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  • 1.
    Boldizar, Antal
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Simulated recycling of post-consumer high-density polyethylene2000In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 68, p. 317-319Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Breese, KD
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Lamèthe, J-F
    DeArmitt, C
    Improving synthetic hindered phenol antioxidants: Learning from vitamin E2000In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 70, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of various commercial hindered phenol antioxidants was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the oxidation induction time (OIT) of antioxidant solutions in squalane. It was observed that a-tocopherol has an exceptionally high antioxidant activity. In fact, after normalisation for the molecular weight and functionality of each antioxidant, a-tocopherol was twice as efficient as any of the commercial, synthetic, hindered phenols tested. Through measurements on a series of model compounds, it was possible to identify the aspects of a-tocopherol’s chemical structure that are responsible for it’s exceptional antioxidant efficiency. The results showed that the para oxygen in a-tocopherol is largely responsible for it’s exceptionally high antioxidant activity. Most commercial synthetic hindered phenolic antioxidants are based upon 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT). We compared the antioxidant efficiency of BHT with that of 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BHA) and found that BHA was 94% more efficient. This implies that it may be advantageous to make new commercial hindered phenolic antioxidants that are based in the more effective BHA structure instead of the conventional BHT structure used today. It is expected that addition of a para oxygen (or other electron donating groups) to the aromatic ring of existing hindered phenolic antioxidants would significantly increase their activity.

  • 3.
    Forsgren, Lilian
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Noyan, Ezgi
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vega, Alberto
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Boldizar, Antal
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The thermo-oxidative durability of polyethylene reinforced with wood-based fibres2020In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 181, article id 109374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aiming at better understanding the ageing behaviour of cellulose composites, the accelerated thermo-oxidative ageing of polyethylene reinforced with two types of wood-based cellulose fibres was studied. Materials were prepared by extrusion mixing of either un-stabilized or stabilized polyethylene reinforced with 5 and 20 vol % cellulose content. The materials were extruded into strips and then aged at 90°C in circulating air. The effect of accelerated ageing up to 31 days was assessed by oxidation induction time and mechanical properties in tension. The results indicated that the added cellulose fibres did not increase the degradation of the composites during this ageing. Reinforcement with 20 % cellulose fibre having a 28 % lignin content together with 0.005 % Irganox 1010 antioxidant resulted in a remarkable improvement in the resistance against accelerated thermo-oxidation, compared to the pure polyethylene with added antioxidant. The findings of increased lifetime of LDPE by addition of wood-based reinforcement is of great interest, since the durability aspect is crucial to understand and predict before usage in commercial applications and especially as structural composites.

  • 4.
    Jakubowicz, I
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Yarahmadi, N
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Gevert, T
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Effects of accelerated and natural ageing of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC)1999In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 415-421Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Evaluation of degradability of biodegradable polyethylene (PE)2002In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 39-43Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Kinetics of abiotic and biotic degradability of low-density polyethylene containing prodegradant additives and its effect on the growth of microbial communities2011In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 96, no 5, p. 919-928Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Enebro, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Effects of reprocessing of oxobiodegradable and non-degradable polyethylene on the durability of recycled materials2012In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 316-321Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Jansson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Thermo-oxidative stability of PP waste films studied by imaging chemiluminescence technique2001In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 15-33Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Monti, Marco
    et al.
    Proplast Consortium, Italy.
    Tsampas, Spyros
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Cuttica, Fabio
    Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy.
    Fina, Alberto
    Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy.
    Camino, Giovanni
    Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy.
    Fire reaction of nanoclay-doped PA6 composites reinforced with continuous glass fibers and produced by commingling technique2015In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 121, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report the development of a glass fiber commingled composite (GFCC) based on a nanoclay-doped polyamide 6 (PA6) and the evaluation of its fire reaction. The preparation of the composite comprised several steps. Firstly, the nanoclay was dispersed in the PA6 matrix. Then, the produced compound was spun in filaments and commingled with continuous glass fibers. Finally, the laminate preform was consolidated. Reference samples based on the neat PA6 were produced as well. As a results, although it is well known that, in the presence of a relevant amount of continuous fibers, the behavior of the material is mainly driven by the fibers themselves (e.g. mechanical, thermal, conductive, and so on), the effect of the clay was interesting, especially in flammability test (UL94 vertical burning test), where the total burning time passes from 227 s to 146 s.

