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  • 1.
    Afrasiabi, R.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jokilaakso, N.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Schmidt, T.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Björk, Per
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Karlström, A. E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Linnros, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of microwave-assisted silanization on sensing properties of silicon nanoribbon FETs2015In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 209, p. 586-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important concern with using silicon nanoribbon field-effect transistors (SiNR FET) for ion-sensing is the pH-response of the gate oxide surface. Depending on the application of the FET sensor, this response has to be chemically manipulated. Thus in silicon oxide-gated pH-sensors with integrated sensor and reference FETS, a surface with high pH-sensitivity, compared to the bare gate oxide, is required in the sensor FETs (SEFET), whereas in the reference FETs (REFET) the surface has to be relatively pH-insensitive. In order to control the sensitivity and chemistry of the oxide surface of the nanoribbons, a silanization reagent with a functional group is often self-assembled on the SiNR surface. Choice of a silanization reaction that results in a self-assembled layer on a silicon oxide surface has been studied extensively over the past decades. However, the effect of various self-assembled layers such as monolayers or mixed layers on the electrical response of SiNR FETs in aqueous solution needs to be exploited further, especially for future integrated SEFET/REFET systems. In this work, we have performed a comprehensive study on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) silanization of silicon oxide surfaces using microwave (MW) heating as a new biocompatible route to conventional methods. A set of complementary surface characterization techniques (ellipsometry, AFM and ATR-FTIR) was used to analyze the properties of the APTES layer deposited on the silicon surface. We have found that a uniform monolayer can be achieved within 10 min by heating the silanization solution to 75 °C using MW heating. Furthermore, electrical measurements suggest that little change in device performance is observed after exposure to MW irradiation. Real-time pH measurements indicate that a uniform APTES monolayer not only reduces the pH sensitivity of SiNR FET by passivating the surface silanol groups, but also makes the device less sensitive to cation concentration in the background electrolyte. Our silanization route proves promising for future chemical surface modification of on-chip REFETs.

  • 2.
    Bolin, M.H.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Svennersten, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wang, X.
    Linköping University.
    Chronakis, Ioannis
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Richter-Dahlfors, A.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jager, E.W.H.
    Linköping University.
    Berggren, M.
    Linköping University.
    Nano-fiber scaffold electrodes based on PEDOT for cell stimulation2009In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 142, no 2, p. 451-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronically conductive and electrochemically active 3D-scaffolds based on electrospun poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nano-fibers are reported. Vapour phase polymerization was employed to achieve an uniform and conformal coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) on the nano-fibers. The PEDOT coatings had a large impact on the wettability, turning the hydrophobic PET fibers super-hydrophilic. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were grown on the PEDOT coated fibers. The SH-SY5Y cells adhered well and showed healthy morphology. These electrically active scaffolds were used to induce Ca2+ signalling in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. PEDOT:tosylate coated nano-fibers represent a class of 3D host environments that combines excellent adhesion and proliferation for neuronal cells with the possibility to regulate their signalling. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Fu, Ying
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jussi, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Qin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Liu, Yushen
    College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, China.
    Yang, Xifeng
    College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, China.
    Chen, Yun
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Endocytic pathway of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cell identified in vitro by using functionalized nontoxic fluorescent quantum dots2019In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 297, article id 126702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies about vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) in tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis suggest that targeting VCAM1 expression is an attractive strategy for diagnosis and anti-tumor therapy. However, the endocytic pathway of VCAM1 in vascular cells has not been well characterized. In this study we visualize the endocytic pathway of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced VCAM1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in vitro using 5-carboxyfluorescein labeled VCAM1 binding peptides and fluorescent water-dispersible 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3MPA)-coated CdSe-CdS/Cd0.5Zn0.5S/ZnS core–multishell nontoxic quantum dots (3MPA-QDs) functionalized with VCAM1 binding peptides. Clear key in vitro observations are as follows: (a) 3MPA-QDs functionalized with VCAM1 binding peptides, denoted as VQDs, adhered and aggregated cumulatively to cell membrane around 2 h after VQD deposition to cell culture medium and were found in lysosomes in TNFα-treated HUVECs approximately 24 h after VQD deposition; (b) VQDs remained in TNFα-treated HUVECs for the whole 16 days of the experimental observation period; (c) quite differently, 3MPA-QDs were endocytosed then exocytosed by HUVECs via endosomes in about 24–48 h after 3MPA-QD deposition. Our study suggests that VCAM1 molecules, initially expressed on cell membrane induced by TNFα treatment, are internalized into lysosomes. This provides a novel means to deliver materials to lysosomes such as enzyme replacement therapy. Moreover, our meticulous sensing methodology of devising fluorescent nontoxic QDs advances biosensing technique for studying cellular activities in vitro and in vivo. © 2019 The Authors

