluminium or steel showed cohesive failure in the PE.

  • 2. Carlsson, CMG
    et al.
    Ström, G
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Adhesion between plasma-treated cellulosic materials and polyethylene1991In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 17, p. 511-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filter paper and greaseproof paper have been exposed to hydrogen or oxygen plasma. The paper surface composition was determined by ESCA measurements. The unmodified and modified papers then were laminated with polyethylene and the adhesive strength was measured. The hydrogen plasma treatment reduces the cellulose surface and forms low molecular weight degradation products. It is shown that the reduction of the cellulose surface has no influence on the adhesion, but the degradation products strongly decrease the adhesion. Oxygen plasma treatment increases adhesion, probably by removing low-molecular-weight wood resin from the surface and by forming covalent bonds across the interface.

  • 3. Ernstsson, M
    et al.
    Claesson, PM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Shao, SY
    Characterization of adsorption sites on a quartz powder from ESCA analysis of an adsorbed fatty diamine1999In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 27, p. 915-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we describe a method to estimate the amount of adsorption sites on mineral surfaces by means of ESCA analysis. This is obtained from quantification of the adsorbed amount of a test molecule on a mineral surface. The approach is based on chemical derivatization of mineral powders followed by extraction in solvents of different polarities. This procedure also provides information on whether the adsorption sites on the mineral surfaces are of different or similar nature. The system studied was a fatty diamine adsorbed on quartz powder from a nonpolar medium, n-octane, with the subsequent desorption by extraction in pure n-octane and in ethanol. This model system has application in asphalt systems where fatty amines often are added to strengthen adhesion between bitumen and stone aggregates. Desorption was followed by surface analysis (ESCA) of the quartz powder to detect the fatty diamine remaining on the surface. Further analysis, using equations based on a substrate / overlayer model for flat and spherical particles, provided information on the adsorbed layer thickness and the adsorbed amount. After extraction with n-octane, a monolayer of the fatty diamine remains on the quartz surface. More fatty diamine can be removed by changing the extraction medium to a more polar solvent, such as ethanol. This result demonstrates that this particular quartz powder has adsorption sites of differing nature on the surface.

  • 4.
    Hryha, E.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Rutqvist, E.
    LKAB.
    Björkvall, Johan
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Nyborg, L.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Development of methodology for surface characterization of vanadium containing slag2014In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 46, p. 984-988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish steel producers are particularly interested in the recovery of vanadium oxide from the steelmaking slag because of its high content in the LD-converter slag. Hence, optimization of the vanadium recovery has strong economic and environmental impact. Solving the problem with vanadium recovery from the slag requires development of reliable technique for assessing the oxidation state of vanadium. This paper summarizes methodology for the robust analysis of the Ca-Si-based slag materials containing vanadium oxide in different oxidation states utilizing XPS. The measurements show that because of high oxygen affinity of vanadium oxides and number of oxidation states, only fracturing of machined specimens in an ultra-high vacuum chamber, connected to XPS, allows accurate evaluation of oxidation state of vanadium in slag. Proper charge compensation, required due to non-conductive nature of the slag specimens, is considered to be the main problem faced during analysis. As neither carbon nor oxygen signals were proven to be appropriate reference point for charge referencing in this material, the calcium 2p peak position at 347.0 eV, characteristic for CaSiO3, shown to be the most stable and reliable binding energy calibration reference and was used during the charge compensation. Results indicated that in the case of the studied slags, vanadium oxides present are formed preferably by mixture of V2O3 and VO2, depending on the reducing potential of the controlled atmosphere applied during the slag synthesis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 5. Manev, ED
    et al.
    Pugh, RJ
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Effect of short-chain xanthate on electrostatic interactions and equilibrium thickness of foam films from aqueous solutions of non-ionic frother1991In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 17, p. 681-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equilibrium thickness of free thin films produced from aqueous solutions of C12(EO)5 surfactant (a model frother) with potassium ethylxanthate-KEX (a model collector) were studied in a wide range of concentrations (from 10-7 M to 2x10-2 M C12(EO)5; up to 10-2 M xanthate). The xanthate was found to behave similar to com_x001F__x001F_mon electrolytes and upon its addition the equilibrium film thickness was reduced, apparently due to the suppression of the electrostatic repulsion. However, at higher C12(EO)5 concentrations (>10-5 M ) the equilibrium thickness of the film increased relative to the thickness established with simple inorganic electrolytes at the same ionic strength. This was explained by the nega_x001F__x001F_tively charged xanthate interacting with the non-ionic frother at the interface and causing a build-up of charge. Higher frother concentrations were necessary to produce non-rupturing films upon increasing KEX content. This "antifoaming" effect of the xanthate compliments its influence on the electrostatic interactions in the film.