  • 10.
    Möller, Kenneth
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Gevert, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Holmström, Arne
    Examination of low density polyethylene (LDPE) after 15 years in service as air and water vapour barrier2001In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 69-74Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Johansson, Mats K.G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Grafting of 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone and epoxidized soybean oil to wood: Reaction conditions and effects on the color stability of Scots pine2012In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 97, no 9, p. 1779-1786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the photostabilizing effect of the reactive UV-absorber 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP) when used as a primer for wood. The present work further includes a study on the effect of HEPBP used in combination with an epoxy functionalized vegetable oil as a primer system. The study is based on reactions performed on pine veneers using 3-pentanone as a solvent and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) as a catalyst, varying the reaction time and temperature. Results from FTIR and SEC measurements indicate that a desired reaction between HEPBP and wood does occur and that there are synergetic effects when HEPBP and oil are combined. Color measurements also indicate that the use of HEPBP and epoxidized soybean oil as pretreatment for wood results in a lower color change after 400 h of artificial weathering. We conclude that using HEPBP in combination with epoxy functionalized soybean oil does improve photostability of wood exposed to artificial weathering.

  • 12.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Reactive UV-absorber and epoxy functionalized soybean oil for enhanced UV-protection of clear coated wood2014In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 110, p. 405–414-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work investigates the photostabilising effect of a pretreatment consisting of 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP) and epoxy functionalized soybean oil (ESBO), reacted on to Scots pine veneers coated with two different acrylic top coats. Two different pretreatment procedures were used, varying in reaction time and temperature. Results from FTIR and SEC analysis indicate that a large amount of reactant was present on the veneers after treatment with either of the two reaction procedures. Furthermore, coating of the pretreated surfaces was possible and the pretreatment does not seem to affect the adhesion between the coating and the wood substrate. Both accelerated ageing and natural exposure was used to study the resistance to photodegradation, and the results were analysed using colour measurements, FTIR and SEM. These analyses all show that 1400 h of accelerated ageing degrades neither the wood nor the coating to any larger extent. However, after 4000 h of UV exposure some signs of degradation are visible but to a lesser extent for pretreated samples. For the samples exposed to natural weathering during 14 months the performance was good in terms of photostabilisation, however all samples suffer from mould to different extents. Pretreated samples show smaller and more evenly distributed areas of mould compared to the references, which show slightly more mould. The combined coating/pretreatment system is thus assumed to have an effect in terms of photostabilization of the coated wood.

  • 13.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Matsunaga, Hiroshi
    Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan.
    Kataoka, Yutaka
    Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Matsumura, Junji
    Kyushu University, Japan.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    A SEM study on the use of epoxy functional vegetable oil and reactive UV-absorber as UV-protecting pretreatment for wood2015In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 113, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the ageing performance of a UV protective system for wood, comprising the reactive UV absorber 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP) and epoxy functional vegetable oils (linseed and soybean oil). Scots pine samples of radial or cross-sectional surfaces were treated using a combination of the two components, or using only one of the oils. The treated samples were then aged in a Weather-Ometer for 2 × 60 h and analysed using VPSEM to follow the degradation of the wood substrate in the exact same spot before, during and after ageing. The results of the radial surfaces show slightly less degradation of samples treated with a combination of HEPBP and oil, and for the cross-sectional surfaces an even stronger protective effect is visible. For samples treated with only one of the two oils, no improvement was detectable. The radial surfaces were also analysed using FTIR where the results indicate presence of the protective treatment even after 120 h of exposure. Overall the combined pretreatment of HEPBP and epoxy functional linseed oil was concluded to have a photostabilising effect of the wood substrate.

  • 14.
    Vega, Alberto
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Determining the useful life of district heating pipes: Correlation between natural and accelerated ageing2020In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 175, article id 109117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating (DH) systems constitute a smart and environmentally friendly solution for energy distribution in the heat sector in Europe. This technique is still expanding but already faces some issues such as status assessment of the current DH networks and the development of new generation networks for low-temperature DH. Therefore, it is essential to understand the ageing behaviour of pipes under operating conditions and to find the relevant parameters that control the degradation processes. Many factors affect the deterioration of DH pipes, especially the polyurethane foam, which makes it very complex to find a reliable prediction model. Models based on a linear Arrhenius relationship using results from high ageing temperatures seem to be incorrect. For this study, 10 pipes that have been in service for many years in Sweden and Norway were evaluated. The aim was to study the impact of natural ageing on the mechanical adhesion and chemical structure of the polyurethane foam, which affects the pipe's performance. A test method developed at the Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), called RISE plug method, was used to study the mechanical adhesion strength. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to observe any change in the chemical structure. The results were compared with previous analyses of DH pipes exposed to accelerated ageing. This information helps to provide a better comprehension of the deterioration of the current generation of pre-insulated DH pipes and to improve the accelerated ageing methods used nowadays to predict the technical lifetime of DH pipes. Our results suggest that the lifetime of DH pipes has been underestimated when using artificial ageing at relatively high temperatures. The data collected from naturally aged pipes gave confirmatory information about their physical status compared with our laboratory tests. This study also suggests that infrared analyses could be used as an early indication of the degradation of the polyurethane foam at the interface with a steel pipe. 