  • 4.
    Kindlundh, M
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Norlin, P
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Hofmann, U G
    A neural probe process enabling variable electrode configurations2004In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 102, p. 51-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Mira, Isabel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Ink-jettable paper-based sensor for charged macromolecules and surfactants2014In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 195, no May, p. 389-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of metachromatic dye-based formulations for the preparation of inkjettable prototype indicators suitable for the detection of charged macromolecules, surfactants or other low molecular weight molecules was investigated. Such indicators were based on the use of metachromatic o-toluidine blue (OTB) that undergoes a characteristic change in color (from blue to pink) upon interaction with anionic macromolecules. When applied onto absorbing substrates such as paper and paperboard, solutions containing OTB and the same dye in the presence of potassium polyvinyl sulfate (KPVS), proved to indicate negatively charged polymers and cationic surfactants. The colorimetric responses suggest a detection limit and sensitivity both are in the order of 1 mM of charged species but can be further improved. Interactions between active species in the indicators and some of the additives in inkjettable formulations (surfactant and humectants) interfered with the mechanism by which an OTB/KVPS-based system work only to a minor degree and could be overcome by priming the substrate. An OTB-based system was formulated into an inkjettable formulation that, once applied to a substrate, was showed to indicate charged polymers and surfactants. This concept has the potential for sensing/indication of other charged macromolecules, such as carboxylates and polyphosphates, which are relevant in biomedical (e.g. fouling due to microbial activity), packaging applications (e.g. migration or release of compounds, food spoilage), microfluidic devices or a simple dipstick application to indicate the presence of charged components.

  • 6.
    Parmeggiani, Matteo
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dev, Apurba
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden ; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Björk, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Electrokinetic-assisted gating in a microfluidic integrated Si nanoribbon ion sensor for enhanced sensitivity2018In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 262, p. 974-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the electrokinetic principle, we demonstrate a novel approach to modulate the response of an ion sensitive silicon-nanoribbon field-effect-transistor, effectively manipulating the device sensitivity to a change in surface potential. By using the streaming potential effect we show that the changes in the surface potential induced by e.g. a pH change can be accurately manipulated in a microfluidic-integrated chip leading to an enhanced response. By varying the flow velocity and the biasing condition along the microfluidic channel, we further demonstrate that the pH response from such a device can also be suppressed or even reversed as a function of the flow velocity and the biasing configuration. Experiments performed with different pH buffer shows that the sensor response can be enhanced/suppressed by several times in magnitude simply by using the streaming potential effects. A mathematical description is also presented for qualitative assessment of the electrokinetic influence on the gate terminal under different biasing condition. The approach presented here shows the prospect to exploit the electrokinetic modulation for developing highly sensitive nanoscale biosensors.