  • 6.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Volovitch, Polina
    Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, France.
    Ogle, Kevin
    Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, France.
    An SKP and EIS investigation of amine adsorption on zinc oxide surfaces2011In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1286-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A metal/oxide/polymer 'interphase' with mixed organic-inorganic nature insures the high stability and the strength of the adhesive joints in a variety of corrosive environments. To model the interaction of epoxy resin with a metal surface, the interaction of amines of different structure with oxidized zinc surfaces was studied by Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP), FTIR microscopy in atmospheric conditions, and a.c. and d.c. electrochemical techniques in the aqueous electrolyte. It was shown that bidentate ligand-ethylendiamine, forming stable chelate complexes reacts with zinc oxide with redeposition of the interphase. In air and water electrolyte, this ligand shifts the potential of Zn/ZnO electrode to the level of the oxide-free zinc. The amines with low chelating property show low effect on the potential of Zn/ZnO. The SKP was used to measure the potential drop at epoxy resin/zinc interface. On this basis, SKP is proposed as a sensitive nondestructive technique to characterize in situ the interaction of the resin with the metal and the subsequent formation of the interphase in the metal-polymer joints.

  • 7.
    Phan, N. T. N.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; National Center Imaging Mass Spectrometry, Sweden.
    Fletcher, J. S.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; National Center Imaging Mass Spectrometry, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Ewing, A. G.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; National Center Imaging Mass Spectrometry, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    TOf-SIMS imaging of lipids and lipid related compounds in Drosophila brain2014In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 46, no S1, p. 123-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) has a relatively simple nervous system but possesses high order brain functions similar to humans. Therefore, it has been used as a commonmodel system inbiological studies, particularly drug addiction. Here, the spatial distribution of biomolecules in the brain of the fly was studied using time-of-flight SIMS. Fly brains were analyzed frozen to prevent molecular redistribution prior to analysis. Different molecules were found to distribute differently in the tissue, particularly the eye pigments, diacylglycerides, and phospholipids, and this is expected to be driven by their biological functions in the brain. Correlations in the localization of these moleculeswere also observed using principal components analysis of image data, and this was used to identify peaks for further analysis. Furthermore, consecutive analyses following 10 keV Ar2500 + sputtering showed that different biomolecules respond differently to Ar2500 + sputtering. Significant changes in signal intensities between consecutive analyses were observed for high mass molecules including lipids.

  • 8.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Mass spectrometry imaging of freeze-dried membrane phospholipids of dividing Tetrahymena pyriformis2013In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 211-214Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Sjövall, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Carlred, Louise
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Liposome binding for multiplexed biomolecule detection and imaging using ToF-SIMS2014In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 46, no 10-11, p. 707-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach for multiplexed biomolecule detection at surfaces, involving specific binding of liposomes and subsequent analysis by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), was evaluated with respect to its capability for quantitative analysis of biomolecule surface concentrations. The specific binding of liposomes to a poly(L-lysine)-g-poly (ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) surface, using the biotin-avidin coupling chemistry, was characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), fluorescence microscopy and ToF-SIMS. The ToF-SIMS results showed a linearly increasing signal from the liposomes up to a saturation coverage corresponding to a full liposome layer on the surface, in close agreement with fluorescence microscopy analysis of the same samples, strongly supporting the potential of the liposome-based approach for quantitative biomolecule detection. However, the multiplexing capability and issues on nonspecific binding need further studies. Furthermore, an improved method for the preparation of lipid bilayer samples for ToF-SIMS analysis is presented, demonstrating the imaging of individual 210-nm diameter liposomes adsorbed on a SiO2 surface.