  • 15.
    Vega, Alberto
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jakubowicz, Ignazy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Determination of the long-term performance of district heating pipes through accelerated ageing2018In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 153, p. 15-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lifetime of pre-insulated district heating pipes (DHPs) is commonly evaluated using the method described in the normative European Standard EN 253. This lifetime is normally calculated using an Arrhenius equation, which makes use of test results from accelerated ageing tests at elevated temperatures. In this investigation, long-term accelerated ageing tests of DHPs at elevated temperatures were carried out. The ageing behaviour, especially at the interface between steel pipe and polyurethane (PUR) foam, showed several routes of degradation. It is clearly demonstrated using measurements of shear strength, thermal conductivity and alterations of chemical structure by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy that the results of accelerated ageing at 170 and 150 °C significantly diverge from those obtained from the ageing test at 130 °C. It is therefore concluded that accelerated ageing at commonly used high temperatures does not create an acceleration of degradation processes at the steel/PUR interface relevant for the DHP application, but rather a significant alteration in mechanism. This finding is of crucial importance for the use of EN 253 and the development of future methods for lifetime prediction of DHPs.

  • 16.
    Vega, Alberto
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Sällström, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Effects of cyclic mechanical loads and thermal ageing on district heating pipes2020In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 182, article id 109385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lifetime of pre-insulated district heating pipes is commonly evaluated by thermal ageing at elevated temperatures and is calculated using the Arrhenius equation. In this investigation, the effects of a repetitive shear stress during thermal ageing of pipes were studied. The degradation of polyurethane foam, especially at the interface with a steel pipe was evaluated from measurements of the adhesion strength and of alterations in the chemical structure of polyurethane by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The main conclusion was that the thermal degradation of mechanically stressed district heating pipes was significantly faster than that of non-loaded pipes aged at the same temperature. It was also shown that the faster degradation of the mechanically loaded pipes is mainly due not to fatigue but to accelerated chemical degradation of the polyurethane foam. The results suggest that this methodology should be considered as an accelerated test method in order to avoid overestimation of the lifetime of district heating pipes and to show better ageing characteristics of mechanically stressed pipes, especially those intended for use in the fourth generation district heating networks 

  • 17. Yarahmadi, N
    et al.
    Jakubowicz, I
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Hjertberg, T
    Development of poly(vinyl chloride)/montmorillonite nanocomposites using chelating agents2010In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 132-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different chelating agents such as poly(ethylene glycol), propylene glycol monooctadecanoate and palm oil were used for modification of the surface-treated montmorillonite (MMT). The work also included the development of a technique for mixing chelating agents with MMTs using different methods and different proportions of MMT/chelating agent/ethanol. Evaluation of the result of mixing was performed by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM). The results showed that the chelating agents used were intercalated in MMT, increasing the interlayer spacing. The OMMT was used in the manufacture of composites with rigid PVC using a microcompounder. The master batch concept turned out to be promising in terms of dispersion and delamination of clay, as observed in HR-SEM photographs. However, despite good dispersion and exfoliation of MMT, poor compatibility between clay platelets and PVC matrix remains to be solved to enable full exploitation of its engineering potential. Despite this drawback, good thermal stability and mechanical properties have already been achieved.

  • 18.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Gevert, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Effects of repeated extrusion on properties and durability of rigid PVC2001In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 93-99Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Vega, Alberto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Accelerated ageing and degradation characteristics of rigidpolyurethane foam2017In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 138, p. 192-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urgent need for revision of the normative test method (EN 253) for the lifetime prediction of district

    heating pipes requires a better understanding of the failure mechanisms involved. Therefore, various

    methods were used to study thermal degradation characteristics of rigid polyurethane (PUR) foam in

    both air and nitrogen atmosphere. Accelerated ageing in nitrogen caused insigni

    ficant changes, whereas

    ageing in air caused signi

    ficant changes in weight, dimensions, chemical structure and cell gas composition,

    indicating importance of the thermo-oxidative type of degradation. A clear indication of the

    thermo-oxidative type of degradation was the formation of new carbonyl groups in PUR together with

    the loss of CH

    2 groups after ageing in air. Another result of ageing in air was the loss of pentane and

    cyclopentane, and the formation of some new volatile compounds in the cells of PUR foam. However,

    despite a large difference in degradation characteristics between the samples aged in air and in nitrogen,

    no signi

    ficant difference in the flexural strength of PUR foam was recorded during the induction stage of

    the degradation process. Furthermore, it is shown that the signi

    ficant drop in shear strength, which

    re

    flects the adhesion force between PUR foam and steel pipe, observed during the early stage of

    accelerated ageing of district heating pipes is not caused by thermo-oxidative degradation.

1 - 19 of 19
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