  • 7.
    Schanzenbach, Christoph
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Ilver, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Blomgren, Jacob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Krozer, Aanatol
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Ye, Lei
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rustas, Bengt-Ove
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Preparation and characterisation of a sensing system for wireless pH measurements in vivo, in a rumen of a cow2017In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 242, p. 637-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a sensing system that is able to measure pH in-vivo, in the rumen of a cow, in real time. The sensing principle is based on gravimetric transduction using a magnetoelastic ribbon functionalized by pH-sensitive nanobeads that is placed in the rumen where it is actuated and read-out wirelessly. We describe a generic procedure that enables one to deposit monolayers or multilayers of nano- and micro beads onto virtually any substrate. The topography of the resulting layers as well as interlayer coverages were characterised using optical microscopy and scanning profilometry. First we determined performance of the system in-vitro, in phosphate-buffered saline, in McDougall's buffer and in a rumen fluid. Thereafter we also performed in-vivo measurements. Using buffers we determined pH response in the liquids both at the fundamental frequency of the functionalised foils, and at the 1st overtone. We argue that observed frequency changes vs pH are mainly due to changes of trapped liquid when the bead layers shrink or expand as a response to changed pH. The data obtained from the pH response of magnetoelastic foils at different bead coverages was modelled by a simple two-parameter model that corroborates this assumption.

  • 8.
    Wang, X
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Larsson, O
    Platt, D
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nordlinder, S
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Engquist, I
    Crispin, X
    Berggren, M
    An all printed wireless humidity sensor label2012In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 166, p. 556-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Yasri, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB. Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France; Telecom Bretagne, France.
    Lescop, B.
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Gallée, F.
    Telecom Bretagne, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Rioual, S.
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Monitoring uniform and localised corrosion by a radiofrequency sensing method2018In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 257, p. 988-992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for atmospheric corrosion monitoring based on the variation of radiofrequency (RF) wave propagation in a resonator during its corrosion is presented. The ability of the proposed sensor to differentiate between uniform and localized corrosion mechanisms is demonstrated by considering two identical open stub microstrip resonators produced in zinc and aluminum materials, respectively. For that purpose, experimental characterization of electromagnetic wave propagation in the resonators and simulations are compared. The proposed sensitive resonator should therefore be considered as the key element of new corrosion mimetic sensors.

  • 10.
    Yasri, Maria
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB. Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Lescop, Benoit
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Gallée, Francois
    Technopôle Brest-Iroise, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Rioual, Stephane
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Fundamental basis of electromagnetic wave propagation in a zinc microstrip lines during its corrosion2016In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 223, p. 352-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for corrosion monitoring based on the change of the radiofrequency (RF) wave propagation in a microstrip line during its corrosion is presented. For that purpose, the microstrip line is produced in the same metal as the mechanical structure under monitoring. Zinc material is considered in the study since it allows an investigation of uniform as well as localized corrosion when chloride is used. Experimental data and simulations results provide fundamental basis on the sensing mechanisms of the method and evidence the possibility to detect the created corrosion species and to distinguish between localized and uniform corrosion processes. As the consequence, the proposed method should be considered as promising and reliable tool for corrosion monitoring of several materials exposed to various environments

  • 11.
    Özgür, Erdogan
    et al.
    Hacettepe University, Turkey ; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Parlak, Onur
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Uzun, Lokman
    Hacettepe University, Turkey ; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bioinspired design of a polymer-based biohybrid sensor interface2017In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 251, p. 674-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key step in the construction of efficient and selective analytical separations or sensors is the design of the recognition interface. Biomimicry of the recognition features typically found in biological molecules, using amino acids, peptides and nucleic acids, provides plausible opportunities to integrate biological molecules or their active sites into a synthetic polymeric backbone. Given the basic role of functional amino acids in biorecognition, we focused on the synthesis of polymerizable amino acid derivatives and their incorporation into a polymer-based biohybrid interface to construct generic bioinspired analytical tools. We also utilized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a sacrificial polymer to adjust the porosity of these biohybrid interfaces. The surface morphologies of the interfaces on gold electrodes were characterized by using scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopies. The electrochemical behavior of the polymeric films was systematically investigated using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) to demonstrate the high affinity of the biohybrid interfaces for Cu(II) ions. The presence of macropores also significantly improved the recognition performance of the interfaces while enhancing interactions between the target [Cu(II) ions] and the functional groups. As a final step, we showed the applicability of the proposed analytical platform to create a Cu(II) ion-mediated supramolecular self-assembly on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrode surface in real time.

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