  • 10.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Influence of Si and cooling rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Si–Mg cast alloys2016In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 861-869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of Si-content and microstructure on mechanical properties of Al–Si–Mg alloys with the purpose of to develop high-strength cast aluminum alloys that are anodizable. The Si-content was 2.5, 3.5 and 5.5 wt% Si, and both Sr-modified and unmodified conditions were used. The samples were produced using the gradient solidification furnace to generate a well-controlled microstructure. The resulting secondary dendrite arm spacing was 10 and 20 µm. The microstructural features were evaluated by employing SEM/EDS and optical microscopy. Furthermore, computed tomography (CT) scan technology was used to provide a 3D view of high-density phases in the microstructure. The mechanical properties of these alloys were studied by means of tensile and hardness testing where the latter was performed on the macrolevel and microlevel. The results demonstrate clearly how the Si growth in the microstructure is restricted by increased cooling rate and modification and its role in strength development in Al-Si alloys. Additionally, the CT scan visualized the morphology of intermetallics and supported in identifying the oxide layer growth as a result of the anodizing process.

  • 11.
    Öhman, Maria
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    ATR-FTIR Kretschmann spectroscopy for interfacial studies of a hidden aluminum surface coated with a silane film and epoxy I.: Characterization by IRRAS and ATR-FTIR2012In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 133-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interfacial analysis is essential in many areas of interest, for instance within the ongoing research on environmentally friendly pretreatments of metal surfaces. While studies of the hidden interface between a metal and polymer top-coat are of great importance, properties of a surface confined between two media are difficult to analyze in detail. Within the two parts of this study, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in the Kretschmann geometry is employed as the main analytical tool to study the interface between a thermo-cured epoxy and aluminum pretreated with a silane film. The technique requires model systems based on thin metal films, but in contrast to most analytical techniques it permits the analysis of a hidden interface. Initial characterization of the silane film formed from a pH-regulated γ-APS and BTSE solution was conducted by both ATR-FTIR Kretschmann and IRRAS spectroscopy. Absorption bands were obtained at 1250-900 cm -1, assigned to Si-O functionalities, and at ∼1570 and ∼1410 cm -1 assigned to acetate existing as a counter-ion to γ-APS. After application of the epoxy film, interfacial alterations were detected upon thermal curing including the densification of the epoxy film, the dehydration of aluminum and the formation of molecular epoxy reaction products. Few alterations could be assigned to the silane film. Calculated spectra derived from optical data can verify experimental results and aid data interpretation, and effects of metal oxidation of aluminum were confirmed by introducing gold as an additional substrate. The results showed that ATR-FTIR Kretschmann spectroscopy is clearly a valuable tool for the study of hidden interfaces of stratified media. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 12.
    Öhman, Maria
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    ATR-FTIR Kretschmann spectroscopy for interfacial studies of a hidden aluminum surface coated with a silane film and epoxy II.: Analysis by integrated ATR-FTIR and EIS during exposure to electrolyte with complementary studies by in situ ATR-FTIR and in situ IRRAS2012In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 105-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The destabilization of the interface between a polymer and a metal surface is of considerable interest in several application areas, including the ongoing research on environmentally friendly pretreatments as a replacement for the Cr(VI)-containing systems where the understanding of mechanisms and performance of a confined metal/polymer interface is of utmost importance. Processes at hidden interfaces are, however, difficult to analyze in detail and at relevant climatic conditions. This study has been divided in two parts, where the subject of Part I is the surface characterization by ATR-FTIR Kretschmann and IRRAS spectroscopy of aluminum coated with an amino-functional silane, and the interfacial analysis by ATR-FTIR Kretschmann after further application of an epoxy film. This second part describes the interaction between the coated sample and an electrolyte. The analysis is performed by integrated in situ ATR-FTIR Kretschmann and EIS, which requires model systems with evaporated metal films on an internal reflection element. Complementary analyses were also conducted on substrates in the absence of the metal film, and or in the absence of an epoxy top-coat, respectively. Changes in the interfacial region were observed and assigned to the water uptake including swelling of the epoxy, and the formation of aluminium oxidation and hydration products. Complementary studies allowed the distinction between water uptake in the silane film and the epoxy, respectively, as well as reformations of the siloxane network. